Jump to content

Wp/cop/Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ

From Wikimedia Incubator
< Wp‎ | cop
(Redirected from Wp/cop/ⲭⲏⲙⲓ)
Wp > cop > Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ
Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲡⲓⲇⲏⲙⲟⲥⲓⲱⲛ ⲛ̀ⲁ̀ⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ
جمهورية مصر العربية

Ⲡⲓⲙⲏⲓⲛⲓ

Ⲡⲓⲥⲓⲅⲛⲟⲛ
Ⲡⲓϩⲩⲙⲛⲟⲥ:

Ⲧⲁⲡⲁⲧⲣⲓⲥ ⲧⲁⲡⲁⲧⲣⲓⲥ ⲧⲁⲡⲁⲧⲣⲓⲥ
Ϯⲙⲏⲧⲣⲟⲡⲟⲗⲓⲥ Ϯⲕⲉϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ
Ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ Ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁ̀ⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ (ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲩⲑⲉⲛⲧⲓⲕⲟⲥ)
ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ
ⲠⲓϩⲩⲅⲟⲩⲙⲉⲛⲟⲥⲀⲡⲧⲉⲗϥⲉⲑⲁϩ ⲁⲥⲓⲥⲓ
Ⲡⲓⲛⲟϫ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛϫⲟⲙⲘⲟⲥⲧⲁϥⲁ ⲙⲉⲧⲫⲱⲗⲓ
Ⲡⲓϣⲁⲩ 1,010,407.87 km2[1]
Ⲡⲓⲇⲉⲙⲟⲥ 96,146,000[2]
Ⲡⲓϧⲓⲥⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲏⲓ ⲉⲧϫⲏⲕ (GDP) $1.809 ϩⲁϩ ⲛ̀ϩⲁϩ[3]
Ⲡⲓⲣⲉϥϯⲙⲏⲓⲛⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡϫⲓⲛⲁⲓⲁⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲓ (HDI) 0.731[4]
Ⲡⲓⲗⲟⲩⲕⲟϫⲓ ϯⲖⲓⲧⲣⲁ `ⲛⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ
Ⲡⲓϣⲱⲗϩ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ISO 3166 EG
Ⲡⲓⲛⲁⲧ ⲛ̀ⲥⲧⲁϫⲟⲩⲗ TLD .eg
Ⲡⲓϣⲱⲗϩ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲑⲓⲗⲓϥⲱⲛ+20

Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ (ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲁ̀ⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ: مِصر ⲙⲓⲥⲣ) ⲟⲩⲭⲱⲣⲁ ⲉⲥⲭⲏ ϧⲉⲛϯⲁ̀ⲫⲣⲓⲕⲏ ⲛⲉⲙϯⲁ̀ⲥⲓⲁ̀. Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲟⲩⲭⲱⲣⲁ ϧⲉⲛⲡⲓⲥⲛⲁⲩ ⲛ̀ⲑⲟ ⲧⲉ ⲉ̀ⲧⲉ ⲟⲩⲟⲛⲧⲁⲥ ⲟⲩϭⲓⲏ̀ ⲛⲉⲙⲡⲓⲧⲉⲃⲓ ⲛ̀ⲅⲁⲍⲁ ⲛⲉⲙⲡⲓⲥⲣⲁⲏⲗ ϧⲉⲛⲡⲓⲉⲙϩⲓⲧⲓⲉⲃⲧ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲛⲉⲙⲡⲓⲕⲟⲗⲡⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲁⲗⲁ̀ⲭⲁⲡⲁ ϧⲉⲛⲡⲓⲓⲉⲃⲧ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲛⲉⲙⲫⲓⲟⲙ ⲛ̀ϣⲁⲣⲓ ϧⲉⲛⲡⲓⲉⲃⲧ ⲛⲉⲙⲫⲣⲏⲥ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲛⲉⲙⲡⲁⲛϩⲱⲥⲓ ϧⲉⲛⲫⲣⲏⲥ (ⲡⲓϣⲟⲙⲧ ⲛ̀ⲭⲟϩ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲁⲩϫⲁⲗ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲓⲙⲁ ⲛ̀ⲧⲱⲛ) ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲛⲉⲙϯⲗⲩⲃⲏ ϧⲉⲛⲡⲉⲙⲉⲛⲧ. Ⲟⲩⲟⲛⲧⲉ ⲡⲓⲓⲟⲣⲇⲁⲛⲏⲥ ⲛⲉⲙϯⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓϣⲉⲛ̀ⲥⲁⲩⲟⲩⲧ ⲟⲩϭⲓⲏ̀ ⲙ̀ⲙⲱⲟⲩ ⲛⲉⲙⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲫⲓⲟⲙ ⲛ̀ϣⲁⲣⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲟⲩⲟⲛⲧⲉ ϯⲉⲗⲗⲁⲥ ⲛⲉⲙⲧⲟⲩⲣⲕⲓⲁ̀ ⲛⲉⲙⲕⲩⲡⲣⲟⲥ ⲟⲩϭⲓⲏ̀ ⲙ̀ⲙⲱⲟⲩ ⲛⲉⲙⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲫⲓⲟⲙ ⲉⲧϧⲉⲛⲑⲙⲏϯ. Ϣⲉ ⲙ̀ⲙⲓⲗⲓⲱⲛ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲥⲉϩⲉⲙⲥⲓ ϧⲉⲛϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ. Ϯⲙⲏⲧⲣⲟⲡⲟⲗⲓⲥ ⲧⲉ ϯⲕⲉϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ. Ⲡⲓϩⲩⲅⲟⲩⲙⲉⲛⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲡⲉ ⲁⲡⲧⲉⲗϥⲉⲑⲁϩ ⲁⲥⲓⲥⲓ ⲉⲧⲁϥϭⲓⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ⲉⲑⲃⲉ ⲡⲓⲣⲱϧⲧ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲧⲟⲓ ϧⲉⲛ2013.

Ϯⲥⲧⲟⲣⲓⲁ̀ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲟⲩⲛⲓϣϯ ⲧⲉ ⲛⲉⲙⲡⲁⲓⲙⲁ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲓⲙⲁⲛϩⲗⲟⲗⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲱⲛϧ. Ϥⲱⲗⲓ ⲛⲓⲕⲱⲧ ⲛ̀ⲥⲱⲓⲧ ϩⲱⲥ ⲛⲓⲡⲩⲣⲁⲙⲓⲥ ⲛ̀ϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲓoⲥ, ⲡⲉⲗϩⲱⲛ, ⲛⲉⲛⲱⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲛⲓⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲙⲉⲛϥⲓ, ⲫⲱⲡⲓ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲏ, ϯϧⲉⲗⲗⲟⲧ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲛⲓⲟⲩⲣⲱⲟⲩ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲓⲕⲉⲭⲱⲟⲩⲛⲓ. Ⲛⲉ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲡⲉ ⲟⲩⲁⲓ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ϧⲉⲛⲛⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲙ̀ⲙⲏϯ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲁ̀ⲛⲟⲥ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲁⲩⲉⲣⲙⲱⲥⲗⲏⲙ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛⲍ̅ ⲛ̀ⲉ̀ⲱⲛ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲙ̀ⲫⲟⲟⲩ ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲩⲑⲉⲛⲧⲓⲕⲟⲥ ⲧⲉ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁ̀ⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲡⲓⲛⲓϣϯ ⲛ̀ⲑⲣⲉⲥⲕⲓⲁ̀ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲁⲗⲓⲥⲗⲁⲙ.

Ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ[edit | edit source]

Ϯⲉ̀ⲧⲩⲙⲟⲗⲟⲅⲓⲁ̀ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ[edit | edit source]

Ⲛⲉ ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ ϧⲉⲛϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲡⲁⲥ ⲡⲉ
kmmt
O49
km.t ⲁϫⲓ kūmat. Ⲡⲁⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲡⲉ ⲉⲑⲃⲉ ⲡⲓⲁⲟⲩⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲁⲙⲉ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲡⲓⲗⲱⲓϩⲓ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ.

ϧⲉⲛⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲥⲁϫⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲫⲣⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲡⲉ ⲕⲏⲙⲉ. Ϩⲁⲛⲙⲏϣ ⲛ̀ⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲉⲩⲣⲱⲡⲏ ⲁⲩϭⲓ ⲉ̀ⲡⲟⲩϣⲁⲡ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲓⲥϫⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲥⲁϫⲓ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲉⲓⲛⲓⲛ ⲛ̀ⲁⲡⲁⲥ Αἴγυπτος (ⲁⲓⲅⲩⲡⲧⲟⲥ) ⲉⲧⲁⲩϭⲓ ⲉ̀ⲡⲟⲩϣⲁⲡ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲙⲉⲛϥⲓ ϧⲉⲛϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓⲏⲓⲭⲱⲡⲧⲁϩ[5] ⲉ̀ⲧⲉ ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲫⲱⲛϩ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲡⲁⲥ

O6t
pr
D28Z1p
t
H

ⲫⲏ ⲉ̀ϣⲁⲩⲟⲩⲁϩⲙⲉϥ ϫⲉ "ⲡⲓⲏⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲟ (ⲯⲩⲭⲏ) ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲡⲑⲁϩ" ⲫⲏ ⲉⲧⲁϥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲣⲁⲛ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲉⲣⲫⲉⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲑⲁϩ ϧⲉⲛⲙⲉⲛϥⲓ.

Ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲁ̀ⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ⲡⲉ ⲙⲓⲥⲣ (ⲙⲁⲥⲣ ϧⲉⲛϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁ̀ⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ) ⲉⲟⲩⲟⲛⲧⲁϥ ⲟⲩⲅⲉⲛⲉⲥⲓⲥ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲥⲏⲙ. Ⲟⲩⲟⲛ ⲡⲁⲓⲥⲁϫⲓ ϧⲉⲛϩⲁⲛⲕⲉⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲥⲏⲙⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧϩⲉⲃⲣⲉⲟⲥ מִצְרַיִם (ⲙⲓⲧⲍⲣⲁⲩⲓⲙ) ⲓⲉ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛⲁⲭⲁⲇ ⲙⲓⲥⲣⲟⲩ ⲫⲏ ⲉ̀ϣⲁⲩⲟⲩⲁϩⲙⲉϥ ϫⲉ "ϣⲓⲏ, ⲑⲟϣ".

Ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲁⲩⲑⲉⲛⲧⲓⲕⲟⲥ[edit | edit source]

Iⲥϫⲉⲛ 1971 ⲛ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲉϥⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲓⲇⲏⲙⲟⲥⲓⲱⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁ̀ⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ (ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲁ̀ⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ: جمهورية مصر العربية ⲁϫⲓ ⲅⲟⲙϩⲟⲩⲣⲓⲉⲧ ⲙⲁⲥⲣ ⲉⲗⲁⲣⲁⲡⲉⲓⲁ).

Ϯⲥⲧⲟⲣⲓⲁ̀[edit | edit source]

Ϧⲁϫⲉⲛϯⲥⲧⲟⲣⲓⲁ̀[edit | edit source]

Ⲟⲩⲟⲛ ϩⲁⲛⲙⲏϣ ⲛ̀ⲥϧⲁⲓ ⲉⲧϧⲉⲛⲡⲉⲧⲣⲁ ⲡⲁⲣⲁ ⲛⲓⲫⲟⲓ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲓⲟⲩⲁϩ ⲛ̀ϣⲁϥⲉ. ϧⲉⲛⲓ̅ ⲛ̀ⲉ̀ⲱⲛ ⲥⲁⲧϩⲏ ⲙ̀ⲡ⳪ ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲱⲛϧ ⲫⲏ ⲉⲧⲛⲟⲩⲧ ⲛ̀ⲛⲁⲫⲣⲓ ⲁϥⲉⲣϣⲉⲃⲓⲱ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲱⲛϧ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲛⲓϫⲉⲣⲏϫ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲓⲣⲉϥⲱⲗⲓ ⲉⲩⲥⲟⲡ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲓⲃⲟϩⲓ. Ϯϣⲉⲃⲓⲱ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲡⲓⲉⲑⲏⲣ ϣⲁⲛ ⲡⲓⲉⲗϩⲏⲥ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲙⲁ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟⲛⲓ ϧⲉⲛⲛ̀ⲁⲩⲏ̅ ⲛ̀ⲉ̀ⲱⲛ ⲥⲁⲧϩⲏ ⲙ̀ⲡ⳪ ⲁϥϭⲓ ⲉ̀ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛϣⲱϥ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲕⲁϩⲓ ⲛ̀ⲕⲟⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲉⲙⲡⲓⲙⲟⲩⲛⲕ ⲙ̀ⲡⲁⲥⲥⲁϩⲣⲁ. Ⲛⲓϣⲱⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ϣⲗⲱⲗ ⲁⲩⲕⲓⲙ ⲙ̀ⲙⲱⲟⲩ ϣⲁ ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ ⲉⲧⲁⲩⲑⲁⲙⲓⲟ ⲛ̀ϯⲟⲓⲕⲟⲛⲟⲙⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲟⲓ ⲛⲉⲙϯⲙⲉⲧⲑⲟϧⲧⲉϧ ⲛ̀ⲑⲱⲟⲩϯ.[6]

Ⲛⲓⲛⲓϣϯ ⲙ̀ⲡⲩⲣⲁⲙⲓⲥ ⲑⲁϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲓⲟⲥ

Ⲛ̀ⲁⲩⲋ̅ ⲛ̀ⲉ̀ⲱⲛ ⲥ⳪ ⲁⲩϭⲓⲁⲣⲭⲏ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲱⲛϧ ⲛ̀ⲛⲉⲟⲗⲓⲑⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛϯϧⲉⲗⲗⲟⲧ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ.[7] Ⲉ̀ⲧⲓ ⲡⲓⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲛ̀ⲛⲉⲟⲗⲓⲑⲟⲥ ⲛⲓϫⲓⲛⲱⲛϧ ⲉⲧϧⲁϫⲱⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲏⲟⲩ ⲁⲩⲟⲩⲛϩⲟⲩ ϧⲉⲛⲫⲙⲁⲣⲏⲥ ⲛⲉⲙⲧⲥⲁϧⲏⲧ. Ⲁⲩⲙⲉⲩⲓ̀ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ⲛⲓϫⲓⲛⲱⲛϧ ⲙ̀ⲡⲁⲣⲑⲉⲛⲟⲥ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲉⲕⲟϯ ⲉⲑⲣⲉϥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲡⲣⲟⲇⲣⲟⲙⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲏⲟⲩ.

Ⲁⲩⲥⲉⲛⲧ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲧⲟⲙⲓ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲓⲧⲟⲧϥ ⲙⲏⲛ ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲣⲟ ϧⲉⲛⲛ̀ⲁⲩ3150 ⲥⲁⲧϩⲏ ⲙ̀ⲡ⳪.

Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲭⲁⲓⲟⲛ[edit | edit source]

Ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ⲥⲛⲁⲩ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲏⲓ ⲁϥⲉⲣϩⲏⲧⲥ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲁⲡⲁⲥ (2686–2181 ⲥⲁⲧϩⲏ ⲙ̀ⲡ⳪) ϣⲁⲛ "ⲡⲓⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲡⲩⲣⲁⲙⲓⲥ" ⲉ̀ⲧⲉ ϥⲉⲣⲭⲱⲣⲓⲛ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧϭⲟⲓⲥ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲇ̅ ⲛ̀ⲏⲓ ⲛⲉⲙⲡⲉϥⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲥⲉⲛϥⲱⲣⲓ ⲉⲧⲁϥⲕⲱⲧ ⲛ̀ϯⲡⲩⲣⲁⲙⲓⲥ ⲛ̀ⲧⲁϩϭⲟⲩⲣ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲓⲟⲩⲣⲟ ϣⲱⲟⲩϥ, ϣⲉϥⲣⲏ ⲛⲉⲙⲙⲉⲛⲭⲉⲣⲏ ⲉⲧⲁⲩⲕⲱⲧ ⲛⲓⲛⲓϣⲧ ⲙ̀ⲡⲩⲣⲁⲙⲓⲥ ⲑⲁϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲓⲟⲥ.

Ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲉⲧϧⲉⲛⲑⲙⲏϯ ⲁϥϭⲓⲙⲱⲓⲧ ⲉ̀ϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ ⲛ̀ⲁⲧⲥⲉⲙⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲩ150 ⲛ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ. Ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲛⲓⲁⲙⲏⲓⲣⲓ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ ⲛⲉⲙⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲉⲣⲛⲓϣϯ ⲛ̀ϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ ⲁϥϭⲓⲙⲱⲓⲧ ⲉ̀ϯⲉⲩⲕⲁⲓⲣⲓⲁ ⲛⲉⲙⲡⲓⲙⲟⲩⲛⲕ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉϯⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲑⲁⲑⲙⲏϯ ϧⲉⲛⲁⲩ2040 ⲥⲁⲧϩⲏ ⲙ̀ⲡ⳪ ⲉⲧⲁϥⲫⲉϩ ⲧⲉϥϭⲓⲥⲓ ⲉ̀ⲧⲓ ϯⲙⲉⲧϭⲟⲓⲥ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲁⲙⲉⲛⲉⲙϩⲏ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩⲅ̅.

Ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩⲥⲛⲁⲩ ⲛ̀ⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲉⲧϧⲉⲛⲑⲙⲏϯ ⲁⲩⲉⲣϩⲏⲧⲥ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲓⲧⲟⲧⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓϩⲟⲩⲕϣⲱⲥⲓ ⲉⲧⲁⲩϭⲣⲟ ⲉ̀ⲡⲓϩⲟⲩⲟ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛⲁⲩ1650 ⲥⲁⲧϩⲏ ⲙ̀ⲡ⳪ ⲛⲉⲙⲁⲩϩⲓⲥⲉⲛϯ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲏⲧⲣⲟⲡⲟⲗⲓⲥ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ ϩⲟⲩⲱⲣ. Ⲁⲩⲓ̀ⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲉϩⲑⲱⲣ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲓϩⲁⲣⲙⲁ ϩⲁ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ. Ⲁϥⲟⲩⲟⲧⲃⲟⲩ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ⲛ̀ϫⲉ ⲁϩⲙⲟⲥⲓ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩⲁ̅ ⲉⲧⲁϥϩⲓⲥⲉⲛϯ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲓ̅ⲏ̅ ⲛ̀ⲏⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩⲕⲓⲙ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲏⲧⲣⲟⲡⲟⲗⲓⲥ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ⲙⲉⲛϥⲓ ⲉ̀ⲛⲏ.

