Wp/cop/ⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ

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ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ
القاهرة‎
ϯϩⲛⲟⲩⲛⲧⲙⲏ
Kashromi panorama.jpg
ⲉϣⲉⲟⲩⲛⲟⲩ: ⲡⲓⲛⲁⲩ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ, ⲡⲁⲗⲙⲁⲥⲧⲓϭ ⲛ̀̀ⲉⲓⲡⲛ ⲑⲱⲗⲱⲛ, ⲡⲓϣⲑⲉϩ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟⲩⲓⲍ, ⲡⲓⲙⲟⲩⲥⲉⲓⲟⲛ ⲛ̀ⲕⲩⲡⲧⲁⲓⲟⲛ, ⲡⲓⲡⲁⲣⲕ ⲛ̀ⲁⲗⲁⲍϩⲁⲣ, ⲡⲓⲕⲁⲥⲧⲣⲟⲛ ⲙ̀ⲡⲁⲣⲟⲛ, ⲡⲓⲙⲁⲛⲥⲱⲟⲩⲛ ⲛ̀ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ
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ⲡⲓⲙⲏⲓⲛⲓ
ⲟⲩⲑⲟⲭⲏⲙⲓ
ⲟⲩⲑⲱϣⲛ̀ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ
ⲟⲩⲣⲁⲙⲟⲁⲧⲉϥ ⲁⲡⲧⲉⲗϩⲁⲙⲓⲧ

ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲓⲉ ⲗⲓⲟⲩⲓ (ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ: القاهرة‎ ⲁⲗⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲁ) ⲧⲉ ϯϫⲁϫⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ϯⲛⲟϫ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲉⲃⲧ ⲙ̀ⲙⲏϯ. ⲙⲏⲧ ⲛ̀ϩⲁϩ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲥⲉϩⲉⲙⲥⲓ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲩ.

ⲡⲓⲣⲉⲛϯⲙⲓ[edit]

ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲙⲏϣ ⲛ̀ⲥⲟⲡ ⲥⲉϯⲣⲉⲛ ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲙⲁⲥⲣ (ⲭⲏⲙⲓ) ⲉⲑⲃⲉ ⲙⲉⲧⲛⲓϣϯ ⲙ̀ⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲉϯⲭⲱⲣⲁ.

ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲉⲧⲉⲛϩⲟⲧ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ⲁⲗⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲁ ϥ̀ϫⲉⲣⲉ "ⲡⲓⲣⲉϥⲇⲁⲙⲁⲍⲓⲛ" ⲉⲑⲃⲉ ϯⲙⲉⲑⲣⲏ ⲛ̀ϩⲁⲣⲑⲱϣ (ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ: النجم القاهر‎ ⲁⲛⲛⲁϫⲙ ⲁⲗⲕⲁϩⲓⲣ) ⲉⲧⲛⲁϥϣⲁⲓ ⲉⲧⲁⲩⲥⲉⲛⲧ ⲛ̀ϯⲃⲁⲕⲓ.[1]

ⲛⲁϣⲉ ⲛⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ: ⲕⲉϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲭⲁⲓⲣⲟⲛ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲁϩ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲉⲧⲉⲛϩⲟⲧ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓϯⲙⲓ. ⲣⲉⲛⲥ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ⲡⲉ القاهرة‎.

ϯⲥⲧⲟⲣⲓⲁ[edit]

ϯⲥⲉⲛϯ[edit]

