Wp/qug/Ecuador

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República del Ecuador
Ecuador mamallakta
Ecuador Ecuador
Wipala Kirara
Mamallaktapak rimay : «Dios, Patria y Libertad» ("Apunchik, Mamallakta, Kishpikay")
Mamallaktapak taki : Sumak llakta kantami napanchik (Salve oh Patria)
 
Ecuador
 
Uma llakta Quito
Mamakamachiymanta shimi Kastilla shimi
Kamachiy Republika, Dimukrasya
Pushakkuna
mamallakta pushak
Ranti mamallakta pushak
Rafael Correa
Lenín Moreno
Kishpirishka
 • Españamanta
 • Gran Colombiamanta

24 aymuray killapi 1822 watapi
13 aymuray killapi 1830 watapi
Mashna allpata 283.520 km²
runakuna 14 306 876
(50 hab./km²)
 • PIB (2010)
 • PIB/runa
US$ 56.5 bill.[1]
US$ 3949
HDI (Runa kururay rikuchik)-(2006) 0.765 (83º)  – medio
Kullki Dólar
Pacha suyu UTC -5
Internet tuyru .ec
Karu rimay tuyru +593
Ankichik tuyru HCA-HDZ
ISO tuyru 218 / ECU / EC
Kaypi wankurishka: O.N.U., O.E.A., B.I.D., B.M., FMI, C.A.N., FLAR, CAF, CSN, MERCOSUR, UNASUR

Ecuador shuk Abya Yalapi mamallaktami kan. 2010 watapi, chay mamallaktapi 14 306 876 kari warmimi tiyarka[2]. Ecuador mamallaktapak uma llaktaka Quito llaktami kan, paypak ashtawan hatun llaktaka Guayaquil llaktami kan. Ashtawan Ecuador mamallaktamanta runakuna Katulikumi kan. Ashtawan Ikwadur runakunaka Kastilla shimi, icha Mishu shimi riman, shinapash ayllu runakunaka Kichwa shimita, Shuwar shimita, shuk shimikunatapash riman.

Allpa, chirikunuk[edit]

Guayaquil llaktaka mashna kunukmi kanchu, mashna tamyata charinchu

Ecuador mamallaktaka chusku suyukunata charinmi : Yawati suyu, Kuntisuyu, Chawpisuyu, Antisuyutapash.

Kuntisuyuka kunuk allpami kan, chay allpaka Punasuyu urkukunamanta intiyaykuyman tiyanmi, Pacífico mamakucha manyapa pampakunapi. Guayaquilpa tukuy watapa chawpi temperaturaka 24.9°C kan, chay llaktaka tukuy watapi 843 mm tamyata charinmi, ashtawan tamiaka tiyan Kamay killamanta, Ayriwa killaman. Chirikunukka mana ashtawan kuyurin, tukuy watapi shina shinami kan. Kuntisuyupa yallik hatun muyukunaka Guayas muyu, Mira muyupashmi kan.

Chawpisuyuka Punasuyu urkukunapi tiyan, chay suyuka chiri allpami kan. Quito llaktapa tukuy watapa chawpi (promedio) temperaturaka 13°C chirimi kan, chay llaktaka tukuy watapi 1250mm tamyata charinmi, tamyata ashtawan Kuya killamanta, Aymuray killaman urman. Ashtawan hanak urkukunapi, ashtawan chiri allpami tiyan, shinallatakmi hanak urkukunaka (Chimborazo rasupi, Cotopaxi rasupi...) rasukunami kan. Chawpisuyumanta Kuntisuyuman, Antisuyumanpash muyukunaka rinmi, shina Pastasa mayu, Napu mayu, Mira mayu, ashtawanpash. Shinallatakmi, Chawpisuyupi, kuchakunami tiyan, shina Yawarkucha, Impakucha, Quilotoa kucha, ashtawanpash.

Antisuyu Ecuadorpa Intillukshiypimi tiyan, paypa allpaka kunuk, ashtawan yakuyuk llaktami kan, hatun sachata charinmi. Puyo llaktaka shuk watapi ashtawan 4000mm tamyata charinmi, chawpi temperaturaka 20.6°C kan. Yawati suyuka Pacífico mamakuchapi islakunami kapan, kunuk allpami kan. Chay allpala allpawiratami charin.