Ⲁϥϩⲓⲥⲉⲛϯ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ ⲛ̀ϫⲉ ⲡⲓⲓ̅ⲏ̅ ⲛ̀ⲏⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲁⲥⲧⲱⲟⲩⲛ ϩⲱⲥ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲩⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲛⲉⲙⲡⲓⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲧⲉϣⲗⲱⲗ ⲉⲧⲁϥⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲉ̀ϫⲉⲛ ⲛⲓⲕⲁϩⲓ ⲓⲥϫⲉⲛ ⲧⲟⲙⲃⲟⲥ ⲉⲧϧⲉⲛⲉ̀ⲑⲱϣ ϣⲁ ϯⲥⲩⲣⲓⲁ ϧⲉⲛⲡⲓⲉⲃⲧ. Ⲛⲓⲟⲩⲣⲱⲟⲩ ⲁϣⲫⲏⲥⲓ, ⲑⲉⲑⲙⲟⲥⲓ ⲅ̅, ⲁϣⲛⲱⲧ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲁϥⲑⲏϯ ⲧⲉϥⲥϩⲓⲙⲓ, ⲑⲟⲩⲁ̀ⲧⲁⲛϧⲁⲙⲟⲩⲛ ⲛⲉⲙⲣⲁⲙⲥⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩⲃ̅ ⲁⲩⲉⲣⲟⲩⲣⲟ ϧⲉⲛⲡⲁⲓⲥⲏⲟⲩ. Ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ⲥⲣⲁϩ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲫⲛⲟⲩϯ ⲉⲧⲁⲩϯⲣⲉⲛⲥ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲓⲱⲓⲧ ⲁϥⲟⲩⲟⲛϩϥ ⲉ̀ⲧⲓ ϯⲙⲉⲧϭⲟⲓⲥ ⲛ̀ⲁϣⲛⲱⲧ. Ⲁⲩϭⲣⲟ ⲉ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲓⲧⲟⲧⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲫⲁⲓⲁⲧ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲓⲉ̀ⲑⲁⲩϣ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲓⲉ̀ϣⲁⲩⲣ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲩ ⲁⲩⲟⲩⲟⲧⲃⲟⲩ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲥⲏⲟⲩ.

Ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲧⲱⲙⲧ ⲟⲩⲧⲉ ⲕⲁⲙⲃⲩⲥⲏⲥ ⲛⲉⲙⲯⲁⲙⲙⲟⲩϫⲕ

Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉⲣⲥⲓⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲁ̀ⲭⲁⲓⲙⲉⲛⲏⲥ[edit | edit source]

ϧⲉⲛ525 ⲛ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ ⲥⲁⲧϩⲉ ⲙ̀ⲡ⳪ ⲕⲁⲙⲃⲩⲥⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩⲃ̅ ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉⲣⲥⲓⲟⲥ ⲁϥϭⲣⲟ ⲉ̀ⲯⲁⲙⲙⲟⲩϫⲕ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩⲅ̅ ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲣⲟ ϧⲉⲛⲡⲓⲙⲗⲁϧ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉⲣⲉⲙⲟⲩⲛ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁϥϭⲣⲟ ⲉ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ. Ⲁϥϯⲣⲉⲛϥ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲁϥⲉⲣⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲓⲥϫⲉⲛ ⲟⲍⲉⲟⲥ ϯⲃⲁⲕⲓ ϧⲉⲛϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲏⲥ. ⲕ̅ⲍ̅ ⲛ̀ⲏⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲁⲓⲣⲏϯ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲓⲏⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉⲣⲥⲓⲟⲥ ⲉⲧⲁⲩⲙⲟⲩϯ ⲟⲛ ⲉ̀ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲙⲏⲇoⲥ (ⲉ̀ⲃⲏⲗ ⲁ̀ⲣⲏⲟⲩ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉϯⲃⲁⲥϯ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩⲅ̅ ⲉⲧⲁϥϣⲑⲟⲣⲧⲉⲣ ⲟⲩⲃⲏⲟⲩ ϧⲉⲛ522 ⲛ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ ⲥⲁⲧϩⲏ ⲙⲡ̀⳪). Ⲁ̀ⲙⲩⲣⲧⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲡⲓⲣⲉⲙⲥⲁⲓ̀ ⲁϥⲉⲣⲣⲉⲙϩⲉ ⲛ̀ϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁϥⲉⲣϩⲏⲧⲥ ⲛ̀ⲕ̅ⲏ̅ ⲛⲉⲙⲕ̅ⲑ̅ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲏⲓ. Ⲛⲉ ⲗ̅ ⲛ̀ⲏⲓ ⲉ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓϣⲑⲁⲛⲃⲱⲟⲩ ⲁ̅ ⲁϥⲉⲣϩⲏⲧⲥ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲓϧⲁⲉ ⲛ̀ⲏⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲫⲙⲁ. ⲛⲓⲡⲉⲣⲥⲏⲥ ⲁⲩϭⲣⲟ ⲟⲛ ⲉ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ343 ⲛ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ ⲥⲁⲧϩⲏ ⲙ̀ⲡ⳪ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁⲡⲓⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛⲁϣⲧⲛⲏⲃϥ ⲃ̅ ⲁϥⲧⲁⲕⲟ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲓⲧⲟⲧϥ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲧⲁⲝⲉⲣⲝⲏⲥ ⲅ̅. Ⲁϥϭⲣⲟ ⲉ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁ̀ⲭⲁⲓⲙⲉⲛⲏⲥ ⲛ̀ϫⲉ ⲡⲓⲛⲓϣϯ ⲛ̀ⲁ̀ⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛ332 ⲛ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ ⲥⲁⲧϩⲏ ⲙ̀ⲡ⳪. Ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁⲡⲉϥⲙⲟⲩ ⲡⲉϥⲥⲧⲣⲁⲧⲏⲗⲁⲧⲏⲥ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲉⲓⲛⲓⲛ ⲡⲧⲟⲗⲉⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲁ̅ ⲡⲥⲱⲧⲏⲣ ⲁϥⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ϩⲓϫⲉⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁϥϩⲓⲥⲉⲛϯ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲏⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲧⲟⲗⲉⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ.

Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲧⲟⲗⲉⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲛⲉⲙⲣⲱⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲁ̀ⲛⲟⲥ[edit | edit source]

Ⲡⲧⲟⲗⲉⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲁ̅ ⲡⲥⲱⲧⲏⲣ

Nⲉ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲙ̀ⲡⲧⲟⲗⲉⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲧⲉ ϯⲛⲓϣϯ ⲛ̀ⲭⲱⲣⲁ ⲉⲧⲁϥϣⲁϣϥ ⲓⲥϫⲉⲛ ϯⲥⲩⲣⲓⲁ ϧⲉⲛⲡⲓⲉⲃⲧ ϣⲁ ⲕⲩⲣⲓⲛⲛⲉ ϧⲉⲛⲡⲉⲙⲉⲛⲧ. Nⲉ ⲧⲉϥⲙⲏⲧⲣⲟⲡⲟⲗⲓⲥ ⲧⲉ ⲣⲁⲕⲟϯ ⲉ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓⲟⲩⲉⲓⲛⲓⲛ ⲁⲩⲙⲟⲩϯ ⲉ̀ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲁ̀ⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ̀ ⲛⲉⲙⲉⲧⲁⲥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲏϯ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲱⲛϧ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲉⲓⲛⲓⲛ ⲛⲉⲙϯⲙⲉⲧϣⲱⲧ.

Ⲛⲉ ϯϧⲁⲉ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲣⲱ ⲙ̀ⲡⲧⲟⲗⲉⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲕⲗⲉⲩⲡⲁⲧⲣⲁ ϯⲙⲁϩⲍ̅ ⲧⲉ ⲉⲧⲁⲥϧⲟⲑⲃⲥ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁⲡⲓϭⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲁⲕⲟϯ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲓⲧⲟⲧϥ ⲟⲕⲧⲁⲃⲓⲁⲛⲟⲥ ⲁⲩⲅⲩⲥⲧⲟⲥ ⲡⲓⲁⲩⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ. Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲁⲥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲑⲱϣ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲩⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ.

Ⲡⲓⲗⲓⲙⲏⲛ ⲛ̀ⲅⲩⲯⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛϣⲓϩⲏⲧ

Ⲁⲩⲓⲛⲓ̀ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲁⲛⲟⲥ ⲉ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛⲁ̅ ⲛ̀ⲉ̀ⲱⲛ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁⲙ̀ⲡ⳪ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲓⲧⲟⲧϥ ⲫⲏⲉⲑⲟⲩⲁⲃ ⲙⲁⲣⲕⲟⲥ ⲡⲓⲁ̀ⲡⲟⲥⲧⲟⲗⲟⲥ. Ⲡⲓⲛⲓϣϯ ⲛ̀ⲇⲓⲱⲅⲙⲟⲥ ⲉ̀ⲛⲓⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲁⲛⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲉ̀ⲧⲓ ϯⲙⲉⲧϭⲟⲓⲥ ⲛ̀ⲇⲓⲟ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲧⲓⲁⲛⲟⲥ (284–305). Ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁⲡⲓⲥⲩⲛⲟⲇⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲭⲁⲗⲕⲏⲇⲟⲛ ϧⲉⲛ451 (167 ⳥) ⲁⲩϩⲓⲥⲉⲛϯ ⲛ̀ϯⲉⲕⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ̀ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ.