ⲁⲩⲥⲟⲛⲧⲥ ϧⲉⲛϯⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ 969 ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲥⲧⲣⲁⲧⲏⲧⲗⲁⲧⲏⲥ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲫⲱⲣ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲁϯⲙⲁ ϫⲱϩⲁⲣ ⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲥⲓⲕⲉⲗⲓⲁ. ⲁⲩⲉⲣⲇⲁⲙⲁⲍⲓⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲓⲥϫⲉⲛ ⲧⲟⲩⲃⲁⲥⲓⲥ Ϧⲉⲛ ⲁⲫⲣⲓⲕⲏ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩⲥⲉⲛⲧ ϯⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲟⲙϯ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ ⲡⲁⲣⲁ ⲫⲩⲥⲧⲁⲧⲱⲛ ⲁⲩϯⲣⲉⲛ ϯⲙⲓⲛⲙⲁⲛⲥⲟⲩⲣ (ⲁⲗⲙⲁⲛⲥⲟⲩⲣⲓⲁ) ⲉⲧⲁϥⲉⲣϫⲁϫⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲁⲗϧⲁⲗⲓϥⲁ. ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ϯⲉⲛⲧⲟⲗⲏ ⲙ̀ⲡⲁⲗϧⲁⲗⲓϥⲁ ⲙⲟⲩⲉⲥ ϫⲁⲟⲩϩⲁⲣ ⲟⲛ ⲁⲩⲥⲉⲛⲧ ⲡⲁⲗⲙⲁⲥⲧⲓϭ ⲁⲗⲁⲍϩⲁⲣ ⲉⲧⲁϥⲣⲱⲧ ⲉϦⲟⲩⲛ ϯⲙⲁϩϣⲟⲙϯ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲁⲡⲁⲥ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲙⲁⲛⲥⲱⲟⲩⲛ ⲛ̀ⲕⲟⲥⲙⲟⲥ. ⲁⲗⲙⲟⲩⲓⲍ ⲉⲧⲁϥⲓ ⲓⲥϫⲉⲛ ϯϫⲁϫⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛϥⲁⲧⲙⲁ ⲛ̀ⲁⲡⲁⲥ ⲙⲁϩⲧⲓⲁ ⲉⲧϦⲉⲛ ⲑⲱⲛⲓⲥ ⲉϯϫⲁϫⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ Ϧⲉⲛ 973 ⲁϥⲙⲟⲩϯⲥ ⲉⲡⲓⲣⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ ⲙ̀ⲫⲟⲟⲩ – ⲁⲗⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲁ.’’

ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲛ̀ϫⲓⲛⲥⲱⲛⲧ ⲛ̀ⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ϯϫⲁϫⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧϩⲱⲕ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡ Ϧⲉⲛ ⲫⲩⲥⲧⲁⲧⲱⲛ ⲉ̀200 ⲛ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ ϣⲁⲉϦⲟⲩⲛ ⲉⲧⲉⲥⲣⲱⲕϩ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛϥⲁⲧⲙⲁ ϩⲁ ⲙⲉⲧⲁⲣⲭⲏ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲗⲁⲥⲁϧ ϣⲁⲟⲩⲁⲣ ⲉⲧⲁⲩⲓⲣⲓ ⲉϭⲓ ⲣⲱϫⲓⲛⲇⲙⲁⲍⲓⲛ ⲛ̀ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲛⲓⲥⲧⲁⲩⲣⲟⲫⲟⲣⲟⲥ. ⲁⲩⲕⲓⲙ ϯϫⲁϫⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ϣⲁ ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲉⲧⲁⲩⲟⲩⲟⲥⲑⲉⲛ ⲉⲃⲟⲗⲫⲩⲥⲧⲁⲧⲱⲛ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓϫⲁϫⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲡⲁⲥ ⲙⲓⲥⲧⲣⲁⲙ (ⲁⲗⲁⲥⲕⲁⲣ) ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲣⲁⲃⲏ (ⲁⲗⲕⲁⲑⲁⲓ). ⲧⲁⲓⲧⲟⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲁⲩⲥⲱⲟⲩⲛ ϩⲱⲥ «ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲡⲁⲥ» ⲙ̀ⲫⲟⲟⲩ.

ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ϯⲁⲑⲗⲏⲥⲓⲥ ⲟⲩⲧⲉ ϣⲁⲟⲩⲁⲣ, ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲛ̀ⲓⲉⲣⲟⲩⲥⲁⲗⲏⲙ ⲁⲙⲟⲩⲣⲓ ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲓⲥⲧⲣⲁⲧⲏⲧⲗⲁⲧⲏⲥ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲍⲉⲛⲕⲓ ϣⲓⲣⲕⲟⲩϩ ⲁⲩⲉⲣϫⲱⲃ ⲡⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛϥⲁⲧⲙⲁ.

Ϧⲉⲛ 1169 ⲁⲩⲑⲱϣ ⲉⲡⲓⲗⲁⲥⲁϦ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲥⲁⲗⲁϩⲁⲧⲓⲛ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛϥⲁⲧⲙⲁ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ 2 ⲛ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ ⲁϥⲁⲙⲟⲛⲓ ⲡⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ϯⲙϩⲱⲟⲩⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲗϩⲁⲗⲓϥⲁ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛϥⲁⲧⲙⲁ ⲛ̀Ϧⲁⲓⲉ ⲁⲗⲁⲧⲓⲧ. ⲁϥⲥⲉⲙⲛⲓ ⲡⲓⲫⲱⲣ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲓⲱⲃ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲁϥⲉⲣⲥⲟⲩⲗⲑⲁⲛ ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ. ⲉⲧⲓ ⲧⲉϥϫⲓⲛⲉⲣⲟⲩⲣⲟ ⲁⲩⲥⲉⲙⲛⲓ ⲡⲓⲕⲁⲥⲧⲣⲟⲛ ⲛ̀ⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲉⲧⲁϥⲉⲣⲃⲱⲕ ϩⲱⲥ ϯⲕⲁⲑⲉⲇⲣⲁ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧϩⲱⲕ ϣⲁ ϯⲙⲏϯ ⲛϯⲙⲉⲧϣⲉ ⲓ̅ⲑ̅.

Ϧⲉⲛ 1250 ⲛⲓⲙⲁⲧⲟⲓ ⲙ̀ⲃⲱⲕ ⲁⲩϯⲣⲉⲛ ⲛⲓⲙⲁⲙⲗⲟⲩⲕ ⲁⲩϩⲱⲗⲉⲙ ⲡⲉⲣϣⲓϣⲓ Ϧⲉⲛ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲁⲩⲉⲣϫⲁϫⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲟⲩⲫⲱⲣ ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ. ⲙ̀ⲫⲣⲏϯ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲓⲱⲃ ⲛⲁⲩϫⲕⲱ ⲡⲓϩⲟⲩⲟ ⲛ̀ⲕⲁϩⲓ ⲉⲧⲛⲁⲩⲟϩⲓ ⲛⲓⲡⲁⲗⲗⲁⲧⲓⲟⲛ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛϥⲁⲧⲙⲁ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁⲩⲉⲣϣⲉⲃⲓⲱ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲙⲉⲧⲕⲱⲧ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ. ⲛⲓϩⲱⲃ ⲛ̀ϫⲓⲛⲕⲱⲧ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲙⲁⲙⲗⲟⲩⲕ ⲁⲩⲟⲩⲟⲥⲑⲉⲛ ⲛⲓϭⲓⲏ ⲙ̀ϯⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲁⲗⲗⲁⲕⲁⲓ ⲁⲩⲓⲛⲓ Ϧⲁⲙⲟⲩⲛⲕ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ ϣⲁ ⲡⲓⲉⲃ ⲙ̀ϯⲃⲁⲕⲓ. ⲙⲡⲁⲓⲛⲁⲩ ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲁϥⲟⲩⲱⲗⲓ ⲙ̀ⲫⲣⲏϯ ⲟⲩⲓⲉⲃ ⲛ̀ⲥⲱⲟⲩⲛ ⲛ̀ⲁⲗⲓⲥⲗⲁⲙ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛ̀ϯⲓⲉⲃϣⲱⲧ ⲛ̀ⲁⲣⲱⲙⲁ. Ϧⲉⲛ 1340 ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡ ⲡⲓⲛⲟϫ ⲙ̀ϯⲃⲁⲕⲓ Ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲉⲙⲉⲛⲧ ⲛ̀ϭⲓⲛ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲣⲉϥϫⲟⲣϫ ⲛ̀ϫⲟⲥ ⲛ̀ϩⲁϩ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲓ.

ⲡⲓⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲟⲥⲙⲁⲛ[edit]

ⲡⲓⲙⲟⲩ ⲛ̀ⲭⲁⲙⲉ ⲁϥϩⲓⲟⲩⲓ ϯⲃⲁⲕⲓ ϩⲟⲧⲉ ⲉⲧⲉⲃⲓ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲥⲏⲟⲩ ⲓⲥϫⲉⲛ 1348 ϣⲁ 1517 ⲉⲧⲁϥϦⲱⲧⲉⲃ ⲁⲟⲩⲏⲣ 200.000 ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲛⲓⲣⲉϥϫⲟⲣϫ ⲛ̀ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲁⲟⲩⲏⲣ 150,000 – 300,000. ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛϯⲙⲏⲓⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲁⲩⲉⲣⲥⲃⲟⲕ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲃⲁⲥⲕⲟ ⲧⲁ ⲅⲁⲙⲁ ⲁϥϫⲓⲙⲓ ⲡⲓⲙⲱⲓⲧ ⲛ̀ⲓⲟⲙ ⲉ̀ⲕⲟⲧ ⲛ̀ϯⲁⲫⲉ ⲛ̀ⲉⲗⲡⲓⲥ ⲛ̀ⲛⲟⲩϥⲓ Ϧⲉⲛ ⲑⲙⲏϯ 1497 ⲛⲉⲙ 1499 ⲉⲧⲁϥⲭⲁ ⲙⲁ ⲛⲓϣⲟϯ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲁⲣⲱⲙⲁ ⲉⲉⲣⲉⲃⲟⲗ ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ. ⲁⲥⲥⲱⲣⲉⲙ ⲧⲉϥϫⲓⲛϯⲙⲏⲓⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ϩⲟⲩⲟ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲟⲥⲙⲁⲛ ⲁⲩⲁⲙⲟⲛⲓ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ Ϧⲉⲛ 1517. ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲁⲥϣⲱⲡⲓ ϯϫⲁϫⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲑⲱϣ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲉⲧⲁⲩⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲛ̀ⲕⲱⲥⲧⲁⲛⲧⲓⲛⲟⲩⲡⲟⲗⲓⲥ. ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲉⲧⲓ ϯⲙⲉⲧϣⲉ ⲓ̅ⲋ̅ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲓ̅ⲍ̅ ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲁⲥⲙⲟⲩⲛ ⲡⲓⲉⲃ ⲛ̀ϫⲓⲛϯⲙⲏⲓⲛⲓ ⲛ̀ⲟⲓⲕⲟⲛⲟⲙⲓⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲥⲭⲁⲓ. ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉⲥϣⲟⲡ Ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲙⲱⲓⲧ ⲛ̀ϯⲁⲣⲱⲙⲁ, ϯⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲁⲥⲉⲣⲙⲟⲑⲛⲉⲥ ϫⲓⲛⲫⲟⲛⲕ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲡⲟⲛ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉⲙⲉⲛ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓϩⲃⲱⲥ ⲛ̀ϩⲉⲛⲧ ⲉ̀ⲁⲛⲁⲧⲟⲗⲓⲁ, ⲁⲫⲣⲓⲕⲏ ⲉⲧⲥⲁϦⲏⲧ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲁⲗⲕⲁⲛ. ⲛⲓϣⲟⲧ ⲛ̀ⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲁⲩⲥⲁϩⲛⲓ ⲛⲓⲁⲃⲓⲛ ⲉ̀ϩⲓϫⲁⲍ ⲛ̀ⲁⲧϭⲣⲏⲛ ⲉⲧⲓ ⲁⲗϩⲁϫ.

ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ Ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲙⲉⲧϣⲉ ⲓ̅ⲑ̅

Ϧⲁⲣⲟ ⲡⲓⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲟⲥⲙⲁⲛ ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲁⲥϭⲓⲙⲁⲓⲏ ⲉ̀ⲟⲩⲣⲏⲥ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲟⲩⲉⲙⲉⲛⲧ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉⲥⲓⲉⲃ Ϧⲉⲛ ⲡⲓⲟⲩⲁⲛ. ϯⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡ ϯⲙⲁϩⲥⲛⲟⲩϯ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲛⲟϫ ⲛ̀ⲛⲓⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲉⲣⲁⲙⲁϩⲓ ⲛ̀ⲟⲥⲙⲁⲛ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲉϣⲱⲡ Ϧⲉⲛ 1798 ⲛⲁⲡⲟⲗⲉⲱⲛ ⲁϥⲫⲟϩⲥ 300,000 ⲛ̀ϩⲁⲛⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲁⲩⲱⲛϦ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲩ.

ⲡⲓⲁⲗⲓϣⲕⲁⲗ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛϥⲣⲁⲛⲥⲁ ⲁⲩϫⲱⲕ Ϧⲉⲛ 1801 ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲟⲥⲙⲁⲛ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲓⲙⲏϣ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲁⲗⲡⲁⲛⲓⲁ ⲁⲩϩⲱⲗⲉⲙ ϯⲃⲁⲕⲓ. ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ ⲁⲩⲥⲉϫⲡ ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲛ̀2 ⲛ̀ⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲟⲥⲙⲁⲛ, ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲁⲗⲡⲁⲛⲓⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛⲓⲙⲁⲙⲗⲟⲩⲕ ⲛ̀ϫⲱⲃ ⲉⲙⲓϣⲓ ⲉϩⲣⲓ ⲉϫⲉⲛϯϫⲟⲙ. ⲡⲁⲓⲙⲓϣⲓ ⲁϥϯⲙⲁ ⲡⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲁⲗⲡⲁⲛⲓⲁ ⲙⲟϩⲁⲙⲉⲧ ⲁⲗⲓ ⲡⲁϣⲁ ⲉϣⲟⲡⲓ ⲁⲗⲟⲩⲁⲗⲓ Ϧⲉⲛ 1805.

ⲡⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ[edit]

ⲡⲓⲙⲁⲓⲧⲁⲛ ⲛ̀ⲡⲓⲏⲓ ⲛ̀ⲟⲡⲉⲣⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲟⲩⲕⲱ ⲛ̀ⲓⲡⲣⲁϩⲓⲙ ⲡⲁϣⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲟⲩⲁⲛϣⲉⲙⲙⲟ "ⲣⲱⲥⲓⲁ"

