Wp/mnc/manju gisun

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manju hergen -i ararangge hūlarao.


ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ

Möllendorff, abkai: manju gisun
ice manju nikan: manzhu gisun
niyamangga gurun: Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg dulimbai gurun sahaliyan ula golo cicigar hoton fu ioi hiyan io i dahūr manju kergis uksurai hiyang ilan boo manju uksurai tokso
uksura: A symbol of Manchu.svg manju
anggala:
hacin: tunggus gisun -i fisen
  • julergi tunggus gisun -i mukūn
    • manju gisun -i gargan
      • manju gisun
hergen: manju hergen (tongki fuka akūngge)
manju hergen (tongki fuka sindahangge)
gurun -i gisun
gurun: Flag of China (1889–1912).svg dulimbai gurun (daicing)
sibkime kimcire ba
ba:
语言代码
ISO 639-3:

mnc

Glottolog: manc1252

bala1242 (balan mudan)
jing1263 (beging mudan)
lali1241 (lalin mudan)

濒危程度
liyan he g'o tacibun hūwašabun k'otacin šu dzujyhen -i toktobuhangge
极度危险
UNESCO AWLD CE CHS.png

manju gisun (manju hergen: ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ
ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ
) oci manju-tunggus gisun -i fisen julergi tunggus gisun -i mukūn manju gisun -i gargan -i harangga, ya si ya jeo jubki -i dergi ergi de bisire, dulimbai gurun -i emke gisun.
manju-tunggus gisun -i mukūn de uheri 12 gisun bi. tese dulimbai gurun, oros gurun -i sibir, monggo gurun de bi. dulimbai gurun de bisirengge, manju gisun, sibe gisun, heje gisun, solon gisun, 鄂伦春语, jušen gisun (emgeri gukuhebi). oros gurun de bisirengge, 埃文语, 埃文基语涅吉达尔语, 奥罗奇语, 乌德盖语, heje gisun (那乃语), 乌尔奇语, 鄂罗克语.
manju gisun oci manju -i niyamangga gisun, daicing gurun -i fonde inu gurun -i gisun[1] sehe, emke siden -i gisun bihe. terei jalin, manju hergen -i araha bukdari, cese, bithe cagan jai šu fiyelen be elgiyen -i ambula tutabuha. daicing gurun fukjin ilibuha de, alban -i bithe gemu manju hergen -i arahangge. manjusa nikansi de ishunde holboho jalin, daruhai baitalara gisun be nikan gisun de halaha. šanaha furdan de dosika nenehe amga fonde, manju nikan hergen kamciha bithe ten -i labdu oho.
manju gisun de monggo gisun, nikan gisun deri juwen gaihangge labdu bi. manju gisun -i hergen be manju hergen sembi. dade monggo hergen -i manju gisun be arafi, manju hergen be fukjin deribuhe. daicing gurun wajiha de, manjurara niyalma -i tulgiyen manju damu nikan gisun gisureme mutehebi. monggo hergen -i adali, manju hergen dele ci fejile de arambi. te manju gisun be ajigen ci baitalara niyalma muwašame 50 funcembi. sahaliyan ula golo 齐齐哈尔 hoton fu ioi hiyan io i dahūr manju kergis uksurai hiyang ilan boo manju uksurai tokso de manjurarangge labdu bi. dulimbai gurun de manju gisun be dahūme yendere aššan gemu muyahūn ojorakūbi. liyan he g'o tacibun hūwašabun k'otacin šu dzujyhen (UNESCO) manju gisun be 濒危语言 -i dolo "极度危险" jergi de faidahabi.

suduri[edit | edit source]

ᡴᡳᠶᠠᠨ
ᠴᡳᠩ
ᠮᡝᠨ ᡳ
ᠴᠠᠮᡥᠠᠨ
ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ

kiyan cing men -i camhan bithe
nikan hergen: 乾清門, manju hergen: ᡴᡳᠶᠠᠨ
ᠴᡳᠩ
ᠮᡝᠨ
ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ
ᡥᡝᡵᡤᡝᠨ ᡳ
ᠠᡵᠠᡥᠠ
「ᡩᡠᠯᡳᠮᠪᠠᡳ
ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ」

manju hergen -i araha "dulimbai gurun"

jušen -i šurdeme ba -i geren irgeten de ishunde holboho jalin, 17 -ci jalarin de ice irgeten, "manju" banjihabi.
daicing gurun -i fonde, manju gisun inu "清语", "gurun -i gisun" sehe.

sekiyen[edit | edit source]

manju oci, 海西女真, 建州女真, monggoso, nikansi sere geren uksura acabufi banjihangge.

nurgaci -i fonde, jušen hergen gukure de isika.

manju -i yargiyan kooli ejeme, 1599 -ci aniya de, nurgaci erdeni, g'ag'ai de monggo hergen be kūbulime manju -i hergen be arara seme hese wasika.[2] juwe baksi hese be aliha manggi, tongki fuka monggo hergen -i songkoi akū hergen araha. ere hacin -i hergen ineku jalan -i 建州女真 de selgiyehebi. 后金 -i iliburan jai manju -i banjin be aisilaha. amaga dahai juwan juwe uju be tongki fuka akū manju hergen -i dalbade tongki, fuka nonggifi, tongki fuka sindaha hergen araha. ere hacin -i hergen aisin gurun de selgiyehebi.

