Wp/cop/ⲭⲏⲙⲓ

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< Wp‎ | cop
Wp > cop > ⲭⲏⲙⲓ
ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ
جمهورية مصر العربية

Ⲡⲓⲙⲏⲓⲛⲓ

Ⲡⲓⲥⲓⲅⲛⲟⲛ
Ⲡⲓϩⲱⲥ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲁⲕⲓ:
Ϯⲙⲏⲧⲣⲟⲡⲟⲗⲓⲥ ϯⲕⲉϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ
Ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ (ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲉⲧⲉⲛϩⲟⲧ)
ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ
Ⲡⲓϩⲩⲅⲟⲩⲙⲉⲛⲟⲥⲁⲡⲧⲉⲗϥⲉⲑⲁϩ ⲁⲥⲓⲥⲓ
Ⲡⲓⲛⲟϫ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛϫⲟⲙⲙⲟⲥⲧⲁϥⲁ ⲙⲉⲧⲡⲱⲗⲓ
Ⲡⲓϣⲁⲩ 1,010,407.87 km2[1]
Ⲡⲓⲇⲉⲙⲟⲥ 96,146,000[2]
Ⲡⲓϧⲓⲥⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲏⲓ ⲉⲧϫⲏⲕ (GDP) $1.173 ϩⲁϩ `ⲛϩⲁϩ[3]
Ⲡⲓⲣⲉϥϯⲙⲏⲓⲛⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡϫⲓⲛⲁⲓⲁⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲓ (HDI) 0.691[4]
Ⲡⲓⲗⲟⲩⲕⲟϫⲓ ϯⲗⲓⲧⲣⲁ `ⲛⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ
Ⲡⲓϣⲱⲗϩ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ISO 3166 EG
Ⲡⲓⲛⲁⲧ ⲛ̀ⲥⲧⲁϫⲟⲩⲗ TLD .eg
Ⲡⲓϣⲱⲗϩ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲑⲓⲗⲓϥⲱⲛ+20

Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ (ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ: مِصر ⲙⲓⲥⲣ) ⲟⲩⲭⲱⲣⲁ ⲉⲥⲭⲏ ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲁ̀ⲫⲣⲓⲕⲏ ⲛⲉⲙ ϯⲁ̀ⲥⲓⲁ. Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲟⲩⲭⲱⲣⲁ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲥⲛⲁⲩ ⲛ̀ⲑⲟ ⲧⲉ ⲉ̀ⲧⲉ ⲟⲩⲟⲛⲧⲁⲥ ⲟⲩϭⲓⲏ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲓⲧⲉⲃⲓ ⲛ̀ⲅⲁⲍⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲓⲥⲣⲁⲏⲗ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲉⲙϩⲓⲧⲓⲉⲃⲧ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲓⲕⲟⲗⲡⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲁⲗⲁⲭⲁⲡⲁ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲓⲉⲃⲧ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲫⲓⲟⲙ ⲛ̀ϣⲁⲣⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲉⲃⲧ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲫⲣⲏⲥ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲁⲛϩⲱⲥⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ⲫⲣⲏⲥ (ⲡⲓϣⲟⲙⲧⲛ̀ⲭⲟϩ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲁⲩϫⲁⲗ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲓⲙⲁ ⲛ̀ⲧⲱⲛ) ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲛⲉⲙ ϯⲗⲩⲃⲏ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲉⲙⲉⲛⲧ. Ⲟⲩⲟⲛⲧⲉ ⲡⲓⲟⲣⲇⲁⲛⲏⲥ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲧⲁⲣⲁⲃⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ⲁⲥⲁⲱⲇ ⲟⲩϭⲓⲏ ⲙ̀ⲙⲱⲟⲩ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲫⲓⲟⲙ ⲛ̀ϣⲁⲣⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲟⲩⲟⲛⲧⲉ ϯⲉⲗⲗⲁⲥ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲑⲟⲩⲣⲕⲓⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲕⲩⲡⲣⲟⲥ ⲟⲩϭⲓⲏ ⲙ̀ⲙⲱⲟⲩ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲫⲓⲟⲙ ⲉⲧϧⲉⲛⲑⲙⲏϯ. Ϣⲉ ⲙ̀ⲙⲓⲗⲓⲱⲛ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲥⲉϩⲉⲙⲥⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ. Ϯⲙⲏⲧⲣⲟⲡⲟⲗⲓⲥ ⲧⲉ ϯⲕⲉϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ. Ⲡⲓϩⲩⲅⲟⲩⲙⲉⲛⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲡⲉ ⲁⲡⲧⲉⲗϥⲉⲑⲁϩ ⲁⲥⲓⲥⲓ ⲉⲧⲁϥϭⲓⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ⲉⲑⲃⲉ ⲡⲓⲣⲱϧⲧ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲧⲟⲓ ϧⲉⲛ 2013.

Ϯⲥⲧⲟⲣⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲟⲩⲛⲓϣϯ ⲧⲉ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲁⲓⲙⲁ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲓⲙⲁⲛϩⲗⲟⲗⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲉⲣⲓⲉⲃ. Ϥⲱⲗⲓ ⲛⲓⲕⲱⲧ ⲛ̀ⲥⲱⲓⲧ ϩⲱⲥ ⲛⲓⲡⲩⲣⲁⲙⲓⲥ ⲛ̀ϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲓoⲥ, ⲡⲉⲗϩⲱⲛ, ⲛⲉⲛⲱⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲙⲉⲛϥⲓ, ⲫⲱⲡⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲏ, ϯϧⲉⲗⲗⲟⲧ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓⲟⲩⲣⲱⲟⲩ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲕⲉⲭⲱⲟⲩⲛⲓ. Ⲛⲉ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲡⲉ ⲟⲩⲁⲓ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ϧⲉⲛ ⲛⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲙ̀ⲙⲏϯ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲁⲛⲟⲥ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲁⲩⲉⲣⲗⲁϩⲙⲓ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲙⲉⲧϣⲉ ⲍ̅ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲙ̀ⲫⲟⲟⲩ ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲉⲧⲉⲛϩⲟⲧ ⲧⲉ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲡⲓⲛⲓϣϯ ⲛ̀ⲑⲣⲉⲥⲕⲓⲁ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲁⲗⲓⲥⲗⲁⲙ.

Ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ[edit | edit source]

Ϯⲉⲧⲩⲙⲟⲗⲟⲅⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ[edit | edit source]

Ⲛⲉ ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲡⲁⲥ ⲡⲉ
kmmt
O49
km.t ⲁϫⲓ kūmat. Ⲡⲁⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲡⲉ ⲉⲑⲃⲉ ⲡⲓⲁⲟⲩⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲁⲙⲉ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲡⲓⲗⲱⲓϩⲓ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ.

Ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲥⲁϫⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲫⲣⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲡⲉ ⲕⲏⲙⲉ. Ϩⲁⲛⲙⲏϣ ⲛ̀ⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲉⲩⲣⲱⲡⲏ ⲁⲩϭⲓ ⲉ̀ⲡⲟⲩϣⲁⲡ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲓⲥϫⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲥⲁϫⲓ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲉⲓⲛⲓⲛ ⲛ̀ⲁⲡⲁⲥ Αἴγυπτος (ⲁⲓⲅⲩⲡⲧⲟⲥ) ⲉⲧⲁⲩϭⲓ ⲉ̀ⲡⲟⲩϣⲁⲡ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲙⲉⲛϥⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓⲏⲓⲭⲱⲡⲧⲁϩ[5] ⲉ̀ⲧⲉ ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲫⲱⲛϩ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲡⲁⲥ

O6t
pr
D28Z1p
t
H

ⲫⲏ ⲉ̀ϣⲁⲩⲟⲩⲁϩⲙⲉϥ ϫⲉ "ⲡⲓⲏⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲟ (ⲯⲩⲭⲏ) ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲡⲑⲁϩ" ⲫⲏ ⲉⲧⲁϥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲣⲁⲛ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲉⲣⲫⲉⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲑⲁϩ ϧⲉⲛ ⲙⲉⲛϥⲓ.

Ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ⲡⲉ ⲙⲓⲥⲣ (ⲙⲁⲥⲣ ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ) ⲉⲟⲩⲟⲛⲧⲁϥ ⲟⲩⲅⲉⲛⲉⲥⲓⲥ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲥⲏⲙ. Ⲟⲩⲟⲛ ⲡⲁⲓⲥⲁϫⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ϩⲁⲛⲕⲉⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲥⲏⲙⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧϩⲉⲃⲣⲉⲟⲥ מִצְרַיִם (ⲙⲓⲧⲍⲣⲁⲩⲓⲙ) ⲓⲉ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛⲁⲭⲁⲇ ⲙⲓⲥⲣⲟⲩ ⲫⲏ ⲉ̀ϣⲁⲩⲟⲩⲁϩⲙⲉϥ ϫⲉ "ϣⲓⲏ, ⲑⲟϣ".

Ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲉϥⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ[edit | edit source]

Iⲥϫⲉⲛ 1971 ⲛ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲉϥⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ⲡⲉ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ (ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ: جمهورية مصر العربية ⲁϫⲓ ⲅⲟⲙϩⲟⲩⲣⲓⲉⲧ ⲙⲁⲥⲣ ⲉⲗⲁⲣⲁⲡⲉⲓⲁ).

ϯⲥⲧⲟⲣⲓⲁ[edit | edit source]

Ϧⲁϫⲉⲛ ϯⲥⲧⲟⲣⲓⲁ[edit | edit source]

Ⲟⲩⲟⲛ ϩⲁⲛⲙⲏϣ ⲛ̀ⲥϧⲁⲓ ⲉⲧϧⲉⲛⲡⲉⲧⲣⲁ ⲡⲁⲣⲁ ⲛⲓⲫⲟⲓ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲟⲩⲁϩ ⲛ̀ϣⲁϥⲉ. Ϧⲉⲛ ⲓ̅ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧϣⲉ ⲥⲁⲧϩⲏ ⲙ̀ⲡ⳪ ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲱⲛϧ ⲫⲏ ⲉⲧⲛⲟⲩⲧ ⲛ̀ⲛⲁⲫⲣⲓ ⲁϥⲉⲣϣⲉⲃⲓⲱ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲱⲛϧ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓϫⲉⲣⲏϫ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲣⲉϥⲱⲗⲓ ⲉⲩⲥⲟⲡ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲃⲟϩⲓ. Ϯϣⲉⲃⲓⲱ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲡⲓⲉⲑⲏⲣ ϣⲁⲛ ⲡⲓⲉⲗϩⲏⲥ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲙⲁ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟⲛⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ⲛ̀ⲁⲩⲏ̅ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧϣⲉ ⲥⲁⲧϩⲏ ⲙ̀ⲡ⳪ ⲁϥϭⲓ ⲉ̀ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛϣⲱϥ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲕⲁϩⲓ ⲛ̀ⲕⲟⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲓⲙⲟⲩⲛⲕ ⲙ̀ⲡⲁⲥⲥⲁϩⲣⲁ. Ⲛⲓϣⲱⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ϣⲗⲱⲗ ⲁⲩⲕⲓⲙ ⲙ̀ⲙⲱⲟⲩ ϣⲁ ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ ⲉⲧⲁⲩⲑⲁⲙⲓⲟ ⲛ̀ϯⲟⲓⲕⲟⲛⲟⲙⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲟⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲑⲟϧⲧⲉϧ ⲛ̀ⲑⲱⲟⲩϯ.[6]

Ⲛⲓⲛⲓϣϯ ⲙ̀ⲡⲩⲣⲁⲙⲓⲥ ⲑⲁϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲓⲟⲥ

Ⲛ̀ⲁⲩⲋ̅ ⲙⲙⲉⲧϣⲉ ⲥ⳪ ⲁⲩϭⲓⲁⲣⲭⲏ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲱⲛϧ ⲛ̀ⲛⲉⲟⲗⲓⲑⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛ ϯϧⲉⲗⲗⲟⲧ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ.[7] Ⲉ̀ⲧⲓ ⲡⲓⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲛ̀ⲛⲉⲟⲗⲓⲑⲟⲥ ⲛⲓϫⲓⲛⲱⲛϧ ⲉⲧϧⲁϫⲱⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲏⲟⲩ ⲁⲩⲟⲩⲛϩⲟⲩ ϧⲉⲛ ⲫⲙⲁⲣⲏⲥ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲧⲥⲁϧⲏⲧ. Ⲁⲩⲙⲉⲩⲓ̀ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ⲛⲓϫⲓⲛⲱⲛϧ ⲙ̀ⲡⲁⲣⲑⲉⲛⲟⲥ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲉⲕⲟϯ ⲉⲑⲣⲉϥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲡⲣⲟⲇⲣⲟⲙⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲏⲟⲩ.

Ⲁⲩⲥⲉⲛⲧ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲧⲟⲙⲓ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲓⲧⲟⲧϥ ⲙⲏⲛ ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲣⲟ ϧⲉⲛ ⲛ̀ⲁⲩ3150 ⲥⲁⲧϩⲏ ⲙ̀ⲡ⳪.

Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲭⲁⲓⲟⲛ[edit | edit source]

Ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ⲥⲛⲁⲩ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲏⲓ ⲁϥⲉⲣϩⲏⲧⲥ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲁⲡⲁⲥ (2686–2181 ⲥⲁⲧϩⲏ ⲙ̀ⲡ⳪) ϣⲁⲛ "ⲡⲓⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲡⲩⲣⲁⲙⲓⲥ" ⲉ̀ⲧⲉ ϥⲉⲣⲭⲱⲣⲓⲛ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧϭⲟⲓⲥ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲇ̅ ⲛ̀ⲏⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲉϥⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲥⲉⲛϥⲱⲣⲓ ⲉⲧⲁϥⲕⲱⲧ ⲛ̀ϯⲡⲩⲣⲁⲙⲓⲥ ⲛ̀ⲧⲁϩϭⲟⲩⲣ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲟⲩⲣⲟ ϣⲱⲟⲩϥ, ϣⲉϥⲣⲏ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲙⲉⲛⲭⲉⲣⲏ ⲉⲧⲁⲩⲕⲱⲧ ⲛⲓⲛⲓϣⲧ ⲙ̀ⲡⲩⲣⲁⲙⲓⲥ ⲑⲁϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲓⲟⲥ.

Ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲉⲧϧⲉⲛⲑⲙⲏϯ ⲁϥϭⲓⲙⲱⲓⲧ ⲉ̀ϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ ⲛ̀ⲁⲧⲥⲉⲙⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲩ150 ⲛ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ. Ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲛⲓⲁⲙⲏⲓⲣⲓ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲉⲣⲛⲓϣϯ ⲛ̀ϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ ⲁϥϭⲓⲙⲱⲓⲧ ⲉ̀ϯⲉⲩⲕⲁⲓⲣⲓⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲓⲙⲟⲩⲛⲕ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲑⲁⲑⲙⲏϯ ϧⲉⲛ ⲁⲩ2040 ⲥⲁⲧϩⲏ ⲙ̀ⲡ⳪ ⲉⲧⲁϥⲫⲉϩ ⲧⲉϥϭⲓⲥⲓ ⲉ̀ⲧⲓ ϯⲙⲉⲧϭⲟⲓⲥ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲁⲙⲉⲛⲉⲙϩⲏ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩⲅ̅.

Ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩⲥⲛⲁⲩ ⲛ̀ⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲉⲧϧⲉⲛⲑⲙⲏϯ ⲁⲩⲉⲣϩⲏⲧⲥ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲓⲧⲟⲧⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓϩⲟⲩⲕϣⲱⲥⲓ ⲉⲧⲁⲩϭⲣⲟ ⲉ̀ⲡⲓϩⲟⲩⲟ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ⲁⲩ1650 ⲥⲁⲧϩⲏ ⲙ̀ⲡ⳪ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲁⲩϩⲓⲥⲉⲛϯ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲏⲧⲣⲟⲡⲟⲗⲓⲥ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ ϩⲟⲩⲱⲣ. Ⲁⲩⲓ̀ⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲉϩⲑⲱⲣ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓϩⲁⲣⲙⲁ ϩⲁ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ. Ⲁϥⲟⲩⲟⲧⲃⲟⲩ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ⲛ̀ϫⲉ ⲁϩⲙⲟⲥⲓ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩⲁ̅ ⲉⲧⲁϥϩⲓⲥⲉⲛϯ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲓ̅ⲏ̅ ⲛ̀ⲏⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩⲕⲓⲙ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲏⲧⲣⲟⲡⲟⲗⲓⲥ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ⲙⲉⲛϥⲓ ⲉ̀ⲛⲏ.

Ⲁϥϩⲓⲥⲉⲛϯ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ ⲛ̀ϫⲉ ⲡⲓⲓ̅ⲏ̅ ⲛ̀ⲏⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲁⲥⲧⲱⲟⲩⲛ ϩⲱⲥ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲩⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲓⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲧⲉϣⲗⲱⲗ ⲉⲧⲁϥⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲉ̀ϫⲉⲛ ⲛⲓⲕⲁϩⲓ ⲓⲥϫⲉⲛ ⲧⲟⲙⲃⲟⲥ ⲉⲧϧⲉⲛ ⲉⲑⲱϣ ϣⲁ ϯⲥⲩⲣⲓⲁ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲉⲃⲧ. Ⲛⲓⲟⲩⲣⲱⲟⲩ ⲁϣⲫⲏⲥⲓ, ⲑⲉⲑⲙⲟⲥⲓ ⲅ̅, ⲁϣⲛⲱⲧ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲁϥⲑⲏϯ ⲧⲉϥⲥϩⲓⲙⲓ, ⲑⲟⲩⲁⲧⲁⲛϧⲁⲙⲟⲩⲛ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲣⲁⲙⲥⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩⲃ̅ ⲁⲩⲉⲣⲟⲩⲣⲟ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲁⲓⲥⲏⲟⲩ. Ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ⲥⲣⲁϩ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲫⲛⲟⲩϯ ⲉⲧⲁⲩϯⲣⲉⲛⲥ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲓⲱⲓⲧ ⲁϥⲟⲩⲟⲛϩϥ ⲉ̀ⲧⲓ ϯⲙⲉⲧϭⲟⲓⲥ ⲛ̀ⲁϣⲛⲱⲧ. Ⲁⲩϭⲣⲟ ⲉ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲓⲧⲟⲧⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲫⲁⲓⲁⲧ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲉⲑⲁⲩϣ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲉϣⲁⲩⲣ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲩ ⲁⲩⲟⲩⲟⲧⲃⲟⲩ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲥⲏⲟⲩ.

Ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲧⲱⲙⲧ ⲟⲩⲧⲉ ⲕⲁⲙⲃⲩⲥⲏⲥ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲯⲁⲙⲙⲟⲩϫⲕ

Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉⲣⲥⲓⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲁⲭⲁⲓⲙⲉⲛⲏⲥ[edit | edit source]

Ϧⲉⲛ 525 ⲛ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ ⲥⲁⲧϩⲉ ⲙ̀ⲡ⳪ ⲕⲁⲙⲃⲩⲥⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩⲃ̅ ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉⲣⲥⲓⲟⲥ ⲁϥϭⲣⲟ ⲉ̀ⲯⲁⲙⲙⲟⲩϫⲕ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩⲅ̅ ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲣⲟ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲙⲗⲁϧ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉⲣⲉⲙⲟⲩⲛ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁϥϭⲣⲟ ⲉ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ. Ⲁϥϯⲣⲉⲛϥ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲁϥⲉⲣⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲓⲥϫⲉⲛ ⲟⲍⲉⲟⲥ ϯⲃⲁⲕⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲏⲥ. ⲕ̅ⲍ̅ ⲛ̀ⲏⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲁⲓⲣⲏϯ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲓⲏⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉⲣⲥⲓⲟⲥ ⲉⲧⲁⲩⲙⲟⲩϯ ⲟⲛ ⲉ̀ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲙⲏⲇoⲥ (ⲉ̀ⲃⲏⲗ ⲁ̀ⲣⲏⲟⲩ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉϯⲃⲁⲥϯ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩⲅ̅ ⲉⲧⲁϥϣⲑⲟⲣⲧⲉⲣ ⲟⲩⲃⲏⲟⲩ ϧⲉⲛ 522 ⲛ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ ⲥⲁⲧϩⲏ ⲙⲡ̀⳪). Ⲁⲙⲩⲣⲧⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲡⲓⲣⲉⲙⲥⲁⲓ ⲁϥⲉⲣⲣⲉⲙϩⲉ ⲛ̀ϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁϥⲉⲣϩⲏⲧⲥ ⲛ̀ⲕ̅ⲏ̅ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲕ̅ⲑ̅ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲏⲓ. Ⲛⲉ ⲗ̅ ⲛ̀ⲏⲓ ⲉ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓϣⲑⲁⲛⲃⲱⲟⲩ ⲁ̅ ⲁϥⲉⲣϩⲏⲧⲥ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲓϧⲁⲉ ⲛ̀ⲏⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲫⲙⲁ. ⲛⲓⲡⲉⲣⲥⲏⲥ ⲁⲩϭⲣⲟ ⲟⲛ ⲉ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ 343 ⲛ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ ⲥⲁⲧϩⲏ ⲙ̀ⲡ⳪ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛⲁϣⲧⲛⲏⲃϥ ⲃ̅ ⲁϥⲧⲁⲕⲟ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲓⲧⲟⲧϥ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲧⲁⲝⲉⲣⲝⲏⲥ ⲅ̅. Ⲁϥϭⲣⲟ ⲉ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲭⲁⲓⲙⲉⲛⲏⲥ ⲛ̀ϫⲉ ⲡⲓⲛⲓϣϯ ⲛ̀ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛ 332 ⲛ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ ⲥⲁⲧϩⲏ ⲙ̀ⲡ⳪. Ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲡⲉϥⲙⲟⲩ ⲡⲉϥⲥⲧⲣⲁⲧⲏⲗⲁⲧⲏⲥ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲉⲓⲛⲓⲛ ⲡⲧⲟⲗⲉⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲁ̅ ⲡⲥⲱⲧⲏⲣ ⲁϥⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ϩⲓϫⲉⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁϥϩⲓⲥⲉⲛϯ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲏⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲧⲟⲗⲉⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ.

Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲧⲟⲗⲉⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲣⲱⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲁⲛⲟⲥ[edit | edit source]

Ⲡⲧⲟⲗⲉⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲁ̅ ⲡⲥⲱⲧⲏⲣ

Nⲉ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲙ̀ⲡⲧⲟⲗⲉⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲧⲉ ϯⲛⲓϣϯ ⲛ̀ⲭⲱⲣⲁ ⲉⲧⲁϥϣⲁϣϥ ⲓⲥϫⲉⲛ ϯⲥⲩⲣⲓⲁ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲉⲃⲧ ϣⲁ ⲕⲩⲣⲓⲛⲛⲉ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲉⲙⲉⲛⲧ. Nⲉ ⲧⲉϥⲙⲏⲧⲣⲟⲡⲟⲗⲓⲥ ⲧⲉ ⲣⲁⲕⲟϯ ⲉ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓⲟⲩⲉⲓⲛⲓⲛ ⲁⲩⲙⲟⲩϯ ⲉ̀ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲉⲧⲁⲥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲏϯ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲱⲛϧ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲉⲓⲛⲓⲛ ⲛⲉⲙ ϯⲙⲉⲧϣⲱⲧ.

