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Mazhab Athena (1509-1511) kario Raphael, mangambarkon filsuf Yunani i kaadaan na mandinoki realitas, tarinspirasi tu Arsitektur Yunani kuno

Filsafat (tingon saro Yunani φιλοσοφία, philosophia, sacara harfiah artianna "pangholong kabijaksanaan"[1][2]) ima kajian masalah umum dot mandasor tontang parsoalan songon eksistensi, parbinotoan, nile, akal, pikiran, dot saro.[3] Istilah on mungkin parjolo sanoli iobarkon ni Pythagoras (c. 570–495 SM). Metode na ipake i filsafat antara lain mambaen parsapaan, diskusi kritikal, dialektik, dot presentasi sistematik.[4] Parsapaan filosofis klasik antara lain: Ahama nanamamungkinkon giot mamboto sanga aha dot mambuktionna?[5][6][7] Aha na paling nyato? Par filsuf juo mangajuon parsapaan na lobi praktis dot konkret songon: Adongdo cara tardeges giot mangolu? Sanga lobi jeges do manjadi adil sanga inda adil (molo sasadaakak bisa lewat songoni sajo)[8] sanga alak puna giot bebas?[9]

Sacara historis, "filsafat" mancakup inti sude parbinotian.[10] Tingon jaman filsuf Yunani Kuno songon Aristoteles sampe abad pa-19, "filsafat alam" tarmasuk astronomi, kedokteran, dot fisika.[11] Contona, Prinsip Matematika Filosofi Alam kario Newton i taon 1687 i na sogot iklasifikasion manjadi buku fisika. I abad pa-19, parkombangan riset universitas modern mangobab filsafat akademik dot disiplin lain tarprofesionalisasi dot terspesialisasi.[12][13] I era modern, sadebana investigasi na sacara tradisional ima bagian tingon filsafat madung manjadi disiplin akademik na marsarak, sadebana iantarana psikologi, sosiologi, linguistik, dot ekonomi.

Investigasi lain na tarkait solkot dohot seni, sains, politik, dot piga-piga bidang lainna totop manjadi bagian tingon filsafat. Songon, bagak i objektif sanga subjektif?[14][15] Bahatdei metode ilmiah sanga umna sada maiai na adong?[16] Sanga utopia politik ni nipi namaaroptu sang umna delusi na sio-sio?[17][18][19] Sub-bidang utamo filsafat akademik iantarana metafisika ("markaitan dohot sifat dasor realitas dot adingna"),[20] epistemologi (tontang "asal-muasal dot bidang parbinotoan [dot] ... balok dot kaabsahana" [21]), etika, estetika, filsafat politik, logika, filsafat elmu, dot sejarah filsafat barat.

Sian abad pa-20, filsuf profesional markontribusi tu masyarakat tarutamo manjadi profesor, paneliti, dot panulis. Tai, bahat kalai na mamparsiajari filsafat i program sarjana sanga pascasarjana markontribusi i bidang uhum, jurnalisme, politik, agama, sains, bisnis dot bahat kagiatan seni dot hiburan.[22]

Contents

Referensi[edit]

  1. "Strong's Greek Dictionary 5385". 
  2. "Home : Oxford English Dictionary". oed.com. 
  3. A.C. Grayling, Philosophy 1: A Guide through the Subject (Oxford University Press, 1998), p. 1: "The aim of philosophical inquiry is to gain insight into questions about knowledge, truth, reason, reality, meaning, mind, and value."
  4. Adler, Mortimer J. (28 March 2000). How to Think About the Great Ideas: From the Great Books of Western Civilization. Chicago, Ill.: Open Court. ISBN 978-0-8126-9412-3. 
  5. Greco, John, ed. (1 October 2011). The Oxford Handbook of Skepticism (1st ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-983680-2. 
  6. Glymour, Clark (10 April 2015). "Chapters 1–6". Thinking Things Through: An Introduction to Philosophical Issues and Achievements (2nd ed.). A Bradford Book. ISBN 978-0-262-52720-0. 
  7. "Contemporary Skepticism | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy". www.iep.utm.edu. isise 25 April 2016. 
  8. "The Internet Classics Archive | The Republic by Plato". classics.mit.edu. isise 25 April 2016. 
  9. "Free Will | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy". www.iep.utm.edu. isise 25 April 2016. 
  10. "Philosophy". www.etymonline.com. Online Etymological Dictionary. isise 19 March 2016. The English word "philosophy" is first attested to c. 1300, meaning "knowledge, body of knowledge." 
  11. Lindberg 2007, hlm. 3.
  12. Shapin, Steven (1 January 1998). The Scientific Revolution (1st ed.). University Of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-75021-7. 
  13. Briggle, Robert Frodeman and Adam. "When Philosophy Lost Its Way". Opinionator. isise 25 April 2016. 
  14. Sartwell, Crispin (1 January 2014). Zalta, Edward N., ed. Beauty (Spring 2014 ed.). 
  15. "Plato, Hippias Major | Loeb Classical Library". Loeb Classical Library. isise 27 April 2016. 
  16. Feyerabend, Paul; Hacking, Ian (11 May 2010). Against Method (4th ed.). Verso. ISBN 978-1-84467-442-8. 
  17. "Nozick, Robert: Political Philosophy | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy". www.iep.utm.edu. isise 25 April 2016. 
  18. "Rawls, John | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy". www.iep.utm.edu. isise 25 April 2016. 
  19. More, Thomas (8 May 2015). Utopia. Courier Corporation. ISBN 978-0-486-11070-7. 
  20. "Merriam-Webster Dictionary". www.merriam-webster.com. isise 14 May 2016. 
  21. "Merriam-Webster Dictionary". www.merriam-webster.com. isise 14 May 2016. 
  22. "Why Study Philosophy? An Unofficial "Daily Nous" Affiliate". www.whystudyphilosophy.com. isise 2016-05-02.