Wp/cop/ⲭⲏⲙⲓ

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ϯⲙⲉⲑⲙⲏϣ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ
جمهورية مصر العربية
Flag of Egypt.svg

ⲡⲓⲙⲏⲓⲛⲓ
Coat of arms of Egypt (Official).svg

ⲡⲓⲥⲓⲅⲛⲟⲛ
ⲡⲓϩⲱⲥ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲁⲕⲓ:
EGY orthographic.svg
ϯϫⲁϫⲃⲁⲕⲓ ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ
ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ (ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲉⲧⲉⲛϩⲟⲧ)
ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ
ⲡⲓⲣⲉϥϭⲓⲙⲱⲓⲧ ⲛ̀ϫⲟⲙⲁⲡⲧⲉⲗϥⲉⲑⲁϩ ⲁⲥⲓⲥⲓ
ⲡⲓⲛⲟϫ ⲛ̀ⲗⲁⲥⲁϧⲙⲟⲥⲧⲁϥⲁ ⲙⲉⲧⲡⲱⲗⲓ
ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉϥⲣⲱϣ 1,010,407.87 km2[1]
ϯⲏⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡ̀ⲕⲁϩⲓ 96,146,000[2]
ⲡⲓϧⲓⲥⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲏⲓ ⲉⲧϫⲏⲕ (GDP) $1.173 ϩⲁϩ `ⲛϩⲁϩ[3]
ⲡⲓⲣⲉϥϯⲙⲏⲓⲛⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡ̀ϫⲓⲛⲁⲓⲁⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲓ (HDI) 0.691[4]
ⲡⲓⲗⲟⲩⲕⲟϫⲓ ϯⲗⲓⲧⲣⲁ `ⲛⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ
ⲡⲓϣⲱⲗϩ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ISO 3166 EG
ⲡⲓⲛⲁⲧ ⲛ̀ⲥⲧⲁϫⲟⲩⲗ TLD .eg
ⲡⲓϣⲱⲗϩ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲑⲓⲗⲓϥⲱⲛ+20

ⲭⲏⲙⲓ (ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ: مِصر‎ ⲙⲓⲥⲣ) ⲟⲩⲭⲱⲣⲁ ϧⲉⲛ ⲁⲫⲣⲓⲕⲏ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲁⲥⲓⲁ ⲡⲉ. ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲟⲩⲭⲱⲣⲁ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲥⲛⲁⲩ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲕⲁϩⲓ ⲡⲉ ⲉⲧⲉ ⲟⲩⲟⲛⲧⲁϥ ⲟⲩϭⲓⲏ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲓⲧⲉⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲕⲁϫⲱⲧ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲓⲥⲣⲁⲏⲗ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓϧⲏⲧⲓⲉⲃⲧ, ⲛⲉⲙ ϯⲧⲁⲡⲣⲁ ⲛ̀ⲁⲗⲁⲕⲉⲡⲉ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲉⲃⲧ, ⲛⲉⲙ ⲫⲓⲟⲙ ⲛ̀ϩⲁϩ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲉⲃⲧ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲫⲣⲏⲥ, ⲛⲉⲙ ⲑⲉⲛϩⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛ ⲫⲣⲏⲥ (ⲡⲓϣⲟⲙⲧⲛ̀ⲭⲟϩ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲁⲩϫⲁⲗ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲓⲙⲁ ⲛ̀ⲧⲱⲛ) ⲛⲉⲙ ϯⲗⲩⲃⲏ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲉⲙⲉⲛⲧ. ⲟⲩⲟⲛⲧⲟⲩ ⲡⲓⲟⲣⲇⲁⲛⲏⲥ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲧⲁⲣⲁⲃⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ⲁⲥⲁⲱⲇ ⲟⲩϭⲓⲏ ⲙ̀ⲙⲱⲟⲩ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲫⲓⲟⲙ ⲛ̀ϩⲁϩ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲧⲉⲛⲟⲩⲉⲛⲓⲛ, ⲧⲟⲩⲣⲭⲓⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲕⲩⲡⲣⲟⲥ ϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲫⲓⲟⲙ ⲉⲧϧⲉⲛⲑⲙⲏϯ. ⲡⲓⲥⲧⲉⲟⲩⲓϯⲟⲩ ⲙ̀ⲙⲓⲗⲓⲱⲛ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲥⲉϫⲁⲗⲏⲟⲩⲧ ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ. ϯϫⲁϫⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲧⲉ ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ. ⲡⲓⲣⲉϥϭⲓⲙⲱⲓⲧ ⲛ̀ϫⲟⲙ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲡⲉ ⲁⲡⲧⲉⲗϥⲉⲑⲁϩ ⲁⲥⲓⲥⲓ ⲉⲧⲁϥϭⲓⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ⲉⲑⲃⲉ ⲡⲓⲣⲱϧⲧ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲧⲟⲓ ϧⲉⲛ 2013.

ϯⲥⲧⲟⲣⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲥ̀ⲉⲣⲛⲓϣϯ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲁⲓⲙⲁ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲓⲙⲁⲛϩⲗⲟⲗⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲉⲣⲓⲉⲃ. ϥ̀ⲱⲗⲓ ⲛⲓⲕⲱⲧ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲙⲁ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲥⲁⲟⲩⲛⲁⲥⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲥⲱⲓⲧ ϩⲱⲥ ⲛⲓⲡⲩⲣⲁⲙⲓⲥ ⲛ̀ϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲓⲥ, ⲫⲏⲗ, ⲛⲓⲱⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲙⲉⲛϥⲓ, ⲡⲱⲡⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲏ, ϯϧⲉⲗⲗⲟⲧ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓⲟⲩⲣⲱⲟⲩ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲕⲉⲭⲱⲟⲩⲛⲓ. ⲛⲉ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲁⲓ ⲛ̀ϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲏϯ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲁⲛⲟⲥ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲁⲩⲉⲣⲗⲁϩⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲙⲉⲧϣⲉ ⲍ̅ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲙ̀ⲫⲟⲟⲩ ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲉⲧⲉⲛϩⲟⲧ ⲧⲉ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲡⲓⲛⲓϣϯ ⲛ̀ϫⲓⲛϣⲉⲙϣⲓ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲁⲗⲓⲥⲗⲁⲙ.

ⲡⲓⲣⲉⲛⲭⲱⲣⲁ[edit | edit source]

ϯⲉⲧⲩⲙⲟⲗⲟⲅⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ[edit | edit source]

`ⲫⲣⲁⲛ ⲙ̀`ⲡⲕⲁϩⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲡⲁⲥ ⲡⲉ
kmmt
O49
km.t ⲁϫⲓ kūmat. ⲡⲁⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲓ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ⲡⲓⲁⲟⲩⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲁⲙⲉ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲡⲓⲗⲱⲓϩⲓ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ.

ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲥⲁϫⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲫⲣⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲣⲉⲛⲑⲟ ⲡⲉ ⲕⲏⲙⲉ. ϧⲉⲛ ⲟⲩϩⲟ ⲛ̀ⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲉⲩⲣⲱⲡⲏ ⲁⲩϣⲁϣⲛⲓ ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲓⲥϫⲉⲛ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲉⲓⲛⲓⲛ ⲛ̀ⲁⲡⲁⲥ Αἴγυπτος (ⲁⲓⲅⲩⲡⲧⲟⲥ) ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲟⲩϣⲁⲡ ⲓⲥϫⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲟⲁⲓ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲛϥⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓⲏⲓⲭⲱⲡⲧⲁϩ[5] ⲉⲧⲡⲉ ϫⲓⲛⲫⲱⲛϩ ⲛ̀ⲣⲁⲛ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲡⲁⲥ.

O6t
pr
D28Z1p
t
H

ⲉⲧϫⲉⲣⲉ "ⲡⲓⲏⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲟ (ⲯⲩⲭⲏ) ⲙ̀ⲡⲑⲁϩ" ⲉⲧⲉ ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲉⲣⲫⲉⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲑⲁϩ ϧⲉⲛ ⲙⲉⲛϥⲓ.

ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛⲁⲣⲃⲓⲛ ⲡⲉ ⲙⲓⲥⲣ (ⲙⲁⲥⲣ ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲁⲣⲃⲓⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ) ⲉⲟⲩⲟⲛⲧⲁϥ ⲟⲩⲅⲉⲛⲉⲥⲓⲥ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲥⲏⲙ. ⲟⲩⲟⲛ ⲡⲁⲓⲥⲁϫⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ϩⲁⲛⲕⲉⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲥⲏⲙ ⲛ̀ⲧⲁⲓϧⲉ – ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧϩⲉⲃⲣⲉⲟⲥ מִצְרַיִם (ⲙⲓⲧⲍⲣⲁⲩⲓⲙ) ⲓⲉ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛⲁⲭⲁⲧ ⲙⲓⲥⲣⲟⲩ ⲉⲧϫⲉⲣⲉ "ϣⲓⲏ, ⲑⲟϣ".

ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲉⲧⲉⲛϩⲟⲧ[edit | edit source]

ⲓⲥϫⲉⲛ ϯⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ 1971 ⲣⲉⲛⲥ ⲉⲧⲉⲛϩⲟⲧ ⲡⲉ ϯⲙⲉⲑⲙⲏϣ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ (ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ: جمهورية مصر العربية ⲁϫⲓ ϫⲟⲩⲙϩⲟⲩⲣⲓⲉⲧ ⲙⲉⲥⲣ ⲁⲗⲁⲣⲁⲡⲓⲁ).

ϯⲥⲧⲟⲣⲓⲁ[edit | edit source]

ⲟⲩⲫⲱⲧϩ ⲛ̀ⲕⲱⲥ ⲛ̀ⲁⲡⲁⲥ ⲛ̀ⲡⲉⲣⲧⲁⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ⲥϩⲓⲙⲓ. ⲥⲉⲱⲗⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ⲗⲟⲩⲃⲣ.

ϧⲁϫⲉⲛ ϯⲥⲧⲟⲣⲓⲁ[edit | edit source]

ⲟⲩⲟⲛⲧⲉ ⲁⲡⲟⲇⲉⲓⲝⲓⲥ ⲛ̀ϩⲁⲛⲡⲟⲧⲁⲕⲓⲟⲛ ⲛ̀ⲱⲛⲓ ⲡⲁⲣⲁ ϩⲁⲙⲫⲟⲓ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ ⲛⲉⲙ ϧⲉⲛ ϩⲁⲛⲟⲩⲁϩ ⲛ̀ϣⲁϥⲉ. ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲙⲉⲧϣⲉ ⲓ̅ ⲥ⳪ ⲟⲩⲉⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ϫⲉⲣⲏϫ-ⲣⲉϥⲱⲗⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲙ̀ⲃⲟϩⲓ ⲁⲩⲉⲣϣⲉⲃⲓⲱ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲟⲩⲉⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ϩⲁⲛⲣⲉϥⲛⲟⲩⲧ ⲛ̀ϣⲃⲓⲛ. ϯϣⲉⲃⲓⲱ ⲛ̀ⲕⲣⲁⲥⲓⲥ ⲓⲉ ⲟⲩⲉⲗϩⲏⲥ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲙⲁ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟⲛⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ⲁⲟⲩⲏⲣ ϯⲙⲉⲧϣⲉ ⲏ̅ ⲥ⳪ ⲁⲩϭⲓ ⲉⲡⲓϫⲓⲛϣⲱϥ ⲛ̀ⲕⲁϩⲓ ⲛ̀ⲕⲟⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲟⲩⲙⲟⲩⲛⲕ ⲙ̀ⲡϣⲁϥⲉ ⲟ. ϩⲁⲛϣⲗⲱⲗ ⲛ̀ϣⲱⲣⲡ ⲁⲩⲕⲓⲙ ϣⲁ ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲑⲁⲙⲓⲟ ⲟⲩⲟⲓⲕⲟⲛⲟⲙⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲟⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲟⲩⲙⲉⲧⲑⲟϧⲧⲉϧ ⲛ̀ⲑⲱⲟⲩϯ.[6]

ϧⲉⲛ ⲁⲟⲩⲏⲣ ϯⲙⲉⲧϣⲉ ⲋ̅ ⲥ⳪ ⲟⲩⲉⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲉⲟⲗⲓⲑⲟⲥ ⲁϥϣⲉⲡⲛⲟⲩⲛⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ϯϧⲉⲗⲗⲟⲧ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ.[7] ⲉⲧⲓ ⲡⲓⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲛ̀ⲛⲉⲟⲗⲓⲑⲟⲥ ϩⲁⲛⲉⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ϩⲏⲧⲫⲱⲣ ⲁⲩⲟⲩⲱⲛϩ ϧⲉⲛ ⲫⲙⲁⲣⲏⲥ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲧⲥⲁϧⲏⲧ. ⲁⲡⲗⲱⲥ ⲛⲓⲉⲙⲟ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉⲣⲧⲁⲛⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲉⲕⲁⲧⲏⲣⲓⲟⲛ ⲁⲩⲱⲡ ⲛ̀ϩⲁⲛⲡⲣⲟⲇⲣⲟⲙⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲙ̀ⲫⲱⲣ.

ϯⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲧⲟⲙⲓ ⲁⲩⲥⲉⲛⲧ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲙⲏⲛ ϧⲉⲛ ⲁⲟⲩⲏⲣ 3150 ⲥ⳪.

ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲥⲟⲩ[edit | edit source]

ϯⲙⲁϩϣⲟⲙⲧ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓⲫⲱⲣ ⲁϥϩⲓⲁⲣⲭⲏ ⲉ̀ⲡⲓⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲁⲡⲁⲥ (2686–2181 ⲥ⳪) ⲓⲉ "ⲡⲓⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲛ̀ϩⲁⲛⲡⲩⲣⲁⲙⲓⲥ". ϥ̀ⲱⲡ ⲉϧⲟⲩⲛ ⲉⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲉⲣⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲫⲱⲣ ⲇ̅ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲉⲥⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲥⲉⲛϥⲱⲣⲓ ⲉⲧⲁϥⲕⲉⲧ ϩⲁⲛⲡⲩⲣⲁⲙⲓⲥ ⲛ̀ⲧⲁϩϭⲟⲩⲣ ⲛⲉⲙ ϩⲁⲛⲟⲩⲣⲟ ϣⲱⲟⲩϥ, ϣⲉϥⲣⲏ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲙⲉⲛⲭⲉⲣⲏ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲕⲉⲧ ⲛⲓⲡⲩⲣⲁⲙⲓⲥ ⲱ ⲛ̀ϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲓⲥ.

ⲡⲓⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲛ̀ϫⲓⲛⲥⲓⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲁϥϭⲓⲙⲱⲓⲧ ⲉϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ ⲛ̀ⲁⲧⲥⲉⲙⲛⲓ ⲉ̀ ⲁⲟⲩⲏⲣ 150 ⲛ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ. ϩⲁⲛⲁⲙⲏⲓⲣⲓ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ ⲛⲉⲙ ϫⲓⲛⲉⲣⲛⲓϣϯ ⲛ̀ⲭⲱⲣⲁ ⲁϥϭⲓⲙⲱⲓⲧ ⲉ̀ ⲟⲩⲉⲩⲕⲁⲓⲣⲓⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲟⲩⲙⲟⲩⲛⲕ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲙ̀ⲙⲏⲧϯ ϧⲉⲛ ⲁⲟⲩⲏⲣ 2040 ⲥ⳪ ⲉⲧⲁϥⲫⲉϩ ⲧⲉϥϭⲓⲥⲓ ⲉⲧⲓ ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲉⲣⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲁⲙⲉⲛⲉⲙϩⲏ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩⲅ̅.

ⲡⲓⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲛ̀ϫⲓⲛⲥⲓⲛⲓ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁϩⲥⲛⲁⲩ ⲁⲩϯⲗⲱⲓϫⲓ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓϩⲟⲩⲕϣⲱⲥⲓ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲇⲁⲙⲁⲍⲓⲛ ⲡⲓϩⲟⲩⲟ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ⲁⲟⲩⲏⲣ 1650 ⲥ⳪ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲁⲩⲥⲉⲙⲛⲉ ϯϫⲁϫⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ ϩⲟⲩⲱⲣ. ⲁⲩⲉⲛ ϩⲁⲛⲉϩⲑⲱⲣ ⲛⲉⲙ ϩⲁⲛϩⲁⲣⲙⲁ ⲉ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ. ⲁⲩϯⲧⲟⲧⲟⲩ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲁϩⲙⲟⲥⲓ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩⲁ̅ ⲉⲧⲁϥⲥⲉⲙⲛⲉ ⲡⲓⲫⲱⲣ ⲓ̅ⲏ̅ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩⲕⲓⲙ ⲟⲩϫⲁϫⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ⲙⲉⲛϥⲓ ⲉ̀ ⲛⲏ.

ⲁⲩⲥⲉⲙⲛⲉ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲫⲱⲣ ⲓ̅ⲏ̅ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲁⲩⲧⲱⲟⲩⲛ ϩⲱⲥ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲫⲏⲉⲧⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲓⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲧⲱϣⲗⲱⲗ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ϥ̀ⲁⲙⲟⲛⲓ ⲛⲓⲕⲁϩⲓ ⲓⲥϫⲉⲛ ⲧⲟⲙⲃⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛ ⲉⲑⲱϣ ϣⲁ ⲙⲁⲛϣⲁⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲉⲃⲧ. ⲁϣⲫⲏⲥⲓ, ⲑⲉⲑⲙⲟⲥⲓ ⲅ̅, ⲁϣⲛⲓⲱⲧ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲧⲉϥⲥϩⲓⲙⲓ ⲛⲁϥⲑⲏϯ, ⲑⲟⲩⲁⲧⲁⲛϧⲁⲙⲟⲩⲛ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲣⲁⲙⲥⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩⲃ̅ ⲁⲩⲉⲣⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲥⲏⲟⲩ. ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ϫⲱⲛⲧ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲫⲛⲟⲩϯ ⲉⲧⲟⲩϯⲣⲉⲛⲥ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲓⲱⲓⲧ ⲁϥⲟⲩⲱⲛϩ ⲉⲧⲓ ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲉⲣⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲁϣⲛⲓⲱⲓⲧ. ⲁⲩⲇⲁⲙⲁⲍⲓⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲛⲓⲫⲁⲓⲁⲧ, ⲛⲓⲉⲑⲁⲩϣ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲉϣⲁⲩⲣ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲁⲩϭⲟϫⲓ ⲛⲥⲁ ⲙ̀ⲙⲱⲟⲩ.

ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲭⲁⲓⲙⲉⲛⲏⲥ[edit | edit source]

ϧⲉⲛ 525 ⲥ⳪ ⲡⲓⲉⲣⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲕⲁⲙⲃⲩⲥⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩⲃ̅ ⲁⲩϭⲣⲟ ⲉ ⲡⲥⲁⲙⲙⲟⲩϫⲕ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩⲅ̅ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲙⲗⲁϧ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉⲣⲉⲙⲟⲩⲛ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁϥⲇⲁⲙⲁⲍⲓⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ. ⲁϥⲱⲗⲓ ⲡⲓⲟⲛⲟⲙⲁ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲁϥⲉⲣⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲓⲥϫⲉⲛ ⲟⲍⲉⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲉⲣⲥⲏⲥ. ⲕ̅ⲍ̅ ⲙ̀ⲫⲱⲣ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲓⲫⲱⲣ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉⲣⲥⲏⲥ (ⲉⲃⲏⲗ ⲁⲣⲏⲟⲩ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉϯⲃⲁⲥϯ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩⲅ̅ ⲉⲧⲁϥϣⲑⲟⲣⲧⲉⲣ ⲉ ⲛⲓⲡⲉⲣⲥⲏⲥ ϧⲉⲛ 522 ⲥ⳪). ⲁⲙⲉⲛⲉⲣⲧⲟⲓⲥ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲉϥⲱⲣϫ ⲁⲩϩⲓⲁⲣⲭⲏ ⲛⲓⲫⲱⲣ ⲛ̀ⲕ̅ⲏ̅ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲕ̅ⲑ̅. ⲗ̅ ⲙ̀ⲫⲱⲣ ⲉⲧⲟⲩϩⲓⲁⲣⲭⲏ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲛⲁϣⲧⲛⲏⲃϥ ⲁ̅ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲓⲫⲱⲣ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲫⲙⲁ ⲛ̀ϧⲁⲉ. ⲛⲓⲡⲉⲣⲥⲏⲥ ⲁⲩⲇⲁⲙⲁⲍⲓⲛ ⲟⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ 343 ⲥ⳪ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲟⲩⲡⲓⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛⲁϣⲧⲛⲏⲃϥ ⲃ̅ ⲁϥⲧⲁⲕⲟ ⲉ ⲁⲣⲧⲁϧϣⲏⲣϣ ⲅ̅. ⲁⲩⲇⲁⲙⲁⲍⲓⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲭⲁⲓⲙⲉⲛⲏⲥ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲛⲓϣϯ ⲛ̀ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛ 332 ⲥ⳪. ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲡⲉϥⲙⲟⲩ ⲡⲉϥⲥⲧⲣⲁⲧⲏⲗⲁⲧⲏⲥ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲉⲓⲛⲓⲛ ⲡⲧⲟⲗⲉⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲁ̅ ⲥⲱⲧⲏⲣ ⲁϥⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁϥⲥⲱⲛⲧ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲫⲱⲣ ⲙ̀ⲡⲧⲟⲗⲉⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ.

ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲧⲟⲗⲉⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲣⲱⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲁⲛⲟⲥ[edit | edit source]

ⲡⲧⲟⲗⲉⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲁ̅ ⲥⲱⲧⲏⲣ

ⲛⲉ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲙ̀ⲡⲧⲟⲗⲉⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲧⲉ ϯⲛⲓϣϯ ⲛ̀ⲭⲱⲣⲁ ⲉⲧⲁϥϣⲱϣ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲓ ⲥⲩⲣⲓⲁ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲉⲃⲧ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ⲉ ⲕⲩⲣⲓⲛⲛⲉ ⲡⲉⲙⲉⲛⲧ. ⲛⲉ ⲧⲉϥϫⲁϫⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲧⲉ ⲣⲁⲕⲟϯ (ⲁⲩϯⲣⲉⲛ ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲛⲓⲟⲩⲉⲓⲛⲓⲛ) ⲉⲧⲁⲥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲡⲓⲉⲃ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲉⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲉⲓⲛⲓⲛ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲓⲉⲃϣⲱⲧ.

ϯϧⲁⲉ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲣⲱ ⲙ̀ⲡⲧⲟⲗⲉⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲛⲉ ⲕⲗⲉⲩⲡⲁⲧⲣⲁ ϯⲙⲁϩⲍ̅ ⲧⲉ ⲉⲧⲁϥϧⲱⲧⲉⲃ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟⲥ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲡⲓⲉⲣⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲟⲕⲧⲁⲃⲓⲁⲛⲟⲥ ⲁⲩⲅⲩⲥⲧⲟⲥ ⲁϥϭⲱⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲁⲕⲟϯ. ⲁⲩⲁⲙⲟⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲙ̀ⲡⲧⲟⲗⲉⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲩⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲥⲱⲥ.