ϣⲁ ⲡⲉϥⲙⲟⲩ Ϧⲉⲛ 1848 ⲙⲟϩⲁⲙⲉⲧ ⲁⲗⲓ ⲡⲁϣⲁ ⲁϥⲙⲟⲛⲕ ⲛⲓϫⲓⲛⲟⲛⲧⲁⲃⲧⲉⲃ ⲛ̀ⲟⲓⲕⲟⲛⲟⲙⲓⲁ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲙ̀ⲡⲟⲗⲓⲥ ⲉⲧⲁⲩϯϥ ⲡⲓϦⲉⲙⲥ ⲛ̀ⲟⲩⲣⲉϥϩⲓⲥⲉⲛⲧ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲙ̀ⲃⲉⲣⲓ. ⲛⲓϣⲓⲃϯ ⲛ̀ϩⲟⲩⲟ ⲁⲩⲛⲏⲟⲩ Ϧⲁⲣⲟ ⲡⲉϥϣⲉⲛϣⲏⲣⲓ ⲓⲥⲙⲁⲓⲗ ⲡⲁϣⲁ (1863-1879). ⲁⲩⲉⲣⲡⲛⲉⲩⲙⲁⲧⲟⲫⲟⲣⲟⲥ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲛ ⲫⲁⲣⲓⲥ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁϥⲣⲁⲥⲟⲩⲓ ⲁⲩϩⲁⲛⲙⲁⲓⲧⲁⲛ ⲛⲉⲙ ϩⲁⲛⲙⲱⲓⲧ ⲟ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲁⲩϫⲉⲙⲙⲁ ⲉⲕⲱⲧ1 Ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲙⲏϯⲛⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲙ̀ⲙⲫⲟⲟⲩ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲩⲁⲧϥ ⲉⲑⲃⲉ ⲡⲓⲙⲟⲩⲛⲕ ⲛ̀ⲭⲣⲏⲙⲁ. ⲁϥⲓⲛⲓ ⲟⲩⲅⲁⲍ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲟⲩϫⲓⲛⲉⲣⲟⲩⲱⲓⲛⲓ ⲉ̀ϯⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁϥⲟⲩⲱⲛ ⲡⲓⲑⲉⲁⲧⲣⲟⲛ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲓⲏⲓ ⲛ̀ⲟⲡⲉⲣⲁ.

ⲡⲓⲇⲟⲩⲛ ⲛ̀ϩⲟⲩⲟ ⲉⲧⲁⲩⲥⲱϫⲡ ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲛⲓϫⲓⲛϣⲓϣⲓ ⲛ̀ⲓⲥⲙⲁⲓⲗ ⲁϥⲧⲁϣⲟ ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲟⲩⲱ ⲛ̀ⲉⲩⲣⲱⲡⲏ ⲉⲧⲁⲩⲫⲱⲗϫ ⲉⲃⲟⲗⲟⲩⲁⲗⲓϣⲕⲁⲗ ⲙ̀ⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ Ϧⲉⲛ 1882 ⲉⲧⲁϥϣⲟⲡ ϣⲁ ϯⲙⲉⲧϣⲉ ⲕ̅. ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉϥϩⲱⲃⲥ ⲙ̀ⲃⲣⲉⲧⲁⲛⲓⲁ Ϧⲉⲛ 1914. Ϧⲉⲛ 1919 ⲛⲓⲁⲡⲟⲇⲉⲓⲝⲓⲥ ⲛ̀ϣⲗⲟⲗ ⲁⲩϣⲟⲡⲓ Ϧⲉⲛ ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲉⲧⲁⲩⲧϩⲫⲟ ⲉ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙϩⲉ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ Ϧⲉⲛ 1922. ⲙⲡⲁⲓⲥⲏⲟⲩ ⲁⲩⲕⲱⲧ ϩⲁⲛⲫⲱϦⲉⲛ ⲛⲉⲙ ϩⲁⲛⲙⲓⲧⲱⲟⲩⲓ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ϯⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲁϥϭⲓⲙⲁⲓⲏ ϣⲁ ⲛⲓⲣⲁⲃⲏ ⲛ̀ϯⲙⲓⲛϭⲱⲙ, ⲛ̀ⲥⲟⲩⲙⲗⲟⲩⲕ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛ̀ⲱⲛ. ⲟⲩⲧⲉⲣⲟⲙⲡⲓ 1882 ⲛⲉⲙ 1937 ⲛⲓⲣⲉϥϫⲟⲣϫ ⲁϥⲣⲱⲧ ⲓⲥϫⲉⲛ 347,000 ϣⲁ 1.3 ⲛ̀ϩⲁϩ.