mudan[edit | edit source]

manju gisun de 6 元音音位, 19 辅音音位 bi. 元音 de a, e, dulimba -i ilan banin bi. banin adalingge 元音 ishunde 元音和谐. 辅音 de inu 和谐现象 bi. te bicibe, 元音和谐 cira ginggun akū. 词头, 词中, 词尾 -i arbun encu, emhun arara de arbun inu encu.

hergen[edit | edit source]

manju hergen -i fiyelen be tuwaki.

manju gisun manju hergen be baitalambi. manju hergen monggo hergen be kūbulime arahangge. monggo hergen 回鹘 hergen deri jihengge. manju hergen cokime iliburengge.
"ᠠᠮᠠ ama", "ᠠᡧᠠ aša (eme -i ahūta deote)", "ᡝᠮᡝ eme", "ᡝᡧᡝ eše (eme -i ahūn/deo -i sargan)" sere banin -i calabun bi. manju hergen -i araha nibcu -i boji bithe de "dulimbai gurun -i bithe" sembi.

bithei kooli[edit | edit source]

manju gisun de 辅音 uheri 25, erei dorgi 3 mudan damu nikan gisun deri juwen gaiha gisun be arara de baitalambi. 辅音 uheri 6, golmin fohoron -i calabun akū. 元音和谐律 bi, te bicibe kooli de daharakū gisun labdu, 语音同化现象 inu bi. manju gisun oci 粘着语. 主语 be julergi de, 谓语 be dulimba de, 宾语 be amargi de sindambi. 虚词 gisun -i gūnin be tucibuci ombi. 名词 de bi, 指人名词 de -i kūbulin bi. 名词 de , , 形动, 副动 sere 形态变化 bi. manju gisun oci 粘着语 -i emke. 修饰语 be 被修饰语 -i julergi de sindambi.

ᠰᡳ
ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ
ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ
ᡨᠠᠴᡳᠮᠪᡳ᠉
si manju bithe tacimbi.
2SG Manchu script to.learn-IMPF

"gene-" -i fejile de dulekengge be jorime gisurere "hV(-he)" be sindaci "gene-he" sembi.

  • tere sargan jui hoton de genehe.
that [woman child(=girl)] city/town DAT go-PST.FINITE
  • tere sargan jui boo ci tucike.
that [woman child(=girl)] house ABL go.out-PST.FINITE

副词 nonggime juwe gisun be kamcici, ujui aššan("boo ci tucimbi") be jai aššan("hoton de genembi") de holbombi.

  • tere sargan jui boo ci tucime, hoton de genehe.
that [woman child(=girl)] house ABL go.out-IMPF.CONVERB, city/town DAT go-PST.FINITE
  • tere sargan jui boo ci tucifi, hoton de genehe.
that [woman child(=girl)] house ABL go.out-PST.CONVERB, city/town DAT go-PST.FINITE
  • tere sargan jui boo ci tucicibe, hoton de genehe.
that [woman child(=girl)] house ABL go.out-CONCESSIVE.CONVERB, city/town DAT go-PST.FINITE

hican gebsun -i afaha[edit | edit source]

gebsun[edit | edit source]

[edit | edit source]
  • PL
复数 (-sa, -se, -si, -so)
[edit | edit source]

manju gisun de 5 hacin -i bi. emhun baitalaci (ᠠᠪᡴᠠ ᡳ abka -i) hergen -i fejile sindaci (ᠠᠪᡴᠠᡳ, abkai) gemu ombi. 元音和谐律 de daharakū. te bicibe, ese 后置词 waka.

  • NOM — 主格
主语 de baitalambi, fejile de nonggire 助词 umai akū.
bi weilesi.
I worker.
"I am a worker."
"我是工人"
  • DAT — 与格 (-de)
fe yamji de hoho efen jembi.
[old night](=lunar new year's eve) DAT [pod-like pastry](=dumplings) eat-IMPF.
"Eating dumplings on lunar new year's eve."
"除夕吃饺子"
  • ACC — 宾格 (-be)
i boo be weile-mbi.
he house ACC build-IMPF.
"He builds a house."
"他建一座房子"
fe kooli be dahame yabu-mbi.
old regulations ACC according.to act-IMPF.
"(Someone) acts according to old regulations."
"遵循古法"
  • ABL — 夺格 (-ci, -deri)
abka ci wasika gasha
sky ABL fall.PART bird
"The bird that fell from the sky"
"从天上落下的鸟"
  • GEN — 属格 (-i, -ni)
abkai jui
sky.GEN child
"Emperor"
"天子"
moo -i araha duka
"wood GEN make.PART door"
"A door made of wood"
"用木头做成的门=木制的门"

damu 后鼻音 -i fejile "-ni" sindambi.

lio kio gurun -i wang -ni doron
Ryukyu nation GEN king GEN seal
"Seal of the King of Ryukyu"
"琉球国王之印"

aššasun[edit | edit source]

bithe cagan[edit | edit source]

daljingga justan[edit | edit source]

asui tatan[edit | edit source]


  1. an -i gisun de amtan be sara bithe ujui debtelin (1802) gui pu, ihing
  2. manju -i yargiyan kooli ilaci debtelin