Ϩⲁⲛⲙⲏϣ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲁⲩⲙⲟϣⲓ ⲉ̀ⲛⲓϣⲁϥⲉⲩ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩϩⲉⲙⲥⲓ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲩ ⲉ̀ϣⲗⲏⲗ ⲛⲉⲙⲉⲣϩⲱⲃ ⲛⲉⲙⲉⲣⲏⲧ ⲛ̀ⲛⲟⲩⲱⲛϧ ⲉ̀ⲫⲛⲟⲩϯ. Ⲛⲉ ⲧⲁⲣⲭⲏ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉϯⲙⲉⲧⲙⲟⲛⲁⲭⲟⲥ ⲧⲉ ⲉ̀ⲧⲁⲩⲉⲣⲁⲫⲉ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲓⲧⲟⲧⲟⲩ ⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲁⲛⲧⲱⲛⲓⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛⲡⲧⲱⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲕⲗⲩⲥⲙⲁ ⲛⲉⲙⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛⲡⲧⲱⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲁ̀ⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ⲛⲉⲙⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲙⲁⲕⲁⲣⲓ ϧⲉⲛϣⲓϩⲏⲧ ⲛⲉⲙⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲡⲁϧⲱⲙ ϧⲉⲛⲧⲁⲃⲉⲛⲛⲏⲥⲓ ⲛⲉⲙⲫⲃⲱⲟⲩ.

Ⲛⲓⲉ̀ⲛⲉϩ ⲉⲧϧⲉⲛⲑⲙⲏϯ[edit | edit source]

Ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ7 ⲛ̀ⲉ̀ⲱⲛ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲡⲓⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲁⲓⲟⲛ ⲁⲩϭⲣⲟ ⲉ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲓⲧⲟⲧⲥ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲩⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉⲣⲥⲏⲥ ⲛ̀ⲥⲁⲥⲁⲛ ϧⲉⲛ619 (335 ⳥). Ⲁⲩⲑⲁⲙⲓⲟ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲑⲱϣ ⲁ̀ⲅⲓⲡⲧⲟⲩⲥ ⲉⲧⲁⲩⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲓⲧⲟⲧⲟⲩ ⲛⲓⲁⲣⲭⲱⲛ ϣⲁϩⲣⲃⲁⲣⲁⲍ ⲛⲉⲙϣⲁϩⲣⲁⲗⲁⲛⲓⲟ̀ⲍⲁⲛ.

Ⲡⲓⲙⲁⲥϭⲏⲧ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲁⲙⲃⲣⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛⲡⲫⲟⲥⲁⲧⲟⲛ

ϧⲉⲛ639–642 ⲛⲓⲙⲱⲥⲗⲏⲙ ⲛ̀ⲁ̀ⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ⲁⲩϭⲣⲟ ⲉ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲓⲧⲟⲧϥ ⲁⲙⲃⲣⲟⲥ ⲡϣⲏ ⲁⲗⲁⲥ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁⲛⲓⲙⲗⲁϧ ϧⲉⲛⲡⲉⲣⲉⲙⲟⲩⲛ, ⲫⲉⲗⲃⲉⲥ, ⲃⲁⲃⲩⲗⲟⲛ ⲛⲉⲙⲱⲛ. Ⲁⲩⲉⲣϩⲏⲧⲥ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲱⲣⲃ ⲉ̀ϧⲟⲩⲛ ⲛ̀ⲣⲁⲕⲟϯ ϧⲉⲛ641 (357 ⳥) ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩϫⲟⲡⲥ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁⲡⲓⲉⲡⲁⲣⲭⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲉⲧⲁϥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲟⲛ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲡⲁⲧⲣⲓⲁⲣⲭⲏⲥ ⲛ̀ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ ⲕⲩⲣⲓ ⲡⲕⲁⲩⲭⲓⲟⲥ ⲁϥϭⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲟⲩⲡⲁⲕⲧⲱⲛ ϫⲉ ⲁⲩⲓ̀ⲛⲓ ⲉ̀ⲡⲓⲕⲏⲛⲥⲟⲥ ⲉⲧⲁⲩϯⲣⲉⲛϥ ⲛ̀ϫⲓⲍⲓⲁ ⲉ̀ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ϯϣⲉⲃⲓⲱ ⲛ̀ϯⲥⲕⲉⲡⲏ. Ⲛⲓⲙⲱⲥⲗⲏⲙ ⲁⲩϩⲓⲥⲉⲛϯ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲏⲧⲣⲟⲡⲟⲗⲓⲥ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ ⲫⲩⲥⲧⲁⲧⲱⲛ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩⲕⲱⲧ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲥϭⲏⲧ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲩ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲥⲱⲥ.

Ϧⲉⲛϯⲙⲉⲧⲇⲓⲁ̀ⲇⲟⲭⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲉⲩⲥⲉⲃⲏⲥ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲓϣⲉⲛ̀ⲙⲁⲩⲓⲁ[edit | edit source]

Ⲛⲓⲁ̀ⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ⲛⲓⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗϧⲉⲛⲡⲉⲙⲉⲛ ⲁⲩⲫⲱϩ ⲉ̀ϧⲟⲩⲛ ⲉ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲉ̀ⲱⲛϧ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲩ. Ⲁⲩⲉⲣϭⲟⲓⲥ ⲉ̀ⲡⲓⲡⲁⲅⲁⲛⲟⲥ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲓⲁⲗⲁⲥⲱϯ ⲛ̀ⲧⲭⲱⲣⲁ.

Ⲉ̀ⲧⲓ ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲙ̀ⲡⲩⲣⲁⲥⲙⲟⲥ ⲙ̀ⲙⲱⲥⲗⲏⲙ ⲁⲩⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲉ̀ϫⲉⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲓⲧⲟⲧϥ ⲁⲙⲃⲣⲟⲥ ⲡϣⲏ ⲁⲗⲁⲁⲥ ⲫⲏ ⲉⲧⲉⲛϩⲟⲧ ⲛ̀ⲁⲗⲙⲟⲩⲁ̀ⲃⲓⲁ̀ ϣⲁ ⲡⲓⲥⲏⲟⲩ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉϥⲙⲟⲩ ϧⲉⲛ664 ⲛ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ.

Ⲉ̀ⲧⲓ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩⲥⲛⲁⲩ ⲙ̀ⲡⲩⲣⲁⲥⲙⲟⲥ ⲛⲓϧⲁⲣⲓϫⲓ ⲛⲉⲙⲓⲃⲛ ⲁⲗⲥⲟⲩⲡⲉ̀ⲉⲓⲣ ⲁⲩϭⲓ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲡⲓⲇⲓⲁ̀ⲇⲟⲭⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓϣⲉⲛ̀ⲙⲁⲩⲓⲁ ⲙⲉⲣⲟⲩⲁⲛ ⲁ̅ ⲁϥϫⲉⲙϫⲟⲙ ⲉ̀ϩⲣⲏⲓ ⲉ̀ϫⲱⲟⲩ ϧⲉⲛ684. ϧⲉⲛ706 ⲛ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ ⲁⲩⲥⲉⲙⲛⲉ ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁ̀ⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ϩⲱⲥ ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲩⲑⲉⲛⲧⲓⲕⲟⲥ ⲙ̀ⲡⲁⲅⲁⲛⲟⲥ.

ϧⲉⲛϯⲙⲉⲧⲇⲓⲁ̀ⲇⲟⲭⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓϣⲉⲛ̀ⲁⲃⲃⲁⲥ[edit | edit source]

Ⲡⲓⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓϣⲉⲛ̀ⲁⲃⲃⲁⲥ ⲁϥⲥϧⲁⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲕⲏⲛⲥⲟⲥ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϣⲑⲟⲣⲧⲉⲣ ϩⲁⲛⲙⲏϣ ⲛ̀ⲥⲟⲡ ϧⲉⲛⲡⲓϣⲙⲟⲩⲣ ⲛⲉⲙϩⲁⲛⲕⲉⲑⲱϣ. Ⲁⲩϫⲟⲕⲟⲩ ϧⲉⲛ830 ⲛ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲓⲧⲟⲧⲟⲩ ⲡⲓⲇⲓⲁ̀ⲇⲟⲭⲟⲥ ⲁⲗⲙⲁⲓⲙⲟⲩⲛ ⲛⲉⲙⲡⲉϥⲥⲧⲣⲁⲧⲏⲗⲁⲧⲏⲥ ⲁⲗⲁϥϣⲏⲛ.

Ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁⲡⲓⲃⲱⲗ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲙⲉⲧϫⲱⲣⲓ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲛⲓϣⲉⲛ̀ⲁⲃⲃⲁⲥ ϧⲉⲛⲃⲁⲕⲧⲁⲛ ⲛⲓⲥⲧⲣⲁⲧⲏⲗⲁⲧⲏⲥ ⲁⲩⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲉ̀ϫⲉⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϩⲱⲥ ⲛⲓϣⲉⲛ̀ⲉϧϣⲏⲧ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲓϣⲉⲛ̀ⲧⲟⲩⲗⲟⲩⲛ.