ϯⲃⲁⲕⲓ ⲁⲩϣⲱϥ ⲉⲧⲓ ⲛⲓⲁⲡⲟⲇⲉⲓⲝⲓⲥ ⲛ1952 ⲉⲧⲁⲩⲥⲱⲟⲩⲛ ϩⲱⲥ ⲡⲓⲭⲣⲱⲙ ⲛ̀ⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲙ̀ⲡⲓⲥⲏⲟⲩ ⲁⲩϦⲟⲙϦⲉⲙ 7000 ⲛ̀ϩⲁⲛⲙⲁⲛϣⲱⲧ, ⲛ̀ϩⲁⲛⲙⲁⲛϥⲓⲗⲙ, ⲛ̀ϩⲁⲛⲕⲁⲥⲓⲛⲱ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲛ̀ϩⲁⲛⲁⲛϣⲉⲙⲙⲟ. ⲙⲉⲛⲉⲛⲥⲁ ⲡⲓⲣⲁⲕⲙⲟⲛⲙⲉⲛ ⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀1952 ϫⲁⲙⲁⲗ ⲁⲡⲧⲉⲛⲛⲁⲥⲉⲣ ⲉⲭⲱ ⲛⲓⲣⲉϥϫⲟⲣϫ ⲛ̀ϩⲟⲩⲟ ⲁϥⲟⲛⲕⲱⲧ ⲡⲓⲙⲁⲓⲧⲁⲛ ⲙ̀ⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙϩⲉ ⲛⲉⲙ ⲡⲓⲕⲟⲣⲛⲓϣ ⲙ̀ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲟ.

Ϧⲉⲛ 1992 ϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲁⲩϩⲓⲟⲩⲓ ⲉⲃⲟⲗϩⲓⲧⲉⲙ ⲡⲓⲕⲉⲙⲧⲟ ⲉⲧⲁⲩⲓⲛⲓ 545 ⲛ̀ϩⲁⲛⲙⲟⲩ, 6,512 ⲛ̀ϩⲁⲛⲉⲃⲗⲁⲗⲏ ⲛⲉⲙ 50,000 ⲛ̀ϩⲁⲛⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲧⲏⲓ.

ϯⲇⲏⲙⲟⲅⲣⲁⲫⲓⲁ[edit]

ⲡⲓϣⲗⲟⲗ[edit]

ⲙⲏⲧ ⲛ̀ϩⲁϩ ⲛ̀ⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲥⲉϩⲉⲙⲥⲓ ⲙ̀ⲙⲁⲩ. ⲛⲁϣⲉ ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲭⲣⲓⲥϯⲁⲛⲟⲥ ϧⲉⲛϯⲕⲁϣⲣⲱⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲡⲁⲥ.

ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ[edit]

ⲙ̀ⲫⲟⲟⲩ ϯⲁⲥⲡⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲫⲙⲁ ⲧⲉ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲁⲣⲁⲃⲟⲥ. ⲡⲓⲗⲁⲥ ⲛ̀ⲁⲡⲁⲥ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲫⲙⲁ ⲡⲉ ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲧⲉ ⲡⲉⲙϩⲓⲧ.

ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛϣⲉⲙϣⲓ[edit]

ⲛⲁⲣⲉ ⲡⲓϣⲟⲣⲡ ⲛ̀ϫⲓⲛϣⲉⲙϣⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲫⲙⲁ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲓϫⲓⲛϣⲉⲙϣⲓ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ. ⲙ̀ⲫⲟⲟⲩ ⲡⲓϩⲟⲩⲟ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲫⲙⲁ ⲡⲉ ⲙⲟⲥⲗⲓⲙ.

ϩⲁⲛⲗⲱⲟⲩ ⲙ̀ⲃⲟⲗ[edit]

ϩⲁⲛϫⲱⲙ ⲛ̀ⲥⲁϧ[edit]

  1. "Towards a Shi'i Mediterranean Empire: Fatimid Egypt and the Founding of Cairo". I.B.Tauris. 30 July 2009. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-85771-742-9.