Ⲛⲉ ϯϧⲁⲉ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲣⲱ ⲙ̀ⲡⲧⲟⲗⲉⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲕⲗⲉⲩⲡⲁⲧⲣⲁ ϯⲙⲁϩⲍ̅ ⲧⲉ ⲉⲧⲁⲥϧⲟⲑⲃⲥ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲡⲓϭⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲁⲕⲟϯ ⲉ̀ⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲓⲧⲟⲧϥ ⲟⲕⲧⲁⲃⲓⲁⲛⲟⲥ ⲁⲩⲅⲩⲥⲧⲟⲥ ⲡⲓⲁⲩⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ. Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲁⲥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲑⲱϣ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲩⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ.

Ⲡⲓⲗⲓⲙⲏⲛ ⲛ̀ⲅⲩⲯⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛ ϣⲓϩⲏⲧ

ⲁⲩⲓⲛⲓ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲁⲛⲟⲥ ⲉ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲙⲉⲧϣⲉ ⲁ̅ ⲙ.ⲭ. ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲫⲏⲉⲑⲟⲩⲁⲃ ⲙⲁⲣⲕⲟⲥ ⲡⲓⲁⲡⲟⲥⲧⲟⲗⲟⲥ. ⲛⲓⲇⲓⲱⲕⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲁⲛⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲁⲩϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲉⲧⲓ ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲉⲣⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲇⲓⲟⲕⲗⲏⲧⲓⲁⲛⲟⲥ (284–305 ⲙ.ⲭ.). ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲡⲓⲥⲩⲛⲟⲇⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲭⲁⲗⲕⲏⲇⲟⲛ ϧⲉⲛ 451 (167 ⳥) ⲁⲩⲥⲉⲙⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲉⲕⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ.

ⲡⲓⲁϣⲁⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲁϥⲙⲟϣⲓ ⲉⲛⲓϣⲁϥⲉⲩ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩϩⲉⲙⲥⲓ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲩ ⲉϣⲗⲏⲗ, ⲉⲣϩⲱⲃ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲉⲣⲏⲧ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲱⲛ̇ϧ ⲙ̀ⲫⲛⲟⲩϯ. ⲑⲁⲓ ⲛⲉ ϯϩⲟⲩⲓϯ ⲧⲉ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲙⲟⲛⲁⲭⲟⲥ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲉⲣⲁⲫⲉ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲁⲛⲧⲱⲛⲓⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛ ⲫⲃⲱⲟⲩ, ⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲧⲱⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ, ⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲙⲁⲕⲁⲣⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ϣⲓϩⲏⲧ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲡⲁϧⲱⲙ ϧⲉⲛ ⲧⲁⲃⲉⲛⲛⲏⲥⲓ.

Ⲛⲓⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲉⲧϧⲉⲛⲑⲙⲏϯ[edit | edit source]

ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ 7 ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲙⲉⲧϣⲉ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲁⲩⲉⲣⲇⲁⲙⲁⲍⲓⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲩⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉⲣⲥⲏⲥ ⲛ̀ⲥⲁⲥⲁⲛ ϧⲉⲛ 619 (335 ⳥). ⲁⲩⲑⲁⲙⲓⲟ ⲡⲓⲑⲱϣ ⲁⲅⲓⲡⲧⲟⲩⲥ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲛⲓⲁⲣⲭⲱⲛ ϣⲁϩⲣⲃⲁⲣⲁⲍ ⲛⲉⲙ ϣⲁϩⲣⲁⲗⲁⲛⲓⲟⲍⲁⲛ.

ϧⲉⲛ 639–642 ⲁⲩⲉⲣⲇⲁⲙⲁⲍⲓⲛ `ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲁⲙⲉⲣ ⲉⲓⲡⲛ ⲁⲗⲁⲉⲁⲥ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲗⲁϩⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲛⲓⲙⲗⲁϧ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲉⲣⲉⲙⲟⲩⲛ, ⲫⲉⲗⲃⲉⲥ, ⲃⲁⲃⲩⲗⲟⲛ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲱⲛ. ⲁⲩϭⲟⲛⲧ ⲡⲓⲱⲣⲃ ⲉϩⲟⲩⲛ ⲛ̀ⲣⲁⲕⲟϯ ϧⲉⲛ 641 (357 ⳥) ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩϭⲱⲡⲓ ϯⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲡⲓⲉⲡⲁⲣⲭⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲓⲡⲁⲧⲣⲓⲁⲣⲭⲏⲥ ⲛ̀ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ ⲕⲩⲣⲓ ⲡⲕⲁⲩⲭⲓⲟⲥ ⲁϥϭⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲟⲩⲥⲩⲛⲧⲁⲅⲏ – ⲁⲩⲥⲣⲟⲙⲣⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲁⲛⲟⲥ ⲉϯϩⲟⲙⲧ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲕⲏⲛⲥⲟⲥ ϫⲓⲍⲓⲁ ⲉ ⲡⲓϣⲉⲃⲓⲱ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϩⲱⲃⲥ. ⲛⲓⲗⲁϩⲙⲓ ⲁⲩⲥⲉⲙⲛⲓ ϯⲙⲏⲧⲣⲟⲡⲟⲗⲓⲥ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ ⲫⲩⲥⲧⲁⲧⲱⲛ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩⲕⲱⲧ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ⲁⲗⲙⲁⲥⲧⲓϭ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲩ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲥⲱⲥ.

ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲗⲭⲁⲗⲏⲃ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲣⲁϣⲓⲇ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲟⲩⲙⲉⲓⲁ[edit | edit source]

ⲛⲓⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ϩⲓ ⲡⲉⲙⲉⲛ ⲁⲩⲛⲏⲟⲩ ⲉⲱⲛϧ ϧⲉⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ. ⲁⲩⲃⲓⲁⲍⲉ ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲥⲁϩⲛⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲁⲗⲁⲥⲱϯ ⲛ̀ϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ.

ⲉⲧⲓ ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ϥⲓⲑⲛⲁ ⲁⲩⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲁⲙⲃⲣⲟⲥ ⲡϣⲏ ⲁⲗⲁⲁⲥ ⲉⲧⲁϥⲉⲛϩⲟⲧ ⲉ ⲁⲗⲙⲟⲩⲁⲃⲓⲁ ϣⲁ ⲡⲓⲥⲏⲟⲩ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉϥⲙⲟⲩ ϧⲉⲛ 664.

ⲉⲧⲓ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩⲥⲛⲁⲩ ⲛ̀ϥⲓⲑⲛⲁ ⲛⲓϧⲁⲣⲓϫⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲉⲓⲡⲛ ⲁⲗⲍⲟⲡⲉⲓⲣ ⲁⲩⲁⲙⲟⲛⲓ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲡⲓⲁⲗⲭⲁⲗⲏⲃ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲟⲩⲙⲉⲓⲁ ⲙⲉⲣⲟⲩⲁⲛ ⲁ̅ ⲁϥⲇⲁⲙⲁⲍⲓⲛ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟϥ ϧⲉⲛ 684. ϧⲉⲛ 706 ⲁⲩⲑⲁⲙⲓⲟ ⲛ̀ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲉⲧⲉⲛϩⲟⲧ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲥⲁϩⲛⲓ.

ⲁⲗϩⲁⲭⲓⲙ ⲡⲓⲁⲙⲣⲉⲗⲗⲁ

ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲗⲭⲁⲗⲏⲃ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲁⲃⲃⲁⲥ[edit | edit source]

ⲡⲓⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲁⲃⲃⲁⲥ ⲁϥⲙⲓⲥⲓ ⲛⲓⲕⲏⲛⲥⲟⲥ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϣⲑⲟⲣⲧⲉⲣ ϩⲁⲛⲙⲏϣ ⲛ̀ⲥⲟⲡ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡϣⲁⲙⲏⲣ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲕⲉⲑⲱϣ. ⲁⲩϫⲟⲕⲟⲩ ϧⲉⲛ 830 ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲁⲗⲭⲁⲗⲏⲃ ⲁⲗⲙⲁⲉⲙⲱⲛ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲉϥⲥⲧⲣⲁⲧⲏⲗⲁⲧⲏⲥ ⲁⲗⲁϥϣⲓⲛ.

ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲡⲓⲥⲓⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲟⲙϯ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲁⲃⲃⲁⲥ ϧⲉⲛ ⲃⲁⲅⲇⲁⲛ ⲛⲓⲕⲉⲗⲁⲙⲏϣ ⲁⲩⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲉϫⲉⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϩⲱⲥ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲁⲗⲓϧϣⲓⲇ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲟⲩⲗⲟⲩⲛ.

ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲗⲭⲁⲗⲏⲃ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲁϯⲙⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲙⲉⲙⲗⲱⲕ[edit | edit source]

ϧⲉⲛ 969 ⲡⲓⲫⲱⲣ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲑⲱⲛⲓⲥ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲁϯⲙⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲓⲉⲑⲛⲟⲥ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲍⲓⲝ ⲕⲟⲩⲧⲁⲙⲉ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲓⲥⲧⲣⲁⲧⲏⲧⲗⲁⲧⲏⲥ ϫⲉⲟⲩϩⲁⲣ ⲡⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲥⲓⲕⲓⲗⲓⲁ ⲁⲩⲇⲁⲙⲁⲍⲓⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩⲥⲉⲙⲛⲉ ϯⲕⲉϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ϩⲱⲥ ⲧⲟⲩⲙⲏⲧⲣⲟⲡⲟⲗⲓⲥ. ⲙ̀ⲡⲁⲓⲥⲏⲟⲩ ⲛⲉ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲓⲉⲃ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲩⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲉⲧⲁⲥϩⲱⲃⲥ ⲛ̀ⲁⲫⲣⲓⲕⲏ ⲉⲧⲥⲁϧⲏⲧ, ⲥⲓⲕⲓⲗⲓⲁ, ⲡⲁⲗⲁⲓⲥⲧⲓⲛⲏ, ⲡⲓⲉⲣⲇⲱⲛ, ⲗⲓⲃⲛⲁⲛ, ⲥⲩⲣⲓⲁ, ⲡⲓⲭⲣⲱ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲟⲙ ⲛ̀ϩⲁϩ, ⲑⲓϩⲁⲙⲁ, ϩⲓϫⲁⲍ, ⲡⲉⲙⲉⲛ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲣⲱ ⲙⲟⲩⲗⲑⲁⲛ.

ϧⲉⲛ 1168 ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲥⲉⲣ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲁϯⲙⲁ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲟⲩⲣⲇ ⲥⲉⲗⲁϩⲁϯⲛ ⲁϥⲥⲱⲥⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲟⲩⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁϥⲥⲉⲛϯ ⲡⲓⲫⲱⲣ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲁⲓⲟⲩⲡ. ⲁϥⲉⲣⲙⲗⲁϧ ⲛⲓϥⲁⲓⲥⲧⲁⲩⲣⲟⲥ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲧⲟⲩⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲓⲉⲣⲟⲩⲥⲁⲗⲏⲙ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲁⲗⲁⲓⲥⲧⲓⲛⲏ. ⲡⲓϧⲁⲉ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲁⲓⲟⲩⲡ ⲁⲗⲙⲱⲉⲍⲉⲙ ⲑⲟⲩⲣⲁⲛϣⲁϩ ⲁⲩⲥⲱⲥⲓ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲛⲉϥⲥⲧⲣⲁⲧⲏⲗⲁⲧⲏⲥ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲙⲗⲱⲕ ϧⲉⲛ 1250 ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲟⲩⲟⲛ ⲙ̀ⲙⲱⲟⲩ ⲉⲓⲍⲁϯⲛ ⲁⲓⲡⲁⲕ ⲁϥⲥⲉⲛϯ ⲡⲓⲫⲱⲣ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲙⲉⲙⲗⲱⲕ ⲛ̀ⲓⲁⲣⲟ. ⲫⲙⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲭⲁⲙⲉ ⲁϥⲙⲱⲟⲩⲧ 40% ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲙⲉⲧϣⲉ ⲓ̅ⲇ̅.

ⲡⲓⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ[edit | edit source]

ⲛⲁⲡⲟⲗⲉⲱⲛ ⲁϥϭⲱⲧϥ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲁⲗⲁⲥⲱϯ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓⲙⲉⲙⲗⲱⲕ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲙⲗⲁϧ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓⲡⲩⲣⲁⲙⲓⲥ ⲱ, 21 ⲛ̀ⲓⲟⲩⲛⲓⲟⲥ 1798, ⲗⲟⲩⲓ-ϥⲣⲁⲛⲥⲟⲩⲁ ⲗⲉϫⲉⲛ

ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ϩⲟⲑⲙⲉⲛ[edit | edit source]

ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲧⲟⲩⲣⲭⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ϩⲟⲑⲙⲉⲛ ⲁⲩⲇⲁⲙⲁⲍⲓⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ 1517 ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲥ̀ϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲡⲓⲑⲱϣ (ⲉⲓⲁⲗⲉⲧ) ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲩⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲛ̀ϩⲟⲑⲙⲉⲛ. ϥ̀ⲃⲱⲗ ⲛ̀ϯⲟⲓⲕⲟⲛⲟⲙⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ. ⲟⲩⲧⲱ 1687 ⲛⲉⲙ 1731 ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲟⲩⲟⲛⲧⲉⲥ ⲡⲓⲥⲟⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲉϩⲕⲟ.

ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲛⲓⲙⲉⲙⲗⲱⲕ ⲁⲩⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϣⲁⲟⲩⲥⲏⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲡⲓⲙⲟϣⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲁⲡⲟⲗⲉⲱⲛ ϧⲉⲛ 1798. ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲧⲉϥϭⲟⲧⲡⲥ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ ⲡⲓⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲁⲩϭⲓ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲛⲓⲙⲓⲥⲑⲟⲫⲟⲣⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲁⲗⲃⲁⲛⲓⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲟⲩϭⲁⲩⲙⲱⲓⲧ ⲙⲟϩⲁⲙⲉⲧ ⲁⲗⲓ ⲡⲁϣⲁ ⲉⲧⲟⲩϣⲉⲙϣⲓ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ϩⲟⲑⲙⲉⲛ. ⲁϥϭⲟⲧϭⲉⲧ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲙⲉⲙⲗⲱⲕ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁϥⲥⲱⲛⲧ ⲡⲓⲫⲱⲣ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϣⲁ 1952.