Ϯⲙⲉⲧⲇⲓⲁ̀ⲇⲟⲭⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓϣⲉⲛ̀ϥⲁϯⲙⲁ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲓⲕⲟⲩⲝ[edit | edit source]

ϧⲉⲛ969 ⲛ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ ⲡⲓⲏⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲧⲩⲛⲓⲥ ⲛⲓϣⲉⲛ̀ϥⲁϯⲙⲁ ⲛⲉⲙⲡⲓⲉⲑⲛⲟⲥ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲍⲓⲝ ϧⲉⲛⲫⲣⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲕⲟⲩⲑⲁⲙ ⲛⲉⲙⲡⲓⲥⲧⲣⲁⲧⲏⲧⲗⲁⲧⲏⲥ ϫⲉⲟⲩϩⲁⲣ ⲡⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲥⲓⲕⲓⲗⲓⲁ̀ ⲁⲩϭⲣⲟ ⲉ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩϩⲓⲥⲉⲛϯ ⲛ̀ϯⲕⲉϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ϩⲱⲥ ⲧⲟⲩⲙⲏⲧⲣⲟⲡⲟⲗⲓⲥ. Ⲛⲉ ϧⲉⲛⲡⲓⲥⲏⲟⲩ ⲉⲧⲉⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲩ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲡⲉ ϯⲙⲏϯ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲩⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲉⲧⲁⲥϩⲱⲃⲥ ⲛ̀ϯⲁⲫⲣⲓⲕⲏ ⲉⲧⲥⲁⲡⲉⲙϩⲓⲧ ⲛⲉⲙⲥⲓⲕⲓⲗⲓⲁ ⲛⲉⲙⲡⲁⲗⲁⲓⲥⲧⲓⲛⲏ ⲛⲉⲙⲡⲓⲓⲟⲣⲇⲁⲛⲏⲥ ⲛⲉⲙⲡⲓⲗⲓⲃⲁⲛⲟⲛ ⲛⲉⲙϯⲥⲩⲣⲓⲁ ⲛⲉⲙⲡⲓⲭⲣⲱ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲟⲙ ⲛ̀ϣⲁⲣⲓ ⲛⲉⲙϩⲉϫⲁⲍ ⲛⲉⲙⲡⲉⲙⲉⲛ ⲛⲉⲙⲙⲟⲩⲗⲑⲁⲛ.

Ⲥⲉⲩⲏⲣⲟⲥ ⲡϣⲏ ⲡⲓϭⲁⲗⲉ ⲉⲧⲁϥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲉⲡⲓⲥⲕⲟⲡⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ϣⲙⲟⲩⲛ ϧⲉⲛⲡⲉϥϫⲱⲙ ϧⲉⲛⲫⲣⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ϯⲥⲧⲟⲣⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲛⲓⲡⲁⲧⲣⲓⲁⲣⲭⲏⲥ ⲛ̀ⲣⲁⲕⲟϯ ⲁϥⲥϧⲁⲓ ϫⲉ ϩⲁⲛⲙⲏϣ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲥⲉⲕⲁϯ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲁⲛ ϫⲉ. Ϩⲁⲭⲓⲙ ⲡⲓⲁⲙⲣⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓϣⲉⲛ̀ϥⲁϯⲙⲁ ⲁϥⲧⲁϩⲛⲟ ⲉ̀ⲉⲣⲭⲣⲁⲥⲑⲉ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ.

ϧⲉⲛ1168 ⲛ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ ⲡⲓⲣⲉϥⲥⲟϭⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓϣⲉⲛ̀ϥⲁϯⲙⲁ ⲛ̀ⲕⲩⲣⲇⲓⲧⲏⲥ ⲥⲁⲗⲁϩⲁⲧⲏⲛ ⲓⲱⲥⲏⲫ ⲡϣⲏ ⲓⲱⲃ, ⲁϥⲟⲩⲱϫⲡ ⲙ̀ⲡⲟⲩⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ϧⲉⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁϥϩⲓⲥⲉⲛϯ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲏⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓϣⲉⲛ̀ⲓⲱⲃ. Ⲁϥⲉⲣⲙⲗⲁϧ ⲛⲓϥⲁⲓⲥⲧⲁⲩⲣⲟⲥ ⲛⲉⲙⲧⲟⲩⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲓⲉⲣⲟⲩⲥⲁⲗⲏⲙ ϧⲉⲛⲡⲁⲗⲁⲓⲥⲧⲓⲛⲏ. Ⲁⲩⲟⲱϫⲡ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϧⲁⲉ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓϣⲉⲛⲓⲱⲃ ⲁⲗⲙⲱⲉⲍⲉⲙ ⲧⲟⲩⲣⲁⲛϣⲁϩ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲓⲧⲟⲧⲟⲩ ⲛⲉϥⲥⲧⲣⲁⲧⲏⲗⲁⲧⲏⲥ ⲛ̀ⲧⲟⲩⲣⲕⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲕⲟⲩⲝⲓⲥ ϧⲉⲛ1250 ⲛ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲟⲩⲁⲓ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ⲛ̀ϧⲏⲧⲟⲩ ϧⲉⲛⲫⲣⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲉⲓⲥⲁⲧⲏⲛ ⲁⲓⲫⲁⲕ ⲁϥϩⲓⲥⲉⲛϯ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲏⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲕⲟⲩⲝ ⲫⲁⲓ̀ⲁⲣⲟ. Ⲁϥⲙⲱⲟⲩⲧ ⲛ̀ϫⲉ ⲫⲙⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲭⲁⲙⲉ 40 ⲕⲁⲧⲁ ⲡϣⲉ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛⲓ̅ⲇ̅ ⲛ̀ⲉ̀ⲱⲛ.

Ⲡⲓⲉ̀ⲛⲉϩ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ[edit | edit source]

Ⲛⲁⲡⲟⲗⲉⲱⲛ ⲁϥϭⲱⲧϥ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲁⲗⲁⲥⲱϯ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲛⲓⲕⲟⲩⲝ ϧⲉⲛⲡⲓⲙⲗⲁϧ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲛⲓⲡⲩⲣⲁⲙⲓⲥ, 21 ⲛ̀ⲓⲟⲩⲛⲓⲟⲥ 1798, ⲗⲟⲩⲓ-ϥⲣⲁⲛⲥⲟⲩⲁ ⲗⲉϫⲉⲛ

Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓϣⲉⲛ̀ϩⲟⲩⲑⲙⲉⲛ[edit | edit source]

Ⲛⲓⲧⲟⲩⲣⲕⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓϣⲉⲛ̀ϩⲟⲩⲑⲙⲉⲛ ⲁⲩϭⲣⲟ ⲉ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ1517 ⲛ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩⲁⲓⲥ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲑⲱϣ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲧⲟⲩⲙⲉⲧⲁⲩⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ. Ⲁⲥⲃⲱⲗ ⲛ̀ϯⲟⲓⲕⲟⲛⲟⲙⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲟⲩⲟⲛⲧⲉⲥ ⲡⲓⲥⲟⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲉϩⲕⲟ ⲟⲩⲧⲉ 1687 ⲛⲉⲙ1731.

Ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲁ ⲛⲓⲕⲟⲩⲝ ⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ϧⲉⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϣⲁ ⲟⲩⲥⲏⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲡⲓⲙⲟϣⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲁⲡⲟⲗⲉⲱⲛ ⲡⲓⲥⲧⲣⲁⲧⲏⲗⲁⲏⲧⲥ ⲙ̀ⲫⲣⲁⲅⲅoⲥ ϧⲉⲛ1798. Ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁⲧⲉϥϭⲟⲧⲡⲥ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲓⲧⲟⲧⲟⲩ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ̀ ⲡⲓⲡⲟⲗⲉⲙⲟⲥ ⲁϥⲉⲣϩⲏⲧⲥ ⲟⲩⲧⲉ ⲛⲓⲕⲟⲩⲝ ⲛⲉⲙⲟⲩⲧⲉ ⲛⲓⲙⲓⲥⲑⲟⲫⲟⲣⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲁⲗⲃⲁⲛⲓⲁ ⲛⲉⲙⲡⲟⲩϭⲁⲩⲙⲱⲓⲧ ⲙⲟϩⲁⲙⲉⲧ ⲁⲗⲏ ⲡⲁϣⲁ. Ⲁϥϭⲟⲧϭⲉⲧ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲕⲟⲩⲝ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁϥϩⲓⲥⲉⲛϯ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲏⲓ ⲉⲧⲁϥⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲉ̀ϫⲉⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϣⲁ 1952 ⲛ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ.