ⲟⲩⲗⲓⲙⲏⲛ ⲛ̀ⲅⲩⲯⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛ ϣⲓϩⲏⲧ

ⲁⲩⲓⲛⲓ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲁⲛⲟⲥ ⲉ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲙⲉⲧϣⲉ ⲁ̅ ⲙ.ⲭ. ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲫⲏⲉⲑⲟⲩⲁⲃ ⲙⲁⲣⲕⲟⲥ ⲡⲓⲁⲡⲟⲥⲧⲟⲗⲟⲥ. ⲛⲓⲇⲓⲱⲕⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲁⲛⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲁⲩϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲉⲧⲓ ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲉⲣⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲇⲓⲟⲕⲗⲏⲧⲓⲁⲛⲟⲥ (284–305 ⲙ.ⲭ.). ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲡⲓⲥⲩⲛⲟⲇⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲭⲁⲗⲕⲏⲇⲟⲛ ϧⲉⲛ 451 ⲙ.ⲭ. ⲁⲩⲥⲉⲙⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲉⲕⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ.

ⲡⲓⲁϣⲁⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲁϥⲙⲟϣⲓ ⲉⲛⲓϣⲁϥⲉⲩ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩϩⲉⲙⲥⲓ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲩ ⲉϣⲗⲏⲗ, ⲉⲣϩⲱⲃ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲉⲣⲏⲧ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲱⲛ̇ϧ ⲙ̀ⲫⲛⲟⲩϯ. ⲑⲁⲓ ⲛⲉ ϯϩⲟⲩⲓϯ ⲧⲉ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲙⲟⲛⲁⲭⲟⲥ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲉⲣⲁⲫⲉ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲁⲛⲧⲱⲛⲓⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛ ⲫⲃⲱⲟⲩ, ⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲧⲱⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ, ⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲙⲁⲕⲁⲣⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ϣⲓϩⲏⲧ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲡⲁϧⲱⲙ ϧⲉⲛ ⲧⲁⲃⲉⲛⲛⲏⲥⲓ.

ⲛⲓⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲙ̀ⲙⲏϯ[edit | edit source]

ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ 7 ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲙⲉⲧϣⲉ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲁⲩⲉⲣⲇⲁⲙⲁⲍⲓⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲩⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉⲣⲥⲏⲥ ⲛ̀ⲥⲁⲥⲁⲛ ϧⲉⲛ 619. ⲁⲩⲑⲁⲙⲓⲟ ⲡⲓⲑⲱϣ ⲁⲅⲓⲡⲧⲟⲩⲥ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲛⲓⲁⲣⲭⲱⲛ ϣⲁϩⲣⲃⲁⲣⲁⲍ ⲛⲉⲙ ϣⲁϩⲣⲁⲗⲁⲛⲓⲟⲍⲁⲛ.

ϧⲉⲛ 639–642 ⲁⲩⲉⲣⲇⲁⲙⲁⲍⲓⲛ `ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲁⲙⲉⲣ ⲉⲓⲡⲛ ⲁⲗⲁⲉⲁⲥ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲗⲁϩⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲛⲓⲙⲗⲁϧ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲉⲣⲉⲙⲟⲩⲛ, ⲫⲉⲗⲃⲉⲥ, ⲃⲁⲃⲩⲗⲟⲛ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲱⲛ. ⲁⲩϭⲟⲛⲧ ⲡⲓⲱⲣⲃ ⲉϩⲟⲩⲛ ⲛ̀ⲣⲁⲕⲟϯ ϧⲉⲛ 641 ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩϭⲱⲡⲓ ϯⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲡⲓⲉⲡⲁⲣⲭⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲓⲡⲁⲧⲣⲓⲁⲣⲭⲏⲥ ⲛ̀ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ ⲕⲩⲣⲓ ⲡⲕⲁⲩⲭⲓⲟⲥ ⲁϥϭⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲟⲩⲥⲩⲛⲧⲁⲅⲏ – ⲁⲩⲥⲣⲟⲙⲣⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲁⲛⲟⲥ ⲉϯϩⲟⲙⲧ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲕⲏⲛⲥⲟⲥ ϫⲓⲍⲓⲁ ⲉ ⲡⲓϣⲉⲃⲓⲱ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϩⲱⲃⲥ. ⲛⲓⲗⲁϩⲙⲓ ⲁⲩⲥⲉⲙⲛⲓ ϯϫⲁϫⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ ⲫⲩⲥⲧⲁⲧⲱⲛ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩⲕⲱⲧ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ⲁⲗⲙⲁⲥⲧⲓϭ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲩ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲥⲱⲥ.

ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲗⲭⲁⲗⲏⲃ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲣⲁϣⲓⲇ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲟⲩⲙⲉⲓⲁ[edit | edit source]

ⲛⲓⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ϩⲓ ⲡⲉⲙⲉⲛ ⲁⲩⲛⲏⲟⲩ ⲉⲱⲛϧ ϧⲉⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ. ⲁⲩⲃⲓⲁⲍⲉ ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲥⲁϩⲛⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲁⲗⲁⲥⲱϯ ⲛ̀ϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ.

ⲉⲧⲓ ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ϥⲓⲑⲛⲁ ⲁⲩⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲁⲙⲃⲣⲟⲥ ⲡϣⲏ ⲁⲗⲁⲁⲥ ⲉⲧⲁϥⲉⲛϩⲟⲧ ⲉ ⲁⲗⲙⲟⲩⲁⲃⲓⲁ ϣⲁ ⲡⲓⲥⲏⲟⲩ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉϥⲙⲟⲩ ϧⲉⲛ 664.

ⲉⲧⲓ ⲡⲓⲙⲁϩⲥⲛⲁⲩ ⲛ̀ϥⲓⲑⲛⲁ ⲛⲓϧⲁⲣⲓϫⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲉⲓⲡⲛ ⲁⲗⲍⲟⲡⲉⲓⲣ ⲁⲩⲁⲙⲟⲛⲓ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲡⲓⲁⲗⲭⲁⲗⲏⲃ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲟⲩⲙⲉⲓⲁ ⲙⲉⲣⲟⲩⲁⲛ ⲁ̅ ⲁϥⲇⲁⲙⲁⲍⲓⲛ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟϥ ϧⲉⲛ 684. ϧⲉⲛ 706 ⲁⲩⲑⲁⲙⲓⲟ ⲛ̀ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲉⲧⲉⲛϩⲟⲧ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲥⲁϩⲛⲓ.

ⲁⲗϩⲁⲭⲓⲙ ⲡⲓⲁⲙⲣⲉⲗⲗⲁ

ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲗⲭⲁⲗⲏⲃ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲁⲃⲃⲁⲥ[edit | edit source]

ⲡⲓⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲁⲃⲃⲁⲥ ⲁϥⲙⲓⲥⲓ ⲛⲓⲕⲏⲛⲥⲟⲥ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϣⲑⲟⲣⲧⲉⲣ ϩⲁⲛⲙⲏϣ ⲛ̀ⲥⲟⲡ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡϣⲁⲙⲏⲣ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲕⲉⲑⲱϣ. ⲁⲩϫⲟⲕⲟⲩ ϧⲉⲛ 830 ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲁⲗⲭⲁⲗⲏⲃ ⲁⲗⲙⲁⲉⲙⲱⲛ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲉϥⲥⲧⲣⲁⲧⲏⲗⲁⲧⲏⲥ ⲁⲗⲁϥϣⲓⲛ.

ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲡⲓⲥⲓⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲟⲙϯ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲁⲃⲃⲁⲥ ϧⲉⲛ ⲃⲁⲅⲇⲁⲛ ⲛⲓⲕⲉⲗⲁⲙⲏϣ ⲁⲩⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲉϫⲉⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϩⲱⲥ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲁⲗⲓϧϣⲓⲇ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲟⲩⲗⲟⲩⲛ.

ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲗⲭⲁⲗⲏⲃ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲁϯⲙⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲙⲉⲙⲗⲱⲕ[edit | edit source]

ϧⲉⲛ 969 ⲡⲓⲫⲱⲣ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲑⲱⲛⲓⲥ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲁϯⲙⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲓⲉⲑⲛⲟⲥ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲍⲓⲝ ⲕⲟⲩⲧⲁⲙⲉ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲓⲥⲧⲣⲁⲧⲏⲧⲗⲁⲧⲏⲥ ϫⲉⲟⲩϩⲁⲣ ⲡⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲥⲓⲕⲓⲗⲓⲁ ⲁⲩⲇⲁⲙⲁⲍⲓⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩⲥⲉⲙⲛⲉ ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ϩⲱⲥ ⲧⲟⲩϫⲁϫⲃⲁⲕⲓ. ⲙ̀ⲡⲁⲓⲥⲏⲟⲩ ⲛⲉ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲓⲉⲃ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲩⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲉⲧⲁⲥϩⲱⲃⲥ ⲛ̀ⲁⲫⲣⲓⲕⲏ ⲉⲧⲥⲁϧⲏⲧ, ⲥⲓⲕⲓⲗⲓⲁ, ⲡⲁⲗⲁⲓⲥⲧⲓⲛⲏ, ⲡⲓⲉⲣⲇⲱⲛ, ⲗⲓⲃⲛⲁⲛ, ⲥⲩⲣⲓⲁ, ⲡⲓⲭⲣⲱ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲟⲙ ⲛ̀ϩⲁϩ, ⲑⲓϩⲁⲙⲁ, ϩⲓϫⲁⲍ, ⲡⲉⲙⲉⲛ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲣⲱ ⲙⲟⲩⲗⲑⲁⲛ.

ϧⲉⲛ 1168 ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲥⲉⲣ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲁϯⲙⲁ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲟⲩⲣⲇ ⲥⲉⲗⲁϩⲁϯⲛ ⲁϥⲥⲱⲥⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲟⲩⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁϥⲥⲉⲛϯ ⲡⲓⲫⲱⲣ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲁⲓⲟⲩⲡ. ⲁϥⲉⲣⲙⲗⲁϧ ⲛⲓϥⲁⲓⲥⲧⲁⲩⲣⲟⲥ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲧⲟⲩⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲓⲉⲣⲟⲩⲥⲁⲗⲏⲙ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲁⲗⲁⲓⲥⲧⲓⲛⲏ. ⲡⲓϧⲁⲉ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲁⲓⲟⲩⲡ ⲁⲗⲙⲱⲉⲍⲉⲙ ⲑⲟⲩⲣⲁⲛϣⲁϩ ⲁⲩⲥⲱⲥⲓ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲛⲉϥⲥⲧⲣⲁⲧⲏⲗⲁⲧⲏⲥ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲙⲗⲱⲕ ϧⲉⲛ 1250 ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲟⲩⲟⲛ ⲙ̀ⲙⲱⲟⲩ ⲉⲓⲍⲁϯⲛ ⲁⲓⲡⲁⲕ ⲁϥⲥⲉⲛϯ ⲡⲓⲫⲱⲣ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲙⲉⲙⲗⲱⲕ ⲛ̀ⲓⲁⲣⲟ. ⲫⲙⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲭⲁⲙⲉ ⲁϥⲙⲱⲟⲩⲧ 40% ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲙⲉⲧϣⲉ ⲓ̅ⲇ̅.

ⲭⲡⲓⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ[edit | edit source]

ⲛⲁⲡⲟⲗⲉⲱⲛ ⲁϥϭⲱⲧϥ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲁⲗⲁⲥⲱϯ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓⲙⲉⲙⲗⲱⲕ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲙⲗⲁϧ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓⲡⲩⲣⲁⲙⲓⲥ ⲱ, 21 ⲛ̀ⲓⲟⲩⲛⲓⲟⲥ 1798, ⲗⲟⲩⲓ-ϥⲣⲁⲛⲥⲟⲩⲁ ⲗⲉϫⲉⲛ

ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ϩⲟⲑⲙⲉⲛ[edit | edit source]

ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲧⲟⲩⲣⲭⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ϩⲟⲑⲙⲉⲛ ⲁⲩⲇⲁⲙⲁⲍⲓⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ 1517 ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲥ̀ϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲡⲓⲑⲱϣ (ⲉⲓⲁⲗⲉⲧ) ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲩⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲛ̀ϩⲟⲑⲙⲉⲛ. ϥ̀ⲃⲱⲗ ⲛ̀ϯⲟⲓⲕⲟⲛⲟⲙⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ. ⲟⲩⲧⲱ 1687 ⲛⲉⲙ 1731 ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲟⲩⲟⲛⲧⲉⲥ ⲡⲓⲥⲟⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲉϩⲕⲟ.

ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲛⲓⲙⲉⲙⲗⲱⲕ ⲁⲩⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϣⲁⲟⲩⲥⲏⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲡⲓⲙⲟϣⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲁⲡⲟⲗⲉⲱⲛ ϧⲉⲛ 1798. ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲧⲉϥϭⲟⲧⲡⲥ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ ⲡⲓⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲁⲩϭⲓ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲛⲓⲙⲓⲥⲑⲟⲫⲟⲣⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲁⲗⲃⲁⲛⲓⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲟⲩϭⲁⲩⲙⲱⲓⲧ ⲙⲟϩⲁⲙⲉⲧ ⲁⲗⲓ ⲡⲁϣⲁ ⲉⲧⲟⲩϣⲉⲙϣⲓ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ϩⲟⲑⲙⲉⲛ. ⲁϥϭⲟⲧϭⲉⲧ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲙⲉⲙⲗⲱⲕ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁϥⲥⲱⲛⲧ ⲡⲓⲫⲱⲣ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϣⲁ 1952.

ⲙⲟϩⲁⲙⲉⲧ ⲁⲗⲓ ⲡⲁϣⲁ, ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ϧⲉⲧⲓⲟ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ

ⲙⲟϩⲁⲙⲉⲧ ⲁⲗⲓ ⲁϥⲧⲱⲙⲓ ⲡⲑⲉⲛϩⲟⲥ ⲉⲧⲥⲁϧⲏⲧ (1820–1824), ⲥⲩⲣⲓⲁ (1833) ⲛⲉⲙ ϩⲁⲛⲧⲟⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲁⲃⲓⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲁⲛⲁⲧⲟⲗⲓⲁ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲉⲩⲣⲱⲡⲏ ⲁⲩⲥⲣⲉⲙⲣⲱⲙϥ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲓⲟ ⲙ̀ⲙⲱⲟⲩ ⲉⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛϩⲟⲑⲙⲉⲛ. ⲁϥⲥⲟϩⲓ ⲛⲓⲁⲗⲁⲥⲱϯ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁϥⲕⲱⲧ ⲛⲓϥⲟⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲟⲡⲏ.

ⲁⲩⲉⲣⲫⲙⲁ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟϩⲁⲙⲉⲧ ⲁⲗⲓ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲡⲉϥϣⲏⲣⲓ ⲁⲃⲣⲁϩⲁⲙ (ⲥⲉⲡⲧⲉⲙⲃⲣⲓⲟⲥ ⲛ̀1848), ⲡⲉϥϣⲉⲛϣⲏⲣⲓ ⲁⲃⲃⲁⲥ ⲁ̅ (ⲛⲟⲉⲙⲃⲣⲓⲟⲥ ⲛ̀1848), ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲱⲥ ⲥⲁⲉⲓⲧ (1854) ⲛⲉⲙ ⲓⲥⲙⲁⲏⲗ (1863).

ϯⲙⲉⲧϧⲉⲧⲓⲟ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ (1867-1914)[edit | edit source]

ⲛⲉ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲡⲓⲑⲱϣ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲩⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲛ̀ϩⲟⲑⲙⲉⲛ ⲡⲉ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲁⲩⲧⲏⲓⲥ ⲡⲓⲧⲁⲝⲓⲥ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ϯⲙⲉⲧϧⲉⲧⲓⲟ ϧⲉⲛ 1867.