ⲙⲟϩⲁⲙⲉⲧ ⲁⲗⲓ ⲡⲁϣⲁ, ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ϧⲉⲧⲓⲟ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ

ⲙⲟϩⲁⲙⲉⲧ ⲁⲗⲓ ⲁϥⲧⲱⲙⲓ ⲡⲑⲉⲛϩⲟⲥ ⲉⲧⲥⲁϧⲏⲧ (1820–1824), ⲥⲩⲣⲓⲁ (1833) ⲛⲉⲙ ϩⲁⲛⲧⲟⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲁⲃⲓⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲁⲛⲁⲧⲟⲗⲓⲁ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲉⲩⲣⲱⲡⲏ ⲁⲩⲥⲣⲉⲙⲣⲱⲙϥ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲓⲟ ⲙ̀ⲙⲱⲟⲩ ⲉⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛϩⲟⲑⲙⲉⲛ. ⲁϥⲥⲟϩⲓ ⲛⲓⲁⲗⲁⲥⲱϯ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁϥⲕⲱⲧ ⲛⲓϥⲟⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲟⲡⲏ.

ⲁⲩⲉⲣⲫⲙⲁ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟϩⲁⲙⲉⲧ ⲁⲗⲓ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲡⲉϥϣⲏⲣⲓ ⲁⲃⲣⲁϩⲁⲙ (ⲥⲉⲡⲧⲉⲙⲃⲣⲓⲟⲥ ⲛ̀1848), ⲡⲉϥϣⲉⲛϣⲏⲣⲓ ⲁⲃⲃⲁⲥ ⲁ̅ (ⲛⲟⲉⲙⲃⲣⲓⲟⲥ ⲛ̀1848), ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲱⲥ ⲥⲁⲉⲓⲧ (1854) ⲛⲉⲙ ⲓⲥⲙⲁⲏⲗ (1863).

ϯⲙⲉⲧϧⲉⲧⲓⲟ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ (1867-1914)[edit | edit source]

ⲛⲉ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲡⲓⲑⲱϣ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲩⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲛ̀ϩⲟⲑⲙⲉⲛ ⲡⲉ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲁⲩⲧⲏⲓⲥ ⲡⲓⲧⲁⲝⲓⲥ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ϯⲙⲉⲧϧⲉⲧⲓⲟ ϧⲉⲛ 1867.

ⲁⲩⲕⲱⲧ ⲫⲓⲟⲣ ⲙ̀ⲯⲟⲥ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛϥⲣⲁⲛⲥⲁ ϧⲉⲛ 1869. ϧⲉⲛ 1875 ⲡⲓϧⲉⲧⲓⲟ ⲓⲥⲙⲁⲏⲗ ⲁϥϫⲕⲟ ⲟⲩⲧⲟⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲟⲣ ⲉⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲣⲉⲧⲛⲓⲁ ⲉⲉⲣⲉⲃⲟⲗ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲧⲁⲣⲏⲃ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲛⲓⲙⲁⲛⲁⲣⲏⲃ ⲛ̀ⲉⲩⲣⲱⲡⲏ ⲁⲩⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ.

ⲁⲩⲕⲱⲧ ⲛⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ⲁⲟⲩⲏⲧ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲙⲁⲓϣⲗⲟⲗ ϧⲉⲛ 1879 ⲛⲉⲙ ⲁϩⲙⲉⲧ ⲟⲩⲟⲣⲁⲡⲓ ϩⲱⲥ ⲡⲓϭⲁⲩⲙⲱⲓⲧ. ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲛⲓϣⲑⲟⲣⲧⲉⲣ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲙⲁⲓϣⲗⲟⲗ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲩⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲙ̀ⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ ⲁⲥⲛⲁ ⲉϧⲟⲩⲛ ϧⲉⲛ 1882 ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲥⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲡⲓⲙⲗⲁϩ ϧⲉⲛ ⲫⲛⲓϣϯ ⲛ̀ⲑⲟⲗ. ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲁⲥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲉⲣϩⲉⲙⲓ ⲙ̀ⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ.

ⲡⲓⲁϣⲁⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲁϥⲧⲱⲙⲓ ⲛⲓⲁⲟⲩⲏⲧ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲙⲁⲓϣⲗⲟⲗ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ϯⲥⲩⲛⲧⲉⲭⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲙϫⲏⲩ ⲛ̀1906.

ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲱⲛϩ ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲕⲉϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ 1919. ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲟⲩⲱⲛϩ ⲥⲉⲱⲗⲓ ⲡⲓⲙⲏⲓⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲡⲓϣⲑⲟⲣⲧⲉⲣ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲓⲑⲉⲣⲓⲗⲟⲛ, ⲡⲓⲥⲧⲁⲩⲣⲟⲥ ⲛⲉⲙ ϯⲥⲓⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲇⲁⲩⲉⲓⲇ.

ϯⲙⲉⲧⲥⲟⲗⲧⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ (1914-1922)[edit | edit source]

ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲩⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲛ̀ϩⲟⲑⲙⲉⲛ ⲁⲥⲛⲁ ⲉϧⲟⲩⲛ ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲧⲥ ⲛ̀ⲕⲟⲥⲙⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛ 1914 ⲥⲁⲡⲥⲁ ⲛⲓⲭⲱⲣⲁ ⲙ̀ⲙⲏϯ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲡⲓϧⲉⲧⲓⲟ ⲁⲃⲃⲁⲥ ⲃ̅ ⲁϥϯ ⲛ̀ⲧⲟⲧϥ. ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲱⲥ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ ⲁⲩⲉⲓⲣⲉ ϣⲉⲃⲓⲱ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟϥ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲉϥⲥⲟⲛ ϩⲟⲩⲥⲉⲉⲓⲛ ⲭⲁⲙⲉⲗ.

ⲁϥⲫⲓⲣⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙϩⲉ ϧⲁ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛϩⲟⲑⲙⲉⲛ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡ ϯⲧⲁⲝⲓⲥ ⲛ̀ⲥⲟⲗⲧⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ.

ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲧⲥ ⲛ̀ⲕⲟⲥⲙⲟⲥ ⲥⲁⲁⲧ ⲍⲉϩⲗⲟⲩⲗ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲓⲁⲟⲩⲃⲏⲧ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲙⲁⲓϣⲗⲟⲗ ⲁⲗⲟⲩⲉϥⲇ ⲁϥϭⲓ ⲡⲓⲛⲓϣϯ ⲛ̀ⲧⲟⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲑⲱⲟⲩⲧⲥ ⲉⲧϯϩⲁⲡ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ ⲁⲩⲉⲝⲱⲣⲓⲍⲓⲛ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟϥ ⲉⲙⲁⲗⲧⲁ. ϧⲉⲛ 8 ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲣⲧⲟⲥ 1919 ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ϣⲑⲟⲣⲧⲉⲣ ⲁϥⲉⲣϩⲏⲧⲥ ϧⲉⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲡⲓⲙⲁⲛⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ⲙ̀ⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ ⲁϥⲙⲟⲛⲕ ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲱⲛϩ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙϩⲉ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ 22 ⲙ̀ⲫⲉⲃⲣⲟⲩⲁⲣⲓⲟⲥ 1922 ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲥⲁⲁⲧ ⲍⲉϩⲗⲟⲩⲗ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲛⲟϫ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲥⲉⲣ.

ϯⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ (1922–1953)[edit | edit source]

ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙϩⲉ ⲥⲟⲗⲧⲁⲛ ϥⲟⲩⲁⲇ ⲁ̅ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡ ϯⲧⲁⲝⲓⲥ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ.

ⲡⲓⲙⲁⲛⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡ ⲡⲓϣⲉⲣⲡϩⲁⲡ ϧⲉⲛ 1923 ⲛⲉⲙ ϯⲥⲩⲥⲧⲏⲙⲁ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲛϩⲉⲙⲥⲓ. ⲡⲓⲁⲟⲩⲃⲏⲧ ⲁⲗⲟⲩⲉϥⲇ ⲁϥⲉⲣϭⲣⲟ ϧⲉⲛ ⲛⲓⲙⲉⲧⲥⲱⲧⲡ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ 1923-1924.

