Wp/nys/Kaartdijin Noongar (Noongar Knowledge)
Nidja bibol (nidja page) be(is) about Kaartdijin Noongar (Noongar Knowledge) was started by Summer wer Katrina at Hilton Primary School il 25 November 2016:
We have been learning about the weapons and tools Noongar used to hunt, make fire, and prepare food.
We also learnt some Noongar symbols, mural paintings of hands, and some dances and games.
Kaartdijin Noongar was an oral system. Kaartdijin is very important to yennar Aboriginal peoples, wer much effort has been spent over millennia in preserving wer building Kaartdijin so that Noongar can follow the law, enabling them to successfully live il the boodjar wer interact with other mobs. You cannot just let the last word be said by the loudest, seemingly most confident personality, because that would mean you have no authoritative source. If everyone was allowed to give answers il any topic Kaartdijin would be diluted, corrupted, wer ultimately destroyed. That is why protocols were established giving elders the authority wer responsibility for Kaartdijin.
Kaartdijin is divided yira so that keny elder is the source for keny piece of Kaartdijin. That elder was selected to learn that Kaartdijin by the previous generation of elders, wer it is his or her responsibility to take il that Kaartdijin, to ensure it is consistent, wer if necessary to add to it, before teaching it to the next generation in turn. In nidja way, Noongar Kaartdijin is correct, authoritative, flexible, wer above yennar necessary wer useful for the Noongar way of life. Noongar have faced and surmounted challenges such as climate change in the past, by observing, remembering, and communicating across generations.
The oral system of Kaartdijin Noongar is now being supported by the written system (literate system) developed first by the ancient Sumerians wer Egyptians only 5000 years ago. These cultures both developed writing around 3100 BC - apparently independently, but that ignores the fact that these peoples would have had a long history of contact before the invention of writing. Literate people tend to think that oral people were isolated wer had little communication between cultures, but it is only 2,5000 km between Egypt wer Sumeria (over land, from Nasiriyah, near ancient Ur, in Iraq to Luxor, ancient Waset, in Egypt - there is also a sea route). A good definition of writing (one preferred by Mesoamerican Archaeologists) is writing is a form of visually recorded speech.
Noongar people, like other Aboriginal nations, are now literate wer are actively striving to keep their Kaartdijin, unlike many other peoples who lost their oral systems wer records of early times, leaving only their myths which are half remembered, distorted versions of the knowledge of their pre-literate cultures.
History is the study or record of past events. Pre-history is defined as the period of time before written records, so history is defined essentially as the study of events since the invention of writing. We know that nidja definition is wrong, because Aboriginal people, including Noongar, have accurate oral records - their Kaartdijin, including their history - which go back through multiple generations; for example:
- Sea level changes wer the lands lost to the sea, back at least 6000 years A story about the sea level change and the impact it had on Noongar society is given in the page Mamang (Whale) in the section "When the Wardan Levels Rose".
- Butal yog muling (Shooting star), 4,700 years ago when a fireball struck in Luritja country.
- Volcanic eruptions, even longer ago.
- The Noongar Nyitting (Dreaming or Cold Time) tells of a time when life began in a climate like that of the last ice age, more than 10,000 years ago. Noongar were in Australia a long time before 10,000 years ago, see the bibol Origins.
So Aboriginal people have pushed the boundary of history back to at least 6000 years ago, beyond the 5000 years of when the Sumerians wer Egyptians first started writing, wer in doing so changed the dictionary definitions of history wer pre-history.
Of course, in an oral tradition all kaartdijin must be memorised. This requires far better memory than most wadjela have. It is claimed that oral people, especially elders, use the 'Method of loci' to efficiently remember vast amounts of information. This method relies on associating information with specific, well known and regularly visited, geographical locations. It is suggested that Aboriginal ceremonies relevant to particular sites are used to learn, review, rehearse and revise the information associated with that site. The information can be easily accessed by physically walking past these sites, or by using the bidda (walk trail) to order the sequence of sites in the mind and recall the information that way. What was seen by wadjela as natives being idle by just sitting around yarning, was actually an integral part of acquiring and retaining kaartdijin.
Classification of Sources
Source material is classified as either a primary source, secondary source, or tertiary source. An encyclopedia such as nidja NoongarPedia is a tertiary source providing a broad but accurate wer authoritative introduction to a topic, whilst a diary is a primary source (if used to provide information about the events or people in the diary). A book written after an event by someone who was not there is a secondary source - it should provide an analysis wer review of the event but need not be impartial or balanced, it will rely either il primary sources or other secondary sources for details of the event.
Considering the oral tradition of Kaartdijin Noongar, a recording or transcript of a Noongar elder following the relevant protocols would thus be a tertiary source (authoritative wer confirmed material, as in an encyclopedia). Someone else using or editing the content of that recording would be a secondary source. However, it should be noted that in oral traditions learning is a one-to-one interaction between teacher and learner, and a competent teacher would carefully consider the abilities, character and previous learning of the student, and adjust their teaching to be appropriate and most effective for that particular student. Much in the way a good healer will consider the overall condition and wishes of a patient rather than dispensing a standard prescription based on simply identifying a health issue. Hence, the preferred means of learning kaartdijin is always directly from an elder.
