Wp/tzm/Gerolano Cardano

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Gerolamo Cardano

Gerolamo (neɣ d Girolamo, neɣ d Geronimo) Cardano (Taṭalyanit: [dʒeˈrɔlamo karˈdano]; Tafṛansist: Jérôme Cardan; Talatinit: Hieronymus Cardamus; 24 cutanbir 1501 - 21 cutanbir 1576) ikka-t-inn iga yan ugtusnak awṭalyan, ur as-yufi ad yadef ɣer tesdawit n yimejjayen acku ilul d acenti, maca waxxa yimk nna imures sul g uɣaras-nnes amm umejjay, yura ɣef tussna uggar n 200 twuriwin.

Ijgugel s tsugar-nnes d uyenna ɣer ikka da ittrara taynit g mennaw n yigran; amm umusnak, amejjay, amsennudder, amusnaw n tfizikt, amsekrar, amesennitri, afilusuf, amara d uqemmaṛ. Ittawssan s umata mas t-inn-ikka iga yan seg yimusnaken akkʷ nna mi txater tezrirt g tleslalit, yan seg wudmawen ɣur illa watig g ussersel n "probabilité" d umessidef amezwar n "coefficients binomiaux" d "théorème binomial" ɣer umaḍal awtaram, sɣur-s ad d-ikka uglam amezwaru n tawla Typhoïde. Isnulfa mennawt n tɣawsiwin, seg-sent ad naf "Cardan grille", taqcuct n Baguenaudier d usergel bu tuddsa. Isker awed kra n twafutin g waljibṛa, issummer d itsent tɣarasin ma s da iferru yan tagdiwin "quartic" d "cubic".

Ikka-t-inn Cardano g umata n tikkal da ittqemmar s war tanebbaḍt, yan g warraten-nnes, Liber de ludo aleae (Arra isawalen ɣef wuraren n wannaz), issidif dig-s tazrawt-nnes tanegrawant akkʷ izwaren n "probabilité" d yan ugezzum iqqnen ɣer uɣendef allu. Yura-t attayen n 1564, maca ittufsar i tikkelt tamezwarut ḍart mayd immut aseggʷas n 1663.

Tizwiri n tudert-nnes d usegmi[edit | edit source]

Tin tudert tanimant, 1821

Ilul-d g Pavya Lumbardya amm ucenti n Fazio Cardano, yan urgaz ɣur tekka yat tmefkit g tusnakt, iswuri amm unezzarfu d umestan, tesman-t-id akked Leonardo Da Vinci yat tiddukkla nna idusen. Yules Cardano g teskennudert-nnes tanimant ɣef yemma-s Chiara Micheri, mas teswa mennaw yisafaren n uɣray bar ad t-tesḍer g udis-nnes; "ɣef uyenna s iyi-tenna mma-nu, ldin-i-id g udis-nnes s tukkerḍa", ɛlayen ad mmteɣ", s dat n wad d ilul s yimikk, ikka-t-inn iga ccil ɣef yemma-s ad temmuti seg Milan ɣer Pavya afadd terwel i ubayyuṛ "peste" ibbaqqin dinna, iddeɣ mmten is-s tarwa-nnes yaḍnin s kraḍ-idsen.

Ikcem-nn Cardano aseggʷas 1520 tasdawit n Pavya mgal tirat n baba-s nna as-iran tiɣuriwin n uzref, ḍart yat tamẓi nna mi yixub waḍu, iktaren s waṭṭanen ur ilin ttmi, d yan usegmi immran ikkan ɣif-s, sɣur baba-s nna igan yan bu tɣennant, yufa-nn Gerolano iɣef-nnes g tayri n tfelsuft d tussna. Ammas n talgirrat tawṭalyant n 1526-1521, sbezzizen iduba n Pavya ɣef tesdawit ad tergel tifliwin-nnes aseggʷas n 1524. Ikemmel Cardano tiɣri-nnes ilemma g tesdawit n Padwa, mani g sul yumeẓ taduktuṛat-nnes g tesnijjit aseggʷas n 1525. Ur tt-tujji tmamekt-nnes tamnalant nna igan taɣribt ad ig imeddukkal d yismunen, d ula asiggel n twuri; yut dig-s tamara deffir mayd kullu ismed tiɣuriwin-nnes. Yuzen-nn Cardano tuttriwin-nnes n wadaf ɣer tɣiwanit n yimejjayen g Milan mennawt n tikkal, walayenni ur t jju qeblen s tmentilt n wis texxa tsellit-nnes, d yiddeɣ ila gar talalit, yat nna irkan iddeɣ iga acenti, maca meqqar imek nna, kkan-t-inn ayt tɣiwant-ann n yimejjayen da ttemcawaṛen id-s dima, g kraygatt tamsalt, ɣef wudem n tḥerci-nnes ur issinen mayd igan tuccḍa.