ⲛⲓⲁⲗⲁⲥⲱϯ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ ⲁϥⲫⲱⲧ ϧⲁϫⲉⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ 1936 ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲁⲩⲟϩⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ⲫⲓⲟⲣ ⲛ̀ⲉⲥⲟⲩⲉⲓⲥ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩⲙⲟⲩⲛ ⲉⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲉϫⲉⲛ ⲡⲑⲉⲛϩⲟⲥ.

ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ (1953-ⲙ̀ⲫⲟⲟⲩ)[edit | edit source]

ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϣⲑⲟⲣⲧⲉⲣ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲡⲣⲁⲕⲧⲱⲣ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙϩⲉ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ 1952 ⲁⲩⲥⲓⲛⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲉⲛⲓⲙⲁⲧⲟⲓ. ⲁⲩⲕⲱⲗⲩⲱ ⲛⲓⲁⲟⲩⲏⲧ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛϫⲟⲙ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩⲫⲓⲣⲓ ⲛ̀ⲑⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲙⲟϩⲁⲙⲉⲧ ⲛⲉϫⲓⲡ ϩⲱⲥ ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉϥϭⲓⲙⲱⲓⲧ ⲛ̀ϫⲟⲙ. ϫⲉⲙⲁⲗ ⲁⲃⲇⲉⲗⲛⲁⲥⲥⲉⲣ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲣⲉϥϭⲓⲙⲱⲓⲧ ⲛ̀ϫⲟⲙ ϧⲉⲛ 1956.

ϯⲅⲉⲱⲅⲣⲁⲫⲓⲁ[edit | edit source]

ϯϧⲉⲗⲗⲟⲧ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ ϧⲁⲧⲉⲛ ⲡⲱⲡⲓ

ⲛⲉⲙ 1,001,450 ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲭⲓⲗⲟⲙⲉⲧⲣ ⲛ̀ϥⲧⲟⲩⲛ̀ⲭⲟϩ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲧⲉ 30 ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲛⲓϣϯ ⲛ̀ⲭⲱⲣⲁ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲕⲟⲥⲙⲟⲥ.

ⲕⲉⲥⲁ ⲛ̀ϯϧⲉⲗⲗⲟⲧ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ ⲡⲓϩⲟⲩⲟ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲕⲁϩⲓ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲟⲩϣⲁϥⲉ ⲓⲉ ⲟⲩⲕⲁⲡϣⲱ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲓⲁϣⲁⲓ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲁϩ (ϯⲟⲩⲁϩ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉⲙϫⲉ, ϥⲉⲣϥⲉⲣ, ϯⲟⲩⲁϩ ⲉⲧϩⲓϧⲟⲩⲛ, ⲥⲓⲟⲩⲁϩ ⲛⲉⲙ ϯⲟⲩⲁϩ ⲛ̀ϩⲏⲃ) ⲡⲉ. ⲛⲓⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲥⲉϫⲱⲓⲗⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ϯϧⲉⲗⲗⲟⲧ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲭⲣⲱⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓⲁⲙⲁⲓⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲧⲱⲟⲩⲛ 98% ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲥⲉⲱⲛϧ ϧⲉⲛ 3% ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲡⲓⲕⲁϩⲓ.

ⲛⲓⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓϯⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲥⲉⲱⲡ ⲉϧⲟⲩⲛ ⲉ ϯⲙⲁϩⲥⲛⲁⲩ ⲛ̀ϯⲛⲓϣϯ ⲙ̀ⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲣⲁⲕⲟϯ, ⲥⲟⲩⲁⲛ, ϯⲙⲏⲧⲣⲟⲡⲟⲗⲓⲥ ⲛⲉⲙ ϯⲛⲓϣϯ ⲙ̀ⲃⲁⲕⲓ ϯⲕⲉϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ, ϯϣⲁⲓⲣⲓ, ϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲓⲥ ⲉⲧⲉ ⲡⲓⲙⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲡⲩⲣⲁⲙⲓⲥ ⲱ, ⲕⲉⲣⲧⲉⲕⲁ, ⲡⲱⲡⲓ, ⲙⲃⲱ, ⲥⲉϥⲁϫⲁ, ϯⲉⲙⲣⲱ ⲛ̀ⲥⲁⲉⲓⲧ, ⲫⲙⲁⲙⲫⲱϣ ⲛ̀ⲥⲁϧ, ⲡⲉⲥⲟⲩⲉⲓⲥ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲫⲓⲟⲣ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉⲥⲟⲩⲉⲓⲥ, ⲙⲁⲛϫⲉⲕϫⲓⲕ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲑⲙⲟⲛⲏ. ⲛⲓⲙⲁⲛⲛⲁϣϯ ⲥⲉⲱⲡ ⲉϧⲟⲩⲛ ⲉ ⲁⲫⲉ ⲙ̀ⲡⲟⲥⲓⲇⲱⲛⲓⲟⲥ (ⲁⲫⲉ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟϩⲁⲙⲉⲧ), ⲍⲉⲣⲁⲛⲓⲕ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲥⲓⲟⲩⲁϩ.

ⲁⲏⲣ[edit | edit source]

ⲡⲓⲭⲓⲱⲛ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲧⲱⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲁⲓⲕⲁⲧⲉⲣⲓⲛⲏ ϧⲉⲛ ⲥⲓⲛⲁ

ϥϩⲱⲟⲩ ϧⲉⲛ ⲛⲓⲉⲃⲏⲧ ⲙ̀ⲫⲣⲱ ϧⲉⲛ ⲧⲥⲁϧⲏⲧ. ⲡⲓⲭⲓⲱⲛ ϥ̀ⲛⲟⲛⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ⲛⲓⲧⲱⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲥⲓⲛⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲣⲟ ϩⲱⲥ ⲧⲁⲙⲓⲁϯ, ⲡⲉⲗⲑⲱⲙ ⲓⲉ ⲯⲁϧⲡⲉⲣⲁⲛⲓ.

ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲥ̀ϧⲙⲟⲙ, ⲥ̀ⲧⲱⲥ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲟⲩⲥⲉⲕⲥⲓⲕ ⲧⲉ. ⲫⲙⲁⲣⲏⲥ ⲟⲩⲟⲛⲧⲉϥ ⲛⲓⲑϧⲙⲟⲧⲱⲧⲉⲣ ⲛ̀ⲛⲉϣⲧⲉ ⲉϩⲟⲧⲉ 40 °C ⲉⲑⲃⲉ ⲡⲑⲟⲩⲣⲏⲥ.

ϯⲇⲏⲙⲟⲅⲣⲁⲫⲓⲁ[edit | edit source]

ⲡⲓϣⲗⲟⲗ[edit | edit source]

ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ 2017 ⲡⲓⲥⲧⲉⲟⲩⲓϯⲟⲩ ⲙ̀ⲙⲓⲗⲓⲱⲛ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲥⲉϫⲁⲗⲏⲟⲩⲧ ⲉⲭⲏⲙⲓ. ϩⲟⲩⲟ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲫⲙⲁ ⲡⲉ ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ. ϧⲉⲛ ⲫⲣⲏⲥ ⲛ̀ϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ ⲥⲉϫⲁⲗⲏⲟⲩⲧ ϫⲱⲧ ⲛ̀ⲑⲃⲁ ⲛ̀ⲉⲑⲱϣ. ⲛⲉ ⲟⲩⲟⲛ ⲟⲩⲙⲏϣ ⲛ̀ⲓⲟⲩⲇⲁⲓ ⲛⲉⲙⲟⲩⲉⲓⲛⲓⲛ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲉⲙϩⲓⲧ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ, ⲙⲁⲥⲁⲗⲁⲛ ϧⲉⲛ ⲣⲁⲕⲟϯ ϧⲉⲛ ϯϩⲓⲥⲧⲟⲣⲓⲁ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲙ̀ⲫⲟⲟⲩ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟⲛ ⲙⲏϣ.