Wiñay kawsay[edit]

Ñawpak pachapi[edit]

Ikwadurpi, ñawpak ashta waranka wata, tawka runa llaktakunata tiyarkan. Kashna, Valdivia runakunaka, Manabí markapi, Santa Elena markapipash kawsarkan, 3500 AC - 1800 AC watakunapi. Paykuna, sumak rakchikkunami karkan. Abya Yalapi, chay pachapi, mana shuk runakunaka rakchikunata rurana usharkan.

Tawka wiñay kawsay yachakkuna, Juan de Velasco yachakshina yuyarkan, ashta watamanta, Inkakuna shamushkakaman, shuk mamallakta hatun pushak Kitu llaktapi kawsarka, pay Ikwadurpa Antikunata kamarka, Puruhá llaktamanta (Chimborazo markapi), San Gabriel llaktaman (Carchi markapi). Chay hatun pushakka, Shyri nishkami. Kunanka, mana tukuy wiñay kawsay yachakkuna shina yuyan. Ashtawan yachakkuna yuyan, Ikwadurpi, Inkakuna shamushkakaman, mana shuklla hatun pushak tiyarka, shinapashmi tawka kurakakuna tiyarka, shuk kurakaka, tawka ayllullaktakunata kamarkan[3]. Kipa, Inkakuna Tupak Yupankika Wayna Kapakkapash Ikwadurpa Antikunata kamachirirka, kipa Ikwadur Antikunapa runakuna Tawantinsuyupi, Chinchaysuyu markapi kawsarkan. Kimsa chunka wata kipa, Ispañulkuna shamurka, Francisco Pizarro pushakka 1533 watapi Atawallpa Inkata wanchirka. 1534 watapi, Kunkistadur Sebastián de Belalcázarka Kitu llaktata hapirkan, chay llakta Españapakmi nishka. Kunkistadurkunaka shamushkaka, Rumiñawi pushakka Kitu kitipi tukuy wasikunata rupachirka, ama Ispañulkunaka tukuyta hapinkapa, kashnalla nishkami, kuri imakunata kuyaylla rumikunatapash urkuman apamurkan.

Colonia pachapi[edit]

1534 watakaman, 1822 wataman, Kitupak mamallaktaka Ispañapakmi karkan. Chay watakunapi, indihina runakuna ashta llakikunata charirkan, Ispañulkunaka tukuy sumak llaktakunata hapirka, hasindakunata rurankapa, chay hasindakunapi, kichwa runakunaka sinchi sinchilla llankarka, kashnalla mana alli mikunakunata charirka, mishu amukunaka indihinakunata ashta makarka. Shinapash, sumak iglesiakunata rurarka, shina Kitupak Iglesia de la Compañia. Kashna, tawka runakuna ashtawan sumak suyukunata Kitupi rurakurka. Chay runakunaka Kitupa yachay wasi (escuela Quiteña) nishkami, paykuna Indihinakunapa ispañulkunapa yawarta, yuyaykunatapash charirka.

Republica pachapi[edit]

Shinapash, Antonio José de Sucre pushakka Simón Bolívar pushakkapash Ispañulkunawan makanakushka kipa, 1822 watakaman, Ikwadur Hatun Kulumbiyapak markami karka. Kashnalla, 1830 watakunakaman, Hatun Kolumbiya ña mana tiyashkaka, shinalla Ikwadurka shuk mushuk mamallaktami tukurika, Juan José Flores Ikwadurpa shukniki mamallaktapak hatun pushakmi tukurirka. Shinapash, allpayuk mishukunaka shina shinalla indihinakunata makakurka, sinchi llankachikurkapash. Ashtawan kichwa runakunaka wasipunkupi kawsarka, chaykuna mishukunapak llaktapi llankarkan, uchilla allpata charinkapa, chay uchilla allpapi mikunkapa llankarka. Allpayukkunaka, Kathuliku Inlisyakapash tukuyta kamarkan. 1895 watapi, Eloy Alfaro Ikwadurpak hatun pushak tukurirkami, payka shukniki indihinakunata allichik hatun pushakmi karka.