Mⲟϩⲁⲙⲉⲧ ⲁ̀ⲗⲏ ⲡⲁϣⲁ, ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ⲏ̀ⲅⲉⲙⲱⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ

Ⲙⲟϩⲁⲙⲉⲧ ⲁ̀ⲗⲏ ⲡⲁϣⲁ ⲁϥⲧⲱⲙⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲁⲛϩⲱⲥⲓ ⲉⲧⲥⲁⲡⲉⲙϩⲓⲧ (1820–1824), ϯⲥⲩⲣⲓⲁ̀ (1833) ⲛⲉⲙϩⲁⲛⲧⲟⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲁ̀ⲣⲁⲃⲓⲁ ⲛⲉⲙⲁ̀ⲛⲁⲧⲟⲗⲓⲁ̀ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲉⲩⲣⲱⲡⲏ ⲁⲩⲃⲓⲁ̀ⲍⲉ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟϥ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲓⲟ ⲛⲁⲓⲕⲁϩⲓ ⲉ̀ⲛⲓϣⲉⲛ̀ϩⲟⲩⲑⲙⲉⲛ. Ⲁϥⲥⲟϩⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲁ̀ⲗⲁⲥⲱϯ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁϥⲕⲱⲧ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓϥⲟⲓ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲓⲡⲣⲁⲅⲙⲁⲧⲓⲁ̀.

Ⲁϥⲉⲣ ⲫⲙⲁ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟϩⲁⲙⲉⲧ ⲁ̀ⲗⲏ ⲛ̀ϫⲉ ⲁⲃⲣⲁϩⲁⲙ ⲡⲉϥϣⲏⲣⲓ (ⲥⲉⲡⲧⲉⲙⲃⲣⲓⲟⲥ ⲛ̀1848) ⲛⲉⲙⲡⲉϥϣⲉⲛ̀ϣⲏⲣⲓ ⲁⲃⲃⲁⲥ ⲁ̅ (ⲛⲟⲉⲙⲃⲣⲓⲟⲥ ⲛ̀1848) ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲱϥ ⲛⲉⲙⲥⲁⲉ̀ⲓⲧ (1854) ⲛⲉⲙⲓⲥⲙⲁⲏⲗ (1863) ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲥⲱϥ.

Ϯⲙⲉⲧⲏ̀ⲅⲉⲙⲱⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ (1867-1914)[edit | edit source]

Ⲛⲉ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲡⲓⲑⲱϣ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲩⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓϣⲉⲛ̀ϩⲟⲩⲑⲙⲉⲛ ⲡⲉ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲁⲩⲧⲏⲓⲥ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲧⲁⲝⲓⲥ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉϯⲙⲉⲧⲏ̀ⲅⲉⲙⲱⲛ ϧⲉⲛ1867.

Ⲁⲩⲕⲱⲧ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲟⲣ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲕⲗⲩⲥⲙⲁ ⲉⲩⲥⲟⲡ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲓⲫⲣⲁⲅⲅⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛ1869. ϧⲉⲛ1875 ⲡⲓⲏ̀ⲅⲉⲙⲱⲛ ⲓⲥⲙⲁⲏⲗ ⲁϥϫⲕⲟ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲕⲗⲏⲣⲟⲥ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲟⲣ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲉ̀ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ̀ ⲉ̀ⲉⲣ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϣⲁⲧⲁⲣⲏⲃ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲛ̀ⲑⲱⲟⲩ ⲉⲩⲥⲟⲡ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲓⲫⲣⲁⲅⲅⲟⲥ ⲁⲩϭⲓⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ϧⲉⲛϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ.

Ⲁⲩϩⲓⲥⲉⲛϯ ⲛ̀ϫⲉ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ⲁ̀ⲟⲩⲏⲧ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲙⲁⲓϣⲗⲟⲗ ϧⲉⲛ1879 ⲛⲉⲙⲁϩⲙⲉⲧ ⲟⲩⲟ̀ⲣⲁⲡⲓ ϩⲱⲥ ⲡⲟⲩϭⲁⲩⲙⲱⲓⲧ. Ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁⲛⲓϣⲑⲟⲣⲧⲉⲣ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲙⲁⲓϣⲗⲟⲗ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲩⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲙ̀ⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ̀ ⲓ ⲉ̀ϧⲣⲏⲓ ⲉ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ1882 ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲉϫⲉⲛ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟⲥ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁⲡⲓⲙⲗⲁϩ ϧⲉⲛⲡⲓⲑⲱⲙ. Ⲁⲥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲇⲉ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲡⲁⲧⲣⲱⲛⲓⲁ̀ ⲙ̀ⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ̀.

Ⲡⲓⲁϣⲁⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲁⲩⲧⲟⲙⲟⲩ ⲉ̀ⲛⲓⲁⲟⲩⲏⲧ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲙⲁⲓϣⲗⲟⲗ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁϯⲥⲩⲛⲧⲉⲭⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲙϫⲏⲩ ϧⲉⲛ1906.

Ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲱⲛϩ ϧⲉⲛϯⲕⲉϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ1919. Ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲟⲩⲱⲛϩ ⲥⲉⲱⲗⲓ ⲡⲓⲙⲏⲓⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲡⲓϣⲑⲟⲣⲧⲉⲣ ⲛⲉⲙⲡⲓⲑⲉⲣⲓⲗⲟⲛ ⲛⲉⲙⲡⲓⲥⲧⲁⲩⲣⲟⲥ ⲛⲉⲙϯⲥⲓⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲇⲁⲩⲉⲓⲇ.

Ϯⲙⲉⲧⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ (1914-1922)[edit | edit source]

Ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲩⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓϣⲉⲛ̀ϩⲟⲩⲑⲙⲉⲛ ⲥϣⲉ ⲛⲁⲥ ⲉ̀ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲧⲥ ⲛ̀ⲕⲟⲥⲙⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛ1914 ⲉ̀ϫⲱⲟⲩ ⲛⲓⲭⲱⲣⲁ ⲉⲧϧⲉⲛⲑⲙⲏϯ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲡⲓⲏ̀ⲅⲉⲙⲱⲛ ⲁⲃⲃⲁⲥ ⲃ̅ ⲁϥϯ ⲛ̀ⲧⲟⲧⲥ. Ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲱⲥ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ ⲁⲩⲟⲩⲱϫⲡ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟϥ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩϯ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ⲉ̀ϧⲣⲁⲓ ⲉ̀ⲧⲉⲛ ϩⲟⲩⲥⲉⲉⲓⲛ ⲭⲁⲙⲓⲗ ⲡⲉϥⲥⲟⲛ.

Ⲁϥⲭⲁϥ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲁϩ ⲥⲁϩⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓϣⲉⲛ̀ϩⲟⲩⲑⲙⲉⲛ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁϥϯⲣⲉⲛϥ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ.

Ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁⲙ̀ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲧⲥ ⲛ̀ⲕⲟⲥⲙⲟⲥ ⲥⲁⲁⲧ ⲍⲉϩⲗⲟⲩⲗ ⲛⲉⲙⲡⲉϥⲁⲟⲩⲃⲏⲧ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲙⲁⲓϣⲗⲟⲗ ⲡϩⲱⲃ (ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲁ̀ⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ: الوفد) ⲁϥϭⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲛⲓϣϯ ⲛ̀ⲧⲟⲓ ϧⲉⲛⲡⲓⲑⲱⲟⲩⲧⲥ ⲉⲧϯϩⲁⲡ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ ⲁⲩⲉ̀ⲝⲱⲣⲓⲍⲉ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟϥ ⲉ̀ⲙⲁⲗⲧⲁ. Ⲉⲑⲃⲉ ⲫⲏ ⲁⲩⲉⲣϩⲏⲧⲥ ⲛ̀ϯϣⲟⲣⲡⲓ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲁⲡⲟⲥⲧⲁⲥⲏⲥ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ8 ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲣⲧⲟⲥ 1919 ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩⲥⲣoⲙⲣⲉⲙ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲙⲁⲛⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ⲙ̀ⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ ⲉ̀ϭⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲱⲛϩ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙϩⲉ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ22 ⲙ̀ⲫⲉⲃⲣⲟⲩⲁ̀ⲣⲓⲟⲥ 1922 ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲥⲁⲁⲧ ⲍⲉϩⲗⲟⲩⲗ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲛⲟϫ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛϫⲟⲙ.

Ϯⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ (1922–1953)[edit | edit source]

Ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙϩⲉ ϥⲟⲩⲁⲇ ⲁ̅ ⲡⲓⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ⲁϥϯⲣⲉⲛϥ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ.

Ⲡⲓⲙⲁⲛⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϣⲉⲣⲡⲛⲟⲙⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛ1923 ⲙ̀ⲫⲣⲏϯ ⲛ̀ϯⲥⲩⲥⲧⲏⲙⲁ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲛϩⲉⲙⲥⲓ. Ⲡϩⲱⲃ ⲡⲓⲁⲟⲩⲃⲏⲧ ⲁϥϭⲣⲟ ϧⲉⲛⲛⲓⲙⲉⲧⲥⲱⲧⲡ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ1923-1924.

Ⲛⲓⲁⲗⲁⲥⲱϯ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ ⲁϥⲫⲱⲧ ϧⲁϫⲉⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ1936 ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲁⲩⲟϩⲓ ϧⲉⲛⲫⲓⲟⲣ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲕⲗⲩⲥⲙⲁ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩⲟⲩⲁϩⲧⲟⲧⲟⲩ ⲟⲛ ⲉ̀ⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲉ̀ϫⲉⲛ ⲡⲁⲛϩⲱⲥⲓ.