ⲡⲓⲙⲟⲛⲁⲥⲧⲏⲣⲓⲟⲛ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛ ϯϣⲁϥⲉ ⲛ̀ⲝⲏⲛⲏ

ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ[edit | edit source]

ⲙ̀ⲫⲟⲟⲩ ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ⲧⲉ ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲉⲧⲉⲛϩⲟⲧ ⲛⲉⲙ ϫⲟⲙ ϧⲉⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲧⲏⲣϥ. ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ (ⲛ̀ⲕⲩⲡⲧⲁⲓⲟⲛ) ⲧⲉ ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲉⲧⲉⲛϩⲟⲧ ⲛ̀ϯⲉⲕⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ϩⲁⲛⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲥⲉⲥⲁϫⲓ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟⲥ. ⲟⲩⲏⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲥⲉⲥⲁϫⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲉⲑⲱϣ ϧⲉⲛ ⲫⲣⲏⲥ ⲛ̀ⲥⲟⲩⲁⲛ ϧⲉⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ. ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲥⲉⲥⲁϫⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲙⲁⲍⲓⲝ ⲛϫⲉ ⲟⲩⲏⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ⲥⲓⲟⲩⲁϩ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲑⲱϣ ⲙⲉⲑⲣⲱϩ. ϧⲉⲛ ⲫⲣⲏⲥ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲑⲱϣ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲟⲙ ⲛ̀ϩⲁϩ, ϩⲁⲛⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲥⲉⲥⲁϫⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲙ̀ⲃⲁⲗϩⲙⲱⲟⲩ ⲉⲧⲉ ⲟⲩⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲟⲩⲥ. ⳿ⲉ⳿ⲡϧⲁⲉ, ⲟⲩⲏⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲥⲉⲥⲁϫⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲧⲟⲙ (ⲓⲉ ⲧⲟⲙⲉⲣⲓ) ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲑⲱϣ ⲛ̀ⲧⲭⲉϩⲗⲓ [8].

ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛϣⲉⲙϣⲓ[edit | edit source]

ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛϣⲉⲙϣⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲫⲙⲁ ⲛ̀ⲁⲡⲁⲥ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛϣⲉⲙϣⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ. ⲙ̀ⲫⲟⲟⲩ ⲡⲓⲥⲧⲉⲟⲩⲓ ϧⲉⲛϣⲉ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲡⲉ ⲛⲓⲗⲁϩⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲥⲟⲩⲛⲛⲉ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲙⲏⲧ ϧⲉⲛϣⲉ ⲡⲉ ⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲁⲛⲟⲥ. ⲛⲉ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲡⲉ ϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ ⲛ̀ⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲁⲛⲟⲥ ϣⲁ ϯⲙⲉⲧϣⲉ ⲍ̅ ⲛⲉⲙ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲇⲁⲙⲁⲍⲓⲛ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ. ⲁⲗⲓⲥⲗⲁⲙ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛϣⲉⲙϣⲓ ⲉⲧⲉⲛϩⲟⲧ ⲛⲉⲙ ϯϣⲉⲣⲓⲁⲁ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲡⲓⲛⲓϣϯ ⲙ̀ⲡⲏⲅⲏ ⲛⲛⲟⲙⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲉⲣⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲁⲛⲟⲩⲉⲣ ⲁⲥⲁⲇⲁⲧ. ⲓ̅ⲉ̅ ⲙ̀ⲙⲓⲗⲓⲱⲛ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲉ ⲛⲓⲥⲟⲩϥⲓ.

ϧⲁϫⲉⲛ ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲉⲣⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛⲧⲉ ⲛⲁⲥⲉⲣ ⲛⲓⲛⲓϣϯ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧϣⲫⲏⲣ ⲛ̀ⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲁⲛⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓⲟⲩⲉⲓⲛⲓⲛ, ⲛⲓⲁⲣⲙⲉⲛⲓⲟⲥ, ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲓⲧⲁⲗⲓⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲙⲁⲗⲑⲁ ⲁⲩϫⲱⲓⲗⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ.

ⲡⲓϣⲗⲟⲗ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϥ̀ϣⲱⲡ ϩⲟ ⲡⲓϣⲟⲙⲧ ⲛ̀ϫⲓⲛϣⲉⲙϣⲓ – ⲡⲁⲗⲓⲥⲗⲁⲙ, ϯⲙⲉⲧⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲁⲛⲟⲥ ⲛⲉⲙ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲓⲟⲩⲇⲁⲓ. ⲁⲩⲇⲓⲱⲕⲓ ⲛⲓⲕⲉⲭⲱⲟⲩⲛⲓ ϩⲱⲥ ⲃⲉϩⲁⲓ ⲓⲉ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁϩⲙⲉⲧ.

ⲟⲩⲗⲓⲙⲏⲛ ⲛ̀ⲛⲉⲛⲑⲱϣ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ

ⲟⲩⲟⲛⲧⲉ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϫⲱⲧϣⲁϣϥ ⲛ̀ⲑⲱϣ. ⲛⲁⲓ ⲛⲉ ⲛⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓⲑⲱⲱϣ:

ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛϫⲟⲙ[edit | edit source]

ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲡⲉ ⲟⲩⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲛ̀ⲇⲏⲙⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲓⲕⲟⲛ ⲙ̀ⲫⲟⲟⲩ. ⲡⲓⲣⲉϥϭⲓⲙⲱⲓⲧ ⲡⲉ ⲁⲡⲧⲉⲗϥⲁⲧⲧⲁϩ ⲁⲥⲥⲓⲥⲓ. ⲡⲓⲛⲟϫ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛϫⲟⲙ ⲡⲉ ⲙⲟⲥⲧⲁϥⲁ ⲙⲉⲧⲡⲱⲗⲓ.

ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛϣⲁⲛϣ[edit | edit source]

ⲟⲩⲟⲛ ⲟⲩⲙⲏϣ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲛⲥⲱⲟⲩⲛ ϧⲉⲛ ⲧⲁⲓⲭⲱⲣⲁ. ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲛⲥⲱⲟⲩⲛ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲓⲙⲁⲛⲥⲱⲟⲩⲛ ⲛ̀ⲁⲗⲁⲍϩⲉⲣ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲥⲟⲛⲧϥ ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ 972. ⲁⲩⲥⲉⲛⲧ ⲡⲓⲙⲁⲛⲥⲱⲟⲩⲛ ⲛ̀ϯⲕⲉϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛϯⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ 1908. ⲙ̀ⲫⲟⲟⲩ ⲟⲩⲟⲛ ϫⲱⲧⲯⲓⲧ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲛⲥⲱⲟⲩⲛ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧϩⲱⲕ ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ.

ⲛⲉⲛϣⲁⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ[edit | edit source]

ⲛⲉⲛϣⲁⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲁⲕⲓ[edit | edit source]

ⲛⲉⲛϣⲁⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛϣⲉⲙϣⲓ[edit | edit source]

ϩⲁⲛϫⲱⲙ ⲛ̀ⲥⲁϧ[edit | edit source]

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  2. http://www.capmas.gov.eg/?lang=2 Population Clock Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics
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  5. Paulus Ernestus Jahlonskius. Opuscula quibus lingua et antiquitas Aegyptiorum difficilia livrorum sacrorum loca et historiae ecclesiasticae capita illustrantur. Tomus primus. Lugduni Batavorum 1804, p. 416-417)
  6. Midant-Reynes, Béatrix. The Prehistory of Egypt: From the First Egyptians to the First Kings. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
  7. "The Nile Valley 6000–4000 BC Neolithic". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 8 February 2009. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  8. Egypt - Languages | Ethnologue