1941 watapi, Ikwadurka Piruwanmi makanakurka, chay makanakuy kipa, Piru mamallakta ashta sacha llaktakunata Ikwadurmanta hapirka. Chaykipa, iskaytak makanakuykuna tiyarka, 1981 watapi, 1995 watapipash, shinalla chay makanakuykunamanta Ikwadur mana Pirumanta, Piru mana Ikwadurmantapash llaktata hapirka, kashna 1998 watapi Ikwadurpa Pirupapash Hatun pushakkunaka rimanakurkan, kashna nirkan ña mana makanakunami kan, shinallami Jamil Mahuad pushakka Alberto Fujimori pushakkawan kasi kayta ruranakurkan.

1990 watamanta, CONAIE tantanakuyka ECUARUNARI tantanakuykapash tawka sinchi ayllu runakunapa hatariykunata kayarkan, chay hatariykunamanta 2000 watapi Jamil Mahuad hatun pushakka llukshinami karka. Kutin, 1996 watamanta shuk Wp/qug/Pachakutik nishkami runakunapak pulitiku tantanakuyta tiyanmi. 2003 watapi, Pachakutik yanapawan, Lucio Gutiérrez hatun pushak akllashkami karka, shinapash payka 2005 watapi shuk hatariymanta karu llaktaman llukshirka, chaymanta Alfredo Palacio hatun pushakmi tukurka. Shinapash, 2007 watapi, kutin 2009 watapipash, Ikwadur runakunaka Rafael Correa hatun pushakmi akllarkan. Payka shuk mushuk Susyalismuta Ikwadurpi ruranata munan.

Kapakkamay[edit]

Mamakamachiy[edit]

Ecuador llaktapak Mamakamachiy 2008 watapi killkashkami kan. Chay Mamakamachiy kaman, shuk mamallakta pushak tiyan, payka Presidente de la República nishkami, paywan shuk mamallaktapa kipapushakmi tiyan (Vice-Presidente). Ecuador mamallakta tantanakuypi 124 kamachik killkakkunaka tiyanmi. Tukuy llaktayukkunaka (ciudadanos), ashtawan chunka-pusak watata charikpika, Mamallakta pushakta kamachik killkakkunatapash akllanami kapan[4]. Mamakamachiypi Pachamama hayñikunata charinmi nin, chaymanta Ecuador mamallaktaka tukuy mamallaktamanta shukniki Pachamamaman hayñikunata kararka[5].

Partidukuna tantanakuykunapash[edit]

Ecuador mamallaktapa ashtawan hatun partiduka PAIS tantanakuy nishkami kan, chay partiduka Rafael Correa yanapan, wakin shuk partidukanaka tiyanmi : Partido Social Cristiano (Jaime Nebot pushakwan, payka Guayaquil llaktapa kurakami kan), Pachakutik shuk ayllu runapa partidumi kan, Partido Sociedad Patriótica Lucio Gutiérrez pushakwan, ashtawan partidukunaka tiyanmi.

Ecuador mamallaktapi sinchi tantanakuykunami tiyan, shinalla CONAIE tantanakuyka, ECUARUNARI tantanakuytapash 1990 watamanta wakin hatun katariykunata kayarka : shuk katariymanta Jamil Mahuad pushakka 2000 watapi llukshishkami karka.

Ecuador mamallaktapa markakuna[edit]

Ecuador mamallaktapi, ishkay chunka chusku markami tiyan, sachapi sukta markakunaka, Costapi sukta markakunakapash, Antikunapi chunka shuk markakunakapash, shinalla, Yawatisuyupi shuk markami kan. Shuk markapi, tawka kitikunaka tiyan.