Ⲡⲓⲇⲏⲙⲟⲥⲓⲱⲛ ⲛ̀ⲁ̀ⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ (1953-ⲙ̀ⲫⲟⲟⲩ)[edit | edit source]

Ⲁϥϯ ⲛ̀ϫⲉ ⲡⲓϣⲑⲟⲣⲧⲉⲣ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲁ̀ⲝⲓⲱ̀ⲙⲁⲧⲓⲕⲟⲥ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙϩⲉ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ1952 ⲁⲩϯ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲉ̀ⲛⲓⲙⲁⲧⲟⲓ. Ⲁⲩϣⲱϣⲧ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲁⲟⲩⲃⲏⲧ ⲙ̀ⲡⲟⲗⲓⲧⲓⲕⲟⲥ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩϩⲓⲥⲉⲛϯ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲇⲏⲙⲟⲥⲓⲱⲛ ⲛⲉⲙⲙⲟϩⲁⲙⲉⲧ ⲛⲉⲅⲓⲃ ϩⲱⲥ ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ϩⲩⲅⲟⲩⲙⲉⲛⲟⲥ. Ϫⲉⲙⲁⲗ ⲁⲃⲇⲉⲗⲛⲁⲥⲥⲉⲣ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϩⲩⲅⲟⲩⲙⲉⲛⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛ1956.

Ϯⲅⲉⲱ̀ⲅⲣⲁⲫⲓⲁ̀[edit | edit source]

Ϯϧⲉⲗⲗⲟⲧ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ ϧⲁⲧⲉⲛ ⲫⲱⲡⲓ

Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲧⲉ ϯⲙⲁϩⲙⲁⲡ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓϣϯ ⲛ̀ⲭⲱⲣⲁ ϧⲉⲛⲡⲓⲕⲟⲥⲙⲟⲥ ⲑⲏ ⲉⲧⲥⲉⲣ ⲉϫⲉⲛ 1,001,450 ⲛ̀ⲕⲓⲗⲟⲙⲉⲧⲣ ⲛ̀ϥⲧⲟⲩⲛ̀ⲭⲟϩ.

Ⲉ̀ⲃⲏⲗ ⲉ̀ϯϧⲉⲗⲗⲟⲧ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ ⲡⲓϩⲟⲩⲟ ⲛ̀ⲕⲁϩⲓ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲡⲉ ⲛⲓϣⲁϥⲉ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲓⲕⲁⲡϣⲱ ⲛⲉⲙⲡⲓⲁ̀ϣⲁⲓ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲁϩ ϩⲱⲥ ϯⲟⲩⲁϩ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉⲙϫⲉ, ϯⲟⲩⲁϩ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲃⲉⲣⲃⲉⲣ, ϯⲟⲩⲁϩ ⲉⲧϩⲓϧⲟⲩⲛ, ⲥⲓⲟⲩⲁϩ ⲛⲉⲙϯⲟⲩⲁϩ ⲛ̀ϩⲏⲃ. Ⲛⲓⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲥⲉϩⲉⲙⲥⲓ ϧⲉⲛϯϧⲉⲗⲗⲟⲧ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲓⲭⲣⲱⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲛⲓⲁ̀ⲙⲁⲓⲟⲩ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩ98 ⲕⲁⲧⲁ ⲡϣⲉ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϥ̀ⲱⲛϧ ϧⲉⲛ3 ⲕⲁⲧⲁ ⲡϣⲉ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲡⲓⲕⲁϩⲓ.

Ⲛⲓⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲓϯⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲥⲉⲁ̀ⲡⲁⲛⲧⲟⲕⲧⲓⲛ ⲉ̀ϫⲉⲛ ⲣⲁⲕⲟϯ ⲉ̀ⲧⲉ ϯⲙⲁϩⲥⲛⲁⲩ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓϣϯ ⲙ̀ⲃⲁⲕⲓ, ⲥⲟⲩⲁⲛ, ϯⲕⲉϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲉ̀ⲧⲉ ϯⲙⲏⲧⲣⲟⲡⲟⲗⲓⲥ ⲛⲉⲙϯⲛⲓϣϯ ⲙ̀ⲃⲁⲕⲓ, ϯϣⲁⲓⲣⲓ, ϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲓⲥ ⲉ̀ⲧⲉ ⲡⲓⲙⲁ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲓⲛⲓϣϯ ⲙ̀ⲡⲩⲣⲁⲙⲓⲥ, ϯⲣⲁⲙⲛⲟⲥ, ⲫⲱⲡⲓ, ⲙⲃⲱ, ⲥⲉϥⲁϫⲁ, ϯⲉⲙⲣⲱ ⲛ̀ⲥⲁⲉ̀ⲓⲧ, ⲡⲓⲥⲫⲟⲧⲟⲩ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϧⲉⲗⲗⲟ, ⲡⲓⲕⲗⲩⲥⲙⲁ ⲛⲉⲙⲫⲓⲟⲣ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲕⲗⲩⲥⲙⲁ, ⲫⲁⲛⲓϫⲉⲕϫⲓⲕ ⲛⲉⲙⲑⲙⲟⲛⲏ. Ⲛⲓⲙⲁⲛⲛⲁϣϯ ⲥⲉⲁ̀ⲡⲁⲛⲧⲟⲕⲧⲓⲛ ⲉ̀ϫⲉⲛ ϯⲁⲫⲉ ⲙ̀ⲡⲟⲥⲓⲇⲱⲛⲓⲟⲥ (ϯⲁⲫⲉ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟϩⲁⲙⲉⲧ), ⲟⲥⲧⲣⲁⲕⲓⲛⲏ ⲛⲉⲙⲥⲓⲟⲩⲁϩ.

Ⲡⲓⲁ̀ⲏⲣ[edit | edit source]

Ⲡⲓⲭⲓⲱⲛ ϧⲉⲛⲡⲧⲱⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲁⲓⲕⲁⲧⲉⲣⲓⲛⲏ ϧⲉⲛⲥⲓⲛⲁ

Ϣⲁⲥϩⲱⲟⲩ ϧⲉⲛⲛⲓⲉⲃⲏⲧ ⲙ̀ⲫⲣⲱ ϧⲉⲛⲧⲥⲁϧⲏⲧ. Ⲕⲁⲧⲁ ⲥⲟⲡ ϥ̀ⲛⲟⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ϫⲉ ⲡⲓⲭⲓⲱⲛ ϧⲉⲛⲛⲓⲧⲱⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲥⲓⲛⲁ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲓⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲉⲧϧⲉⲛⲡⲓⲥⲫⲁⲧⲟⲩ ⲉⲧⲥⲁⲡⲉⲙϩⲓⲧ ϩⲱⲥ ⲧⲁⲙⲓⲁϯ, ⲡⲓⲛⲉⲡϯⲙⲓ ⲛⲉⲙⲯⲁϧⲡⲉⲣⲁⲛⲓ.

Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲥ̀ϧⲙⲟⲙ ⲛⲉⲙⲥ̀ⲧⲱⲥ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲛ̀ⲑⲟⲥ ⲟⲩⲥⲉⲕⲥⲓⲕ ⲧⲉ. Ⲫⲙⲁⲣⲏⲥ ⲟⲩⲟⲛⲧⲉϥ ⲛⲓϣⲓ ⲛ̀ϧⲉⲙⲓ ⲉ̀ⲥⲉⲉⲣϩⲟⲩⲟ̀ ⲉ̀40 ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲕⲉⲗⲥⲓⲟⲥ ⲉⲑⲃⲉ ⲡⲑⲟⲩⲣⲏⲥ.

ϯⲇⲏⲙⲟⲅⲣⲁⲫⲓⲁ̀[edit | edit source]

Ⲡⲓⲇⲉⲙⲟⲥ[edit | edit source]

ϧⲉⲛ2017 ⲙ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ ⲡⲓⲥⲧⲉⲟⲩⲓϯⲟⲩ ⲙ̀ⲙⲓⲗⲓⲱⲛ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲥⲉϩⲉⲙⲥⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ. Ⲡϩⲟⲩⲟ̀ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲫⲙⲁ ⲛⲉ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ. ϧⲉⲛⲫⲣⲏⲥ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ ⲥⲉϩⲉⲙⲥⲓ ϫⲱⲧ ⲛ̀ⲑⲃⲁ ⲛ̀ⲉ̀ⲑⲁⲩϣ. Ⲛⲉ ϩⲁⲛⲙⲏϣ ⲛ̀ⲓⲟⲩⲇⲁⲓ ⲛⲉⲙⲟⲩⲉⲓⲛⲓⲛ ⲛⲉ ϧⲉⲛⲡⲉⲙϩⲓⲧ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ, ⲙⲁⲥⲁⲗⲁⲛ ϧⲉⲛⲣⲁⲕⲟϯ ϧⲉⲛϯϩⲓⲥⲧⲟⲣⲓⲁ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲙ̀ⲫⲟⲟⲩ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟⲛ ⲙⲏϣ.