ⲁⲩⲕⲱⲧ ⲫⲓⲟⲣ ⲙ̀ⲯⲟⲥ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛϥⲣⲁⲛⲥⲁ ϧⲉⲛ 1869. ϧⲉⲛ 1875 ⲡⲓϧⲉⲧⲓⲟ ⲓⲥⲙⲁⲏⲗ ⲁϥϫⲕⲟ ⲟⲩⲧⲟⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲟⲣ ⲉⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲣⲉⲧⲛⲓⲁ ⲉⲉⲣⲉⲃⲟⲗ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲧⲁⲣⲏⲃ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲛⲓⲙⲁⲛⲁⲣⲏⲃ ⲛ̀ⲉⲩⲣⲱⲡⲏ ⲁⲩⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ.

ⲁⲩⲕⲱⲧ ⲛⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ⲁⲟⲩⲏⲧ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲙⲁⲓϣⲗⲟⲗ ϧⲉⲛ 1879 ⲛⲉⲙ ⲁϩⲙⲉⲧ ⲟⲩⲟⲣⲁⲡⲓ ϩⲱⲥ ⲡⲓϭⲁⲩⲙⲱⲓⲧ. ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲛⲓϣⲑⲟⲣⲧⲉⲣ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲙⲁⲓϣⲗⲟⲗ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲩⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲙ̀ⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ ⲁⲥⲛⲁ ⲉϧⲟⲩⲛ ϧⲉⲛ 1882 ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲥⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲡⲓⲙⲗⲁϩ ϧⲉⲛ ⲫⲛⲓϣϯ ⲛ̀ⲑⲟⲗ. ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲁⲥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲉⲣϩⲉⲙⲓ ⲙ̀ⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ.

ⲡⲓⲁϣⲁⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲁϥⲧⲱⲙⲓ ⲛⲓⲁⲟⲩⲏⲧ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲙⲁⲓϣⲗⲟⲗ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ϯⲥⲩⲛⲧⲉⲭⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉⲙϫⲏⲩ ⲛ̀1906.

ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲱⲛϩ ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ 1919. ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲟⲩⲱⲛϩ ⲥⲉⲱⲗⲓ ⲡⲓⲙⲏⲓⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲡⲓϣⲑⲟⲣⲧⲉⲣ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲓⲑⲉⲣⲓⲗⲟⲛ, ⲡⲓⲥⲧⲁⲩⲣⲟⲥ ⲛⲉⲙ ϯⲥⲓⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲇⲁⲩⲉⲓⲇ.

ϯⲙⲉⲧⲥⲟⲗⲧⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ (1914-1922)[edit | edit source]

ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲩⲧⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲛ̀ϩⲟⲑⲙⲉⲛ ⲁⲥⲛⲁ ⲉϧⲟⲩⲛ ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲧⲥ ⲛ̀ⲕⲟⲥⲙⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛ 1914 ⲥⲁⲡⲥⲁ ⲛⲓⲭⲱⲣⲁ ⲙ̀ⲙⲏϯ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲡⲓϧⲉⲧⲓⲟ ⲁⲃⲃⲁⲥ ⲃ̅ ⲁϥϯ ⲛ̀ⲧⲟⲧϥ. ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲱⲥ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ ⲁⲩⲉⲓⲣⲉ ϣⲉⲃⲓⲱ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟϥ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲉϥⲥⲟⲛ ϩⲟⲩⲥⲉⲉⲓⲛ ⲭⲁⲙⲉⲗ.

ⲁϥⲫⲓⲣⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙϩⲉ ϧⲁ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛϩⲟⲑⲙⲉⲛ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡ ϯⲧⲁⲝⲓⲥ ⲛ̀ⲥⲟⲗⲧⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ.

ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲧⲥ ⲛ̀ⲕⲟⲥⲙⲟⲥ ⲥⲁⲁⲧ ⲍⲉϩⲗⲟⲩⲗ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲓⲁⲟⲩⲃⲏⲧ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲙⲁⲓϣⲗⲟⲗ ⲁⲗⲟⲩⲉϥⲇ ⲁϥϭⲓ ⲡⲓⲛⲓϣϯ ⲛ̀ⲧⲟⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲑⲱⲟⲩⲧⲥ ⲉⲧϯϩⲁⲡ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ ⲁⲩⲉⲝⲱⲣⲓⲍⲓⲛ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟϥ ⲉⲙⲁⲗⲧⲁ. ϧⲉⲛ 8 ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲣⲧⲟⲥ 1919 ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ϣⲑⲟⲣⲧⲉⲣ ⲁϥⲉⲣϩⲏⲧⲥ ϧⲉⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲡⲓⲙⲁⲛⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ⲙ̀ⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ ⲁϥⲙⲟⲛⲕ ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲱⲛϩ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙϩⲉ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ 22 ⲙ̀ⲫⲉⲃⲣⲟⲩⲁⲣⲓⲟⲥ 1922 ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲥⲁⲁⲧ ⲍⲉϩⲗⲟⲩⲗ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲛⲟϫ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲥⲉⲣ.

ϯⲙⲉⲧⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ (1922–1953)[edit | edit source]

ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙϩⲉ ⲥⲟⲗⲧⲁⲛ ϥⲟⲩⲁⲇ ⲁ̅ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡ ϯⲧⲁⲝⲓⲥ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ.

ⲡⲓⲙⲁⲛⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡ ⲡⲓϣⲉⲣⲡϩⲁⲡ ϧⲉⲛ 1923 ⲛⲉⲙ ϯⲥⲩⲥⲧⲏⲙⲁ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲛϩⲉⲙⲥⲓ. ⲡⲓⲁⲟⲩⲃⲏⲧ ⲁⲗⲟⲩⲉϥⲇ ⲁϥⲉⲣϭⲣⲟ ϧⲉⲛ ⲛⲓⲙⲉⲧⲥⲱⲧⲡ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ 1923-1924.

ⲛⲓⲁⲗⲁⲥⲱϯ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ ⲁϥⲫⲱⲧ ϧⲁϫⲉⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ 1936 ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲁⲩⲟϩⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ⲫⲓⲟⲣ ⲛ̀ⲉⲥⲟⲩⲉⲓⲥ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩⲙⲟⲩⲛ ⲉⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲉϫⲉⲛ ⲡⲑⲉⲛϩⲟⲥ.

ϯⲙⲉⲑⲙⲏϣ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ (1953-ⲙ̀ⲫⲟⲟⲩ)[edit | edit source]

ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϣⲑⲟⲣⲧⲉⲣ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲡⲣⲁⲕⲧⲱⲣ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙϩⲉ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ 1952 ⲁⲩⲥⲓⲛⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲉⲛⲓⲙⲁⲧⲟⲓ. ⲁⲩⲕⲱⲗⲩⲱ ⲛⲓⲁⲟⲩⲏⲧ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛϫⲟⲙ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩⲫⲓⲣⲓ ⲛ̀ⲑⲙⲉⲑⲙⲏϣ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲙⲟϩⲁⲙⲉⲧ ⲛⲉϫⲓⲡ ϩⲱⲥ ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉϥϭⲓⲙⲱⲓⲧ ⲛ̀ϫⲟⲙ. ϫⲉⲙⲁⲗ ⲁⲃⲇⲉⲗⲛⲁⲥⲥⲉⲣ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲣⲉϥϭⲓⲙⲱⲓⲧ ⲛ̀ϫⲟⲙ ϧⲉⲛ 1956.

ϯⲅⲉⲱⲅⲣⲁⲫⲓⲁ[edit | edit source]

ϯϧⲉⲗⲗⲟⲧ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ ϧⲁⲧⲉⲛ ⲡⲱⲡⲓ

ⲛⲉⲙ 1,001,450 ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲭⲓⲗⲟⲙⲉⲧⲣ ⲛ̀ϥⲧⲟⲩⲛ̀ⲭⲟϩ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲧⲉ 30 ⲛ̀ϯⲛⲓϣϯ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲭⲱⲣⲁ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲕⲟⲥⲙⲟⲥ.

ⲕⲉⲥⲁ ⲛ̀ϯϧⲉⲗⲗⲟⲧ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ ⲡⲓϩⲟⲩⲟ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲕⲁϩⲓ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲟⲩϣⲁϥⲉ ⲓⲉ ⲟⲩⲕⲁⲡϣⲱ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲓⲁϣⲁⲓ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲁϩ (ϯⲟⲩⲁϩ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉⲙϫⲉ, ϥⲉⲣϥⲉⲣ, ϯⲟⲩⲁϩ ⲉⲧϩⲓϧⲟⲩⲛ, ⲥⲓⲟⲩⲁϩ ⲛⲉⲙ ϯⲟⲩⲁϩ ⲛ̀ϩⲏⲃ) ⲡⲉ. ⲛⲓⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲥⲉϫⲱⲓⲗⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ϯϧⲉⲗⲗⲟⲧ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲭⲣⲱⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓⲁⲙⲁⲓⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲧⲱⲟⲩⲛ 98% ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲥⲉⲱⲛϧ ϧⲉⲛ 3% ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲡⲓⲕⲁϩⲓ.

ⲛⲓⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓϯⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲥⲉⲱⲡ ⲉϧⲟⲩⲛ ⲉ ϯⲙⲁϩⲥⲛⲁⲩ ⲛ̀ϯⲛⲓϣϯ ⲙ̀ⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲣⲁⲕⲟϯ, ⲥⲟⲩⲁⲛ, ϯϫⲁϫⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ϯⲛⲓϣϯ ⲙ̀ⲃⲁⲕⲓ ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ, ϯϣⲁⲓⲣⲓ, ϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲓⲥ ⲉⲧⲉ ⲡⲓⲙⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲡⲩⲣⲁⲙⲓⲥ ⲱ, ⲕⲉⲣⲧⲉⲕⲁ, ⲡⲱⲡⲓ, ⲙⲃⲱ, ⲥⲉϥⲁϫⲁ, ϯⲉⲙⲣⲱ ⲛ̀ⲥⲁⲉⲓⲧ, ⲫⲙⲁⲙⲫⲱϣ ⲛ̀ⲥⲁϧ, ⲡⲉⲥⲟⲩⲉⲓⲥ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲫⲓⲟⲣ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉⲥⲟⲩⲉⲓⲥ, ⲙⲁⲛϫⲉⲕϫⲓⲕ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲑⲙⲟⲛⲏ. ⲛⲓⲙⲁⲛⲛⲁϣϯ ⲥⲉⲱⲡ ⲉϧⲟⲩⲛ ⲉ ⲁⲫⲉ ⲙ̀ⲡⲟⲥⲓⲇⲱⲛⲓⲟⲥ (ⲁⲫⲉ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟϩⲁⲙⲉⲧ), ⲍⲉⲣⲁⲛⲓⲕ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲥⲓⲟⲩⲁϩ.

ⲁⲏⲣ[edit | edit source]

ⲡⲓⲭⲓⲱⲛ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲧⲱⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲁⲓⲕⲁⲧⲉⲣⲓⲛⲏ ϧⲉⲛ ⲥⲓⲛⲁ

ϥϩⲱⲟⲩ ϧⲉⲛ ⲛⲓⲉⲃⲏⲧ ⲙ̀ⲫⲣⲱ ϧⲉⲛ ⲧⲥⲁϧⲏⲧ. ⲡⲓⲭⲓⲱⲛ ϥ̀ⲛⲟⲛⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ⲛⲓⲧⲱⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲥⲓⲛⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲣⲟ ϩⲱⲥ ⲧⲁⲙⲓⲁϯ, ⲡⲉⲗⲑⲱⲙ ⲓⲉ ⲯⲁϧⲡⲉⲣⲁⲛⲓ.

ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲥ̀ϧⲙⲟⲙ, ⲥ̀ⲧⲱⲥ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲟⲩⲥⲉⲕⲥⲓⲕ ⲧⲉ. ⲫⲙⲁⲣⲏⲥ ⲟⲩⲟⲛⲧⲉϥ ⲛⲓⲑϧⲙⲟⲧⲱⲧⲉⲣ ⲛ̀ⲛⲉϣⲧⲉ ⲉϩⲟⲧⲉ 40 °C ⲉⲑⲃⲉ ⲡⲑⲟⲩⲣⲏⲥ.

ϯⲇⲏⲙⲟⲅⲣⲁⲫⲓⲁ[edit | edit source]

ⲡⲓϣⲗⲟⲗ[edit | edit source]

ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ 2017 ⲡⲓⲥⲧⲉⲟⲩⲓϯⲟⲩ ⲙ̀ⲙⲓⲗⲓⲱⲛ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲥⲉϫⲁⲗⲏⲟⲩⲧ ⲉⲭⲏⲙⲓ. ϩⲟⲩⲟ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲫⲙⲁ ⲡⲉ ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ. ϧⲉⲛ ⲫⲣⲏⲥ ⲛ̀ϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ ⲥⲉϫⲁⲗⲏⲟⲩⲧ ϫⲱⲧ ⲛ̀ⲑⲃⲁ ⲛ̀ⲉⲑⲱϣ. ⲛⲉ ⲟⲩⲟⲛ ⲟⲩⲙⲏϣ ⲛ̀ⲓⲟⲩⲇⲁⲓ ⲛⲉⲙⲟⲩⲉⲓⲛⲓⲛ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲉⲙϩⲓⲧ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ, ⲙⲁⲥⲁⲗⲁⲛ ϧⲉⲛ ⲣⲁⲕⲟϯ ϧⲉⲛ ϯϩⲓⲥⲧⲟⲣⲓⲁ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲙ̀ⲫⲟⲟⲩ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟⲛ ⲙⲏϣ.

ⲡⲓⲙⲟⲛⲁⲥⲧⲏⲣⲓⲟⲛ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛ ϯϣⲁϥⲉ ⲛ̀ⲝⲏⲛⲏ

ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ[edit | edit source]

ⲙ̀ⲫⲟⲟⲩ ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ⲧⲉ ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲉⲧⲉⲛϩⲟⲧ ⲛⲉⲙ ϫⲟⲙ ϧⲉⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲧⲏⲣϥ. ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ (ⲛ̀ⲕⲩⲡⲧⲁⲓⲟⲛ) ⲧⲉ ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲉⲧⲉⲛϩⲟⲧ ⲛ̀ϯⲉⲕⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ϩⲁⲛⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲥⲉⲥⲁϫⲓ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟⲥ. ⲟⲩⲏⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲥⲉⲥⲁϫⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲉⲑⲱϣ ϧⲉⲛ ⲫⲣⲏⲥ ⲛ̀ⲥⲟⲩⲁⲛ ϧⲉⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ. ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲥⲉⲥⲁϫⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲙⲁⲍⲓⲝ ⲛϫⲉ ⲟⲩⲏⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ⲥⲓⲟⲩⲁϩ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲑⲱϣ ⲙⲉⲑⲣⲱϩ. ϧⲉⲛ ⲫⲣⲏⲥ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲑⲱϣ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲟⲙ ⲛ̀ϩⲁϩ, ϩⲁⲛⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲥⲉⲥⲁϫⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲙ̀ⲃⲁⲗϩⲙⲱⲟⲩ ⲉⲧⲉ ⲟⲩⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲟⲩⲥ. ⳿ⲉ⳿ⲡϧⲁⲉ, ⲟⲩⲏⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲥⲉⲥⲁϫⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲧⲟⲙ (ⲓⲉ ⲧⲟⲙⲉⲣⲓ) ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲑⲱϣ ⲛ̀ⲧⲭⲉϩⲗⲓ [8].

ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛϣⲉⲙϣⲓ[edit | edit source]

ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛϣⲉⲙϣⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲫⲙⲁ ⲛ̀ⲁⲡⲁⲥ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛϣⲉⲙϣⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ. ⲙ̀ⲫⲟⲟⲩ ⲡⲓⲥⲧⲉⲟⲩⲓ ϧⲉⲛϣⲉ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲡⲉ ⲛⲓⲗⲁϩⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲥⲟⲩⲛⲛⲉ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲙⲏⲧ ϧⲉⲛϣⲉ ⲡⲉ ⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲁⲛⲟⲥ. ⲛⲉ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲡⲉ ϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ ⲛ̀ⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲓⲁⲛⲟⲥ ϣⲁ ϯⲙⲉⲧϣⲉ ⲍ̅ ⲛⲉⲙ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲇⲁⲙⲁⲍⲓⲛ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ. ⲁⲗⲓⲥⲗⲁⲙ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛϣⲉⲙϣⲓ ⲉⲧⲉⲛϩⲟⲧ ⲛⲉⲙ ϯϣⲉⲣⲓⲁⲁ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲡⲓⲛⲓϣϯ ⲙ̀ⲡⲏⲅⲏ ⲛⲛⲟⲙⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲉⲣⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲁⲛⲟⲩⲉⲣ ⲁⲥⲁⲇⲁⲧ. ⲓ̅ⲉ̅ ⲙ̀ⲙⲓⲗⲓⲱⲛ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲉ ⲛⲓⲥⲟⲩϥⲓ.

ϧⲁϫⲉⲛ ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛⲉⲣⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ]ⲧⲉ ⲛⲁⲥⲉⲣ ⲛⲓⲛⲓϣϯ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧϣⲫⲏⲣ ⲛ̀ⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲓⲁⲛⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓⲟⲩⲉⲓⲛⲓⲛ, ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲙⲉⲛⲓⲁ, ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲓⲧⲁⲗⲓⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲙⲁⲗⲑⲁ ⲁⲩϫⲱⲓⲗⲓ ϧⲉⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ.

ⲡⲓϣⲗⲟⲗ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϥ̀ϣⲱⲡ ϩⲟ ⲡⲓϣⲟⲙⲧ ⲛ̀ϫⲓⲛϣⲉⲙϣⲓ – ⲡⲁⲗⲓⲥⲗⲁⲙ, ϯⲙⲉⲧⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲓⲁⲛⲟⲥ ⲛⲉⲙ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲓⲟⲩⲇⲁⲓ. ⲁⲩⲇⲓⲱⲕⲓ ⲛⲓⲕⲉⲭⲱⲟⲩⲛⲓ ϩⲱⲥ ⲃⲉϩⲁⲓ ⲓⲉ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁϩⲙⲉⲧ.

ⲛⲉⲛⲑⲱϣ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ[edit | edit source]

ⲟⲩⲗⲓⲙⲏⲛ ⲛ̀ⲛⲉⲛⲑⲱϣ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ

ⲟⲩⲟⲛⲧⲉ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϫⲱⲧϣⲁϣϥ ⲛ̀ⲑⲱϣ. ⲛⲁⲓ ⲛⲉ ⲛⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲛⲓⲑⲱⲱϣ:

  1. ⲡⲁⲣⲁⲓⲧⲟⲛⲓ
  2. ⲣⲁⲕⲟϯ
  3. ⲫⲗⲓⲙⲛⲏ
  4. ⲡⲓⲕⲁⲫⲁⲣ ⲛ̀ϧⲉⲗⲗⲟ
  5. ⲧⲭⲉϩⲗⲓ
  6. ⲧⲁⲙⲓⲁϯ
  7. ϯⲉⲙⲣⲱ ⲛ̀ⲥⲁⲉⲓⲧ
  8. ⲥⲓⲛⲁ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉⲙϩⲓⲧ
  9. ⲡⲉⲙⲉⲛⲧ
  10. ⲡⲁⲛⲟⲩϥⲓ
  11. ⲕⲁⲗⲓⲱⲡⲓ
  12. ⲡⲓⲉⲃⲧ
  13. ⲫⲙⲁⲛⲓⲥⲙⲁⲏⲗ
  14. ϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲓⲥ
  15. ⲫⲓⲟⲙ
  16. ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ
  17. ⲡⲉⲥⲥⲟⲩⲉⲓⲥ
  18. ⲥⲓⲛⲁ ⲙ̀ⲫⲣⲏⲥ
  19. ⲫⲙⲁⲙⲡⲥⲱⲟⲩⲁϩ
  20. ⲑⲙⲟⲛⲏ
  21. ϯϧⲉⲗⲗⲟⲧ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ
  22. ⲥⲓⲱⲟⲩⲧ
  23. ⲫⲓⲟⲙ ⲛ̀ϩⲁϩ
  24. ⲃⲟⲙⲡⲁϩⲟ
  25. ⲕⲁⲓⲛⲏ
  26. ⲡⲱⲡⲓ
  27. ⲥⲟⲩⲁⲛ

ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛϫⲟⲙ[edit | edit source]

ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲡⲉ ⲟⲩⲙⲉⲧⲙⲏϣ ⲛ̀ⲇⲏⲙⲟⲕⲣⲁⲧⲓⲕⲟⲛ ⲙ̀ⲫⲟⲟⲩ. ⲡⲓⲣⲉϥϭⲓⲙⲱⲓⲧ ⲡⲉ ⲁⲡⲧⲉⲗϥⲁⲧⲧⲁϩ ⲁⲥⲥⲓⲥⲓ. ⲡⲓⲛⲟϫ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲥⲉⲣ ⲡⲉ ⲙⲟⲥⲧⲁϥⲁ ⲙⲉⲧⲡⲱⲗⲓ.

ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛϣⲁⲛϣ[edit | edit source]

ⲟⲩⲟⲛ ⲟⲩⲙⲏϣ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲛⲥⲱⲟⲩⲛ ϧⲉⲛ ⲧⲁⲓⲭⲱⲣⲁ. ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲛⲥⲱⲟⲩⲛ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲓⲙⲁⲛⲥⲱⲟⲩⲛ ⲛ̀ⲁⲗⲁⲍϩⲉⲣ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲥⲟⲛⲧϥ ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ 972. ⲁⲩⲥⲉⲛⲧ ⲡⲓⲙⲁⲛⲥⲱⲟⲩⲛ ⲛ̀ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ϧⲉⲛϯⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ 1908. ⲙ̀ⲫⲟⲟⲩ ⲟⲩⲟⲛ ϫⲱⲧⲯⲓⲧ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲛⲥⲱⲟⲩⲛ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧϩⲱⲕ ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ.

ⲛⲉⲛϣⲁⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ[edit | edit source]

ⲛⲉⲛϣⲁⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲁⲕⲓ[edit | edit source]

ⲛⲉⲛϣⲁⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛϣⲉⲙϣⲓ[edit | edit source]

ϩⲁⲛϫⲱⲙ ⲛ̀ⲥⲁϧ[edit | edit source]

  1. "Population Estimates By Sex & Governorate 1/1/2015", Capmas.Gov - Arab Republic of Egypt, 21 March 2015.
  2. http://www.capmas.gov.eg/?lang=2 Population Clock Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics
  3. "Egypt", International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  4. "2016 Human Development Report", United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
  5. Paulus Ernestus Jahlonskius. Opuscula quibus lingua et antiquitas Aegyptiorum difficilia livrorum sacrorum loca et historiae ecclesiasticae capita illustrantur. Tomus primus. Lugduni Batavorum 1804, p. 416-417)
  6. Midant-Reynes, Béatrix. The Prehistory of Egypt: From the First Egyptians to the First Kings. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
  7. "The Nile Valley 6000–4000 BC Neolithic". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 8 February 2009. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  8. Egypt - Languages | Ethnologue