Tizwiri n (carrière)-nnes am umejjay[edit | edit source]

Ira yad lli Cardano ad ixdem tasnijjit-nnes g yat temdint imeqquren igan tanesbaɣurt zun d Milan, maca ur as-tettufka turagt i tmeskert-nnes, imek nna maɣef inna d yiɣef-nnes ad iddu izdeɣ tiɣremt n Sakkulugu, manida ixdem tasnijjit-nnes bla ur ɣur-s telli kra n turagt. Iwwel dinna Lucia Banderini aseggʷas n 1531, yuru yid-s kṛaḍ yirban ur ta iffuɣ iman-nnes aseggʷas 1546, ad ten-igan d Giovanni Battista (1543), Chiara (1537) d Aldo Urbani (1543). Yules Cardano ḍart yat tizi ɣef wussan-nna; mas nettni a g izzri ayenna igan tumert s timmad-nnes.

Iṭṭef Cardano s twizi n yidsen iristuqraṭiyen yat tesɣent g uselmed n tusnakt g Milan. Deffir mayd yumeẓ turagt-nnes tasejjant, ixdem tusnakt akked tesnijjit s yat teklit, jjin ɣef ufus-nnes imuḍan stawhemman kigan, yaɣul ilemma s tmentilt-ad iga yan seg yidukturen akkʷ nna da ttnadan midden ammas n Milan, is akkʷ yufa aseggʷas 1536 ad ifel tawuri-nnes n uselmed, d meqqar jju ur isbedd tararit-nnes n taynit ɣer tusnakt, tgula-nn ccenɛet-nnes g yiger asejjan kra n isekʷfal attuyen, is akkʷ urmen itsen yistuqraṭiyen ad t-saggugen ɣef Milan. Yura sul Cardano ḍart yat tizi mas yugi g wakud-nna tuttriwin d-kkanin igelliden n Danimark d Franṣa, d ula tagellidt n Skuṭlanda.

Tusnakt[edit | edit source]

Tafrist n Cardano illan g tinmel n tusnakt d tesnaddadt, Taɣiwant n St Andrews.

Ittwassen Cardano s mas iga amusnak akkʷ izwaren s ussemres anegrawan n wuṭṭunen uzdiren, ifser s uzday g warra-nnes n 1545 Ars Magna, afessay n Scipione del Ferro i tagda "cubic" d ufessay n unelmad-nnes Lodovico Ferrari i tagda "quartic". Ilkem-t-id afessay n yat tmackut iẓlin s tagda "cubic" {x^{3}+ax+b=0} sɣur Niccolo Fontana Tartaglia aseggʷas n 1539, nna s-inna i umata ḍart yat tizi mas as-iggulla Cardano ur tt-immala i awed yan, issenker id-s ɣef wancet-ad yan umcubbek nna iɣezzifen s tɣarast n tedyazin, maca izwar ufessay n Ferro win Fontana. Iqbel g ufaser-nnes s uyenna mi ttinin dɣi uṭṭunen isugnanen, waxxa ur yad yukiz imenzayen-nnsen nna d imettel ggu uzemz-nnes awṭalyan Rafael Bombelli i tikkelt tamezwarut. Issidef-d "Coefficient binomial" d "Théorème binomial" g warra-nnes nna igan s uzwel Nuser "proportions" imaynutnin "Opus novum de proportionibus."

Iseggʷasen-nnes gguranin d tmettant-nnes[edit | edit source]

Sin g tarwa n Cardano — Giovanni Battista d Aldo Urbano — gulan-nn tigiriwin timezdarin. Giovanni Battista, amenzu d wadda yufen ɣur-s, ittwaḥkem s wad t-ssengaran d yiɣef-nnes aseggʷas 1560, acku inɣa tamɣart-nnes s yirin ḍart mayd yufa tarwa-nnes s kṛaḍ-nnsen ur akkʷ gin winnes. Aldo Urbano ittublan s tqemmaṛt, igdel-as baba-s tukkust aseggʷas n 1569 acku ikka-t-inn da as-ittakʷer idrimen-nnes.

Immuti Cardano seg Pavya ɣer Bulunya, seg yat tesga; acku ikkes turda n wis d-ikka uḥkam n tubbya n yiɣef n memmi-s Giovanni; tazrirt n taẓit-nnes akked timmerselt takadimiyt n Pavya, d tusmin nna as-usin widda d iswurri ɣef yisemduten-nnes g yiger n tussna, d yiddeɣ t-rublen allu s tumliwin n wunufen ignusanen d yid lbaṭel n wis da iggan akked yinelmaden-nnes. Ittyamaẓ Cardano ɣur "Inquisition" aseggʷas n 1570 s yitsent tmental ur issin awed yan, ittuga-as ccil ad izzri yan mennaw n wayyuren g ubniq d wad d-isḍer tasɣent-ann-nnes n uselmed. Immuti ɣer Ṛuma, yameẓ dig-s yat "annuity" ar timḍelt sɣur wis-13 Ibabaten mass Gregory (deffir mayd yugi ubaba Pius wiss-semmus tuttra-nnes), ismed ilemma dinna taskennudert-nnes tanimant. Ittuqbal g tɣiwant tageldant n yimejjayen, ikemmel waxxa imek nna ɣef tuzrawin-nnes tifelsufiyin s wazday akked tmeskirt-nnes n tesnijjit kiɣ iffuɣ iman-nnes aseggʷas n 1576.