Ecuador mamallaktapa markakuna
Marka Runakuna (2001) Kichwa runakuna (2001) km² Uma llakta Runakuna (2001)
1 Azuay marka 599.546 7.060 8.639 Cuenca 277.374
2 Bolívar marka 169.370 17.230 3.254 Guaranda 20.742
3 Kañar marka 206.981 23.660 3.908 Azogues 27.866
4 Karchi marka 152.939 335 3.699 Tulcán 47.359
5 Chimpurasu marka 403.632 116.205 5.287 Riobamba 124.807
6 Cotopaxi marka 349.540 45.879 6.569 Latakunka 51.689
7 El Oro marka 525.763 478 5.988 Machala 204.578
8 Esmeraldas marka 385.223 144 15.216 Esmeraldas 95.124
9 Yawati waytakuna 18.640 372 8.010 Puerto Baquerizo Moreno 5.539 (2006 watapi)
10 Guayas marka 3.309.034 3.326 20.502,5 Guayaquil 1.985.379
11 Impapura marka 344.044 55.220 4.599 Ibarra 108.535
12 Loja marka 404.835 6.738 11.027 Loja 118.532
13 Los Ríos marka 650.178 141 6.254 Babahoyo 76.869
14 Manabí marka 1.186.025 111 18.400 Portoviejo 171.847
15 Morona Santiago marka 115.412 332 25.690 Macas 13.602
16 Napu marka 79.139 33.377 13.271 Tena 16.669
17 Orellana marka 86.493 19.698 20.733 Puerto Francisco de Orellana 18.298
18 Pastaza marka 61.779 12.072 29.520 Puyo 24.432
19 Pichincha marka 2.388.817 22.125 12.938 Kitu 1.399.378
20 Santa Elena marka (++) . . . Santa Elena 27.351
21 Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas marka (++) . . . Santo Domingo de los Colorados 322.080 (2007 watapi)
22 Sucumbíos marka 128.995 6.722 8.330.6 Nueva Loja 34.106
23 Tunkurawa marka 441.034 34.003 3.333,6 Hampatu 154.095
24 Zamora Chinchipe marka 76.601 3.140 23.110,8 Zamora 10.355

Kawsay, shimikuna[edit]

Ecuador mamallaktaka shikan shikan kawsaykunatami charin: mishu kawsaytami charin, runa kawsaykunatami charin. Ecuador mamallaktama mamakamachiy nin: "Castellano shimika Ecuador llaktapak kamachiy shimimi kan; castellano, kichwa, shuar shimikunaka kawsaypurapak kimirichik kamachiy shimikunami kan. Shuktak ñawpa shimikunaka, shimi kamachiypi nishkashina: runakuna kawsana kawsana llakta ukupak kamachiy shimikunami kan. Shuktak ñawpa shimikunaka, runakuna kawsana llakta ukupi kamachiy shimikunami kan. Kamachiymi Kaytaka rikuchinka. Mamallaktaka kay shimikunata muchashpa, kamashpami sinchiyachinka.". Kastilla shimika tukuy mamallaktapi rimashkami kan, kichwa shimika ashtawan Punasuyupi, Antisuyupipash rimashkami kan, Shuwar shimika Antisuyupilla rimashkami kan. Ñawpa pachakunapi, ñawpa shimikunaka mana killkashka, mana yachaywasipi yachachishkachu karka, shinapash runapa ñawpakman pushakkunaka, shina Tránsito Amaguaña, Dolores Cacuango, runa shimita sinchiyankapakka makanakurka, chaymanta kunan pachapi ishkay shimi yachay wasikunaka Punasuyupi, Antisuyupipash tiyanmi.

Mishu kawsayka, Runa kawsaykapash tawka sumak killkakkunata, takikkunata, suyuchikkunata Ecuador mamallaktaman kararka, shina Juan León Mera, Eugenio Espejo, Guayasamín, Mesías Maiguashca, Jorge Icaza, shukkunapash. Runa kawsaypi, tawka ñawpa pachamanta raymikunapash tiyanmi, shina Inti Raymi, Pawkar raymi, shuk raymikuna ishkay kawsaykunata chapunmi, shina Semana Santa, Tukuy ayakunapa puncha, ashtawan[6].


(++) Kamaska wata: 2007

Pukyukuna[edit]

  1. CIA world factbook
  2. ECUADORPIKA 14,3 HUNU KARI WARMIMI TIYAN, Elciudadano.gob.ec, 27-01-2011
  3. (es)ANTECEDENTES DE LOS PUEBLOS DE LA NACIONALIDAD KICHWA, Ikwadorpak Ministerio de Educación
  4. Ecuador llaktapak Mamakamachiy, 2008
  5. Ecuador tiene la Constitución más verde , BBC Mundo, 2008
  6. Sincretismo en el Ecuador, 2007

Hawa tinkikuna[edit]