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ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ ᩁᩂ ᩋᩢᨠ᩠ᨡᩁᨵᩢᨾ᩠ᨾ᩼ ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᩋᩢᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨩᩲ᩶​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁᩈᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣᨸᩮ᩠ᨶᩉᩖᩢᨠᨣᩴᨤᩨ ᨣᩤᩴᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ, ᩃᩨ᩶ᨡᩨ᩠ᨶ ᩃᩣᩴ᩶ᨶᩢ᩠᩶ᨶ ​​ᩋᩣ᩠ᨧ​ᨩᩲ᩶​ᩁ᩠ᩅ᩵ᨾ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅᨴ᩠ᩅ᩠ᨿᨣᩴᨯᩱ᩶ ᩁᩬ᩶ᨦᩅ᩵ᩤᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨵᩢᨾ᩠ᨾ᩼ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ ᩓᨣᩴᨿᩢ᩠ᨦᩋᩣ᩠ᨧᨡᩲ᩶ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨳᩥ᩠᩵ᨶ​ᩋᩨ᩠᩵ᨶ​ᨶᩲ​ᨷᩲᩃᩣ᩠ᨶ ᩁᩂ​ᨻᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨷᩢ᩠ᨶᨴᩧ᩠ᨠ​ᨴᩣ᩠ᨦᨻᩩᨴ᩠ᨵ​ᩈᩣᩈᨶᩣᨴ᩠ᩅ᩠ᨿᨣᩴᨯᩱ᩶ ᪨᪨



ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ
ᨷᩕᨽᩮ᩠ᨴ ᩋᩢᨠ᩠ᨡᩁᩈᩕᨷᩕᨠᩬᨷ
ᨽᩣᩈᩣ ​ᨷᩤᩃᩦ, ᨣᩤᩴᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ, ᩃᩨ᩶, ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ, ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ, ᨸ᩠ᩃ᩻ᩢᨦ
ᩉ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨷᩕᩉ᩠ᨾᩣ᩠ᨶ ᨣ.ᩆ. ᪁᪃᪀᪀ – ᨷᩢ᩠ᨯᨯ᩠᩵ᨿᩅᨶᩦ᩶
ᩁᨷᩫ᩠ᨷᨾᩯ᩵
ᩁᨷᩫ᩠ᨷᩃᩪᨠ ᩋᩢᨠ᩠ᨡᩁᨴᩱᩃᩨ᩶ᩉ᩠ᨾᩱ᩵
ᩀᩪᨶᩥᨣᩰᩫ᩠ᨯ U+1A20–U+1AAF
ISO 15924Lana
ᨷᩫ᩠ᨴ​ᨤ᩠ᩅᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᨶᩦ᩶​ᨾᩦ​ᩈᩢᨬ᩠ᨬᩃᩢᨠ᩠ᩇᨱ᩺​ᩈᩢᨴ᩠ᨴᩆᩣᩈ᩠ᨲᩕ᩺ᩈᩢᨴ᩠ᨴᩋᩢᨠ᩠ᩇᩬᩁ​ᩈᩣᨠᩫ᩠ᩃ ᨳ᩶ᩣ​ᨾᩦ​ᨷᩢᨬ᩠ᩉᩣ ᨴ᩵ᩤ᩠ᨶᩋᩣ᩠ᨧᨧᩢ​ᩉᩢ᩠ᨶᨡᩬᩴ᩶ᨤ᩠ᩅᩣ᩠ᨾᨸᩮ᩠ᨶᨣᩕᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᨦ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩣ᩠ᨿ​ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨳᩣ᩠ᨾ ᨠᩖᩬ᩵ᨦᩈᩦ᩵ᨧᩯ᩠᩵ᨦ ​ᨣᩤᩅ᩵ᩤ​ᩈᩢᨬ᩠ᨬᩃᩢᨠ᩠ᨡᨱ᩼​ᩋᩨ᩠᩵ᨶᨴᩯ᩠ᨶ​ᩋᩢᨠ᩠ᨡᩁᩀᩪᨶᩥᨣᩰᩫ᩠ᨯ
ᨸ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨿ​ᨩᩨ᩵​ᩅᩢ᩠ᨯ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩬᩴ᩶​ᨤᩣᩴ​ᨴ᩠ᩅᨦ ᨲ᩵ᩣᩴᨷᩫ᩠ᨶ​ᩈᩕᩦᨽᩪᨾᩥ᩼ ᩋᩣᩴᨽᩮᩬᩥ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨩ᩠ᨿᨦᩉ᩠ᨾᩱ᩵ ᨧᩢ᩠ᨦᩉ᩠ᩅᩢᨯ​ᨩ᩠ᨿᨦᩉ᩠ᨾᩱ᩵ ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨯᩰ᩠ᨿᨩᩱ᩶ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ (ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨵᩢᨾ᩠ᨾ᩼)​ ᨲᩯ᩵​ᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ​ᨴᩦ᩵ ᪁᪁᪉ ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᩋᩢᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨵᩱ᩠ᨿ ᪩


ᨣᩤᩴᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨾᩦ​ᩃᩢᨠ᩠ᨡᨱᩃᩡᨾ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨿᨠᩢ᩠ᨷᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨵᩱ᩠ᨿ ᨯᩰᩫ᩠ᨿ​ᨧᩢ᩠ᨯ​ᩀᩪ᩵​ᨶᩱ​ᩈᨠᩩᩃ᩼​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨩ᩠ᨿᨦᩈᩯ᩠ᨶ ᨶᩲ​ᨡᩮᨲ᩠ᨲ᩼ᨽᩣ᩠ᨣᩉ᩠ᨶᩮᩬᩥᩋᨡᩬᨦᨷᨴᩮ᩠ᩈᨵᩱ᩠ᨿ (ᨾᩢ᩠ᨠᨧᩢᩁ᩶ᩬᨦᨠᩢ᩠ᨶᩅ᩵ᩤ ᨯᩯ᩠ᨶᩃ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨶᨶᩣ) ᨾᩦ​ᨤᩫ᩠ᨶᩋᩪ᩶​ᨣᩤᩴᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦᨠᩮᩬᩥᨷ ᪆ ᩃ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨶᨤᩫ᩠ᨶ​ ᩓ​ᨶᩲ​ᨷᨴᩮ᩠ᩈ​ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅᨣᩴᨿᩢ᩠ᨦ​ᨾᩦ​​ᨳᩯ᩠ᨾ​ᩉᩖᩣ᩠ᨿ​ᨻᩢ᩠ᨶ​ᨤᩫ᩠ᨶ​ ᪩ ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨯᩱ​ᨣᩴᨯᩣ᩠ᨿ ᨤᩫ᩠ᨶ​ᩋᩪ᩶​ᨣᩤᩴᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦᩈ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩁ​ᩉᩖᩣ᩠