Ⲡⲓⲙⲟⲛⲁⲥⲧⲏⲣⲓⲟⲛ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲛⲓⲁ̀ⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛϯϣⲁϥⲉ ⲛ̀ⲝⲏⲛⲏ

Ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ[edit | edit source]

Ⲙ̀ⲫⲟⲟⲩ ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁ̀ⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ⲧⲉ ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲩⲑⲉⲛⲧⲓⲕⲟⲥ. Ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ (ϯⲙⲉⲧⲕⲩⲡⲧⲁⲓⲟⲛ) ⲧⲉ ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲩⲑⲉⲛⲧⲓⲕⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ϯⲉⲕⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ̀ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ϩⲁⲛⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲥⲉⲥⲁϫⲓ ⲟⲛ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟⲥ. Ϩⲁⲛⲏⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲥⲉⲥⲁϫⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲉ̀ⲑⲱϣ ϧⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲫⲣⲏⲥ ⲛ̀ⲥⲟⲩⲁⲛ ⲛⲉⲙϯⲙⲉⲧⲙⲁⲍⲓⲝ ϧⲉⲛⲥⲓⲟⲩⲁϩ ⲛⲉⲙⲧⲡⲁⲣⲁⲧⲟⲛⲓⲟⲛ ⲡⲓⲑⲱϣ. ϧⲉⲛⲫⲣⲏⲥ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲑⲱϣ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲟⲙ ⲛ̀ϣⲁⲣⲓ ϩⲁⲛⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲥⲉⲥⲁϫⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲙ̀ⲃⲁⲗϩⲙⲱⲟⲩ ⲉⲧⲉ Ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲟⲩⲥ. Ⲁⲩⲥⲁϫⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲧⲟⲙ (ⲓⲉ ⲧⲟⲙⲉⲣⲓ) ϧⲉⲛⲧⲭⲉϩⲗⲓ ⲡⲓⲑⲱϣ[8].

Ϯⲑⲣⲉⲥⲕⲓⲁ̀[edit | edit source]

Ⲛⲉ ϯⲑⲣⲉⲥⲕⲓⲁ̀ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲫⲙⲁ ⲛ̀ⲁⲡⲁⲥ ⲧⲉ ϯⲑⲣⲉⲥⲕⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ. Ⲙ̀ⲫⲟⲟⲩ ⲡⲓⲥⲧⲉⲟⲩⲓ ⲕⲁⲧⲁ ⲡϣⲉ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲡⲉ ⲟⲩⲙⲱⲥⲗⲏⲙ ⲛ̀ⲥⲟⲩⲛⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲙⲏⲧ ⲕⲁⲧⲁ ⲡϣⲉ ⲡⲉ ⲟⲩⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲁ̀ⲛⲟⲥ ⲡⲉ. Ⲛⲉ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲧⲉ ϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ ⲛ̀ⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲁ̀ⲛⲟⲥ ϣⲁ ⲡⲓϭⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲁ̀ⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛⲍ̅ ⲛ̀ⲉ̀ⲱⲛ. Ⲡⲁⲗⲓⲥⲗⲁⲙ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲑⲣⲉⲥⲕⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ⲁⲩⲑⲉⲛⲧⲓⲕⲟⲥ ⲛⲉⲙⲡⲓⲛⲟⲙⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ϣⲁⲣⲓⲉⲁ̀ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲛⲓϣϯ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲭⲏ ⲛ̀ⲛⲟⲙⲟⲥ ⲉ̀ⲧⲓ ϯⲙⲉⲧϭⲟⲓⲥ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲁⲛⲟⲩⲁⲣ ⲁⲥⲁⲇⲁⲧ. 15 ⲙ̀ⲙⲓⲗⲓⲱⲛ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲉ ⲛⲓⲥⲟⲩϥⲓ.

Ϧⲁϫⲉⲛ ϯⲙⲉⲧϭⲟⲓⲥ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲛⲁⲥⲉⲣ ⲛⲓⲛⲓϣϯ ⲛ̀ⲗⲁⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲁ̀ⲛⲟⲥ ⲛⲁⲩⲟⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲟⲩⲉⲓⲛⲓⲛ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲓⲁⲣⲙⲉⲛⲓⲟⲥ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲓⲧⲁⲗⲓⲁ̀ ⲛⲉⲙⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲙⲁⲗⲑⲁ ⲛⲉ.

ϯⲁⲩⲑⲉⲛⲧⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϥ̀ⲥⲱⲟⲩⲛ ⲡⲓϣⲟⲙⲧ ⲛ̀ⲑⲣⲉⲥⲕⲓⲁ̀ – ⲡⲁⲗⲓⲥⲗⲁⲙ ⲛⲉⲙϯⲙⲉⲧⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲁ̀ⲛⲟⲥ ⲛⲉⲙϯⲙⲉⲧⲓⲟⲩⲇⲁⲓ. Ⲁⲩⲇⲓⲱ̀ⲕⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲕⲉⲭⲱⲟⲩⲛⲓ ϩⲱⲥ ⲃⲉϩⲁⲓ ⲓⲉ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁϩⲙⲉⲧ.[9]

Ⲡⲓⲗⲓⲙⲏⲛ ⲉⲧⲍⲱⲅⲣⲁⲫⲉⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲉⲛⲑⲱϣ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ

Ⲟⲩⲟⲛⲧⲉ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϫⲱⲧϣⲁϣϥ ⲛ̀ⲑⲱϣ. Ⲛⲁⲓ ⲛⲉ ⲛⲉⲛⲣⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲛⲓⲑⲱⲱϣ:

Ϯⲙⲉⲧⲡⲟⲗⲓⲧⲓⲕⲟⲥ[edit | edit source]

Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲓⲇⲏⲙⲟⲥⲓⲱⲛ ⲛ̀ⲇⲏⲙⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲓⲕⲟⲛ ⲙ̀ⲫⲟⲟⲩ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲁⲩⲥϧⲁⲓ ⲉϧⲟⲩⲛ ϩⲁⲛⲙⲏϣ ⲙ̀ⲡⲁⲣⲁⲃⲁⲥⲓⲥ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲛⲓⲇⲓⲕⲉⲟⲛ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲓ. Ⲡⲓϩⲩⲅⲟⲩⲙⲉⲛⲟⲥ ⲡⲉ ⲁⲡⲧⲉⲗϥⲁⲧⲧⲁϩ ⲁⲥⲥⲓⲥⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲡⲓⲛⲟϫ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛϫⲟⲙ ⲡⲉ ⲙⲟⲥⲧⲁϥⲁ ⲙⲁⲧⲫⲱⲗⲓ.

ϯⲡⲁⲓⲇⲓⲁ̀[edit | edit source]

Ϯⲙⲁϣⲓ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉϮⲙⲉⲧⲁⲧⲥϧⲁⲓ ⲡⲉ 25.9 ⲕⲁⲧⲁ ⲡϣⲉ. Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲟⲩⲟⲛⲧⲉⲥ ⲡⲓⲑⲱⲟⲩⲧⲥ ⲉⲧϯⲟⲩⲱⲓⲛⲓ ⲉⲧⲁⲩϩⲓⲥⲉⲛϯ ϧⲉⲛ972 ⲛ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩⲙⲉⲩⲓ̀ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ⲉ̀ⲣⲟϥ ⲛ̀ϫⲉ ϩⲁⲛⲟⲩⲟⲛ ⲉ̀ⲑⲣⲉϥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ⲑⲱⲟⲩⲧⲥ ϧⲉⲛⲡⲓⲑⲟ ⲧⲏⲣϥ. Ⲡⲓⲑⲱⲟⲩⲧⲥ ⲛ̀ϯⲕⲉϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ⲑⲱⲟⲩⲧⲥ ⲙ̀ⲫⲣⲏϯ ⲛ̀ⲛⲏ ⲉⲧϧⲉⲛⲉⲩⲣⲱⲡⲏ ⲉⲧⲁⲩϩⲓⲥⲉⲛϯ ϧⲉⲛ1908. Ϯⲡⲁⲓⲇⲓⲁ̀ ⲛ̀ⲁⲛⲍⲏⲃ ⲟⲩⲁⲧϩⲏⲧ ⲧⲉ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲟⲩⲙⲏϣ ⲛ̀ⲥⲟⲡ ⲧⲉⲥⲙⲓⲛⲓ ⲉⲥϩⲱⲟⲩ.[10]

Ⲛⲉⲛϣⲁⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ[edit | edit source]

Ⲛⲉⲛϣⲁⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲇⲏⲙⲟⲥⲓⲱⲛ[edit | edit source]

Ⲛⲉⲛϣⲁⲓ ⲛ̀ⲑⲣⲉⲥⲕⲓⲁ̀[edit | edit source]

Ϩⲁⲛⲁⲣⲭⲏ[edit | edit source]

  1. "Population Estimates By Sex & Governorate 1/1/2015", Capmas.Gov - Arab Republic of Egypt, 21 March 2015.
  2. http://www.capmas.gov.eg/?lang=2 Population Clock Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics
  3. "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2023 Edition. (Egypt)", International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  4. "Human Development Report 2021/2022", United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Archived from the original on 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  5. Paulus Ernestus Jahlonskius. Opuscula quibus lingua et antiquitas Aegyptiorum difficilia livrorum sacrorum loca et historiae ecclesiasticae capita illustrantur. Tomus primus. Lugduni Batavorum 1804, p. 416-417)
  6. Midant-Reynes, Béatrix. The Prehistory of Egypt: From the First Egyptians to the First Kings. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
  7. "The Nile Valley 6000–4000 BC Neolithic". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 8 February 2009. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  8. Egypt - Languages | Ethnologue
  9. "Egypt: Events of 2005". Egypt: Overview of human rights issues in Egypt. Human Rights Watch. 5 January 2006. Archived from the original on 14 November 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
  10. "Education in Egypt: Key Challenges" (PDF). Chatham House. March 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2012.