Wikipedia and NoongarPedia
One recent important development in access to knowledge around the World is Wikipedia, of which of course nidja NoongarPedia is part. Nidja is an open editing model for an on-line encyclopedia, in which anyone can edit any bibol of the encyclopedia. Nidja means that the encyclopedia may not be correct, as it might just now have been edited incorrectly, so it should not be used as a reference itself. However, yennar statements in an article should be sourced, so if you wish to quote a statement from Wikipedia, you should read the source for that statement wer then quote the source directly. In other words, use Wikipedia to learn about a subject wer identify source material, but then use the source material itself to make your point. But nonetheless, Wikipedia is surprisingly accurate wer incorrect information (especially vandalism) is usually quickly corrected: a study in the journal Nature said that in 2005, Wikipedia's scientific articles came close to the level of accuracy in Encyclopædia Britannica wer had a similar rate of "serious errors". (See Reliability of Wikipedia).
As discussed il nidja bibol wer in an article by the Noongar man wer University of Sydney lecturer Clint Bracknell, there are issues with accommodating Kaartdijin Noongar with the top-down, authoritative but open style of Wikipedia. An interesting wer related issue is who "owns" a language. For Wadjela, no-one can own a language, but for indigenous people it can be important to control who is allowed to use wer develop a language, see for example the clash between the Tasmanian Aboriginal Corporation (TAC) wer Wikimedia about the English Wikipedia's "Palawa kani" page.
For karro il the NoongarPedia project see these articles: Monica Tan's article incorrectly states that NoongarPedia is Wikipedia’s first Indigenous Australian language project, but from my memory, although lost to Google, there was a previous, stalled attempt to write a Wiki for a Torres Strait mob.
The organization of Wadjela knowledge is currently going through an epoch making change. It used to based il books. Books are relatively expensive to produce, even after the invention of the printing press in Europe around the year 1440 by Johannes Gutenberg. To produce a book was a complicated process which involved at least an author, an editor or publisher, wer a printer. The result was that knowledge was precious - it was a skill to be able to find any pieces of knowledge relevant to what you were seeking in a library. Now that has yennar changed with universal access allowing anyone to post items to the Internet wer computer search applications such as Google. It has now become a skill to sift out relevant knowledge from yennar the information flooding over you. Wadjela have not developed protocols to deal with nidja new paradigm of information access, with the result that important knowledge, knowledge even vital for survival, can be discounted as "fake news", see for example the denial of man-made climate change. A related problem is the anonymity allowed by the technology, summed yira by a famous cartoon "On the Internet, nobody knows you're a dog". In the future, Wadjela knowledge may revert to being oral knowledge, supported by the Internet. We can see the beginning of nidja now, with predictive text helping people to write. When speech recognition becomes the main means of data input to the Internet, wadjela society will have gone past the literate stage, to the post-literate stage, where people will be non-literate. Something similar to the protocols developed by Aboriginal peoples to ensure the authenticity of knowledge will then become needed again.
- The website "Kaartdijin Noongar - Noongar Knowledge"
- Post literacy, about continuing wer adult education programmes for recently illiterate adults wer communities
- Wikipedia for the Papua New Guinea language Tok Pisin, similar to Torres Strait Creole: tpi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fran pes
Ngiyan waarnk - References
- Ingrid Cumming, Hilton Primary School, Perth Western Australia, 2016
- Film "Synergies : Walking Together - Belonging to Country" or "Djena Koorliny Danjoo Boodjar-ang", associated with the book by Francesca Robertson, Noel Nannup, Glen Stasiuk, Stephen Hopper. "Nyoongar Boodja : Koomba Bardip Kooratan" or "Nyoongar Land : Long Story Short". Pub Batchelor Institute. 2017. ISBN 978-1-74131-540-0
- Lynne Kelly (2016). "The Memory Code". Pub. Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, NSW. ISBN 978 1 76029 1327
- "prehistory". Cambridge Dictionary. Retrieved 10 September 2017
- Vivienne Hansen and John Horsfall. "Get well soon, the Noongar way". Australian Geographic. 1 February 2017. Retrieved 5 March 2019
- Nick Reid and Patrick D. Nunn. "Ancient Aboriginal stories preserve history of a rise in sea level". The Conversation. 12 January 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2017
- Judy Skatssoon. "Aboriginal language had ice age origins". ABC Science. Retrieved 3 September 2017
- Duane W. Hamacher. "Finding meteorite impacts in Aboriginal oral tradition". The Conversation. 4 March 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2018
- Duane W. Hamacher. "Recorded Accounts of Meteoritic Events in the Oral Traditions of Indigenous Australians". Archaeoastronomy – The Journal of Astronomy in Culture. Vol 25. Preprint. Retrieved 5 January 2018
- Patrick Nunn. "When the bullin shrieked: Aboriginal memories of volcanic eruptions thousands of years ago". ABC News. 23 August 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2017
- Giles, J. (2005). "Internet encyclopaedias go head to head: Jimmy Wales' Wikipedia comes close to Britannica in terms of the accuracy of its science entries". Nature. 438 (7070): 900–1
- Monica Tan. "Aboriginal language Wikipedia faces cultural hurdles, say researchers". The Guardian. 26 May 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2017
- Adi Robertson. "Can you own a language?". The Verge. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2017
- Monica Tan. "Introducing 'Noongarpedia' – Australia's first Indigenous Wikipedia". The Guardian. 1 September 2016. Retrieved 3 October 2017
- Meghan Woods. "Noongarpedia created as first Wikipedia site in Aboriginal language". ABC News. 11 November 2016. Retrieved 3 October 2017
- Katrin Long. "WA academics develop Noongar 'Wikipedia' to help preserve language". ABC News. 13 February 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2017
- Donald J. Trump. concept of global warming was created by and for the Chinese in order to make U.S. manufacturing non-competitive. Twitter. 6 November 2012
- Lamar Smith. "Fake News Includes Climate Change". Congressman Lamar Smith. Newsletter. Retrieved 12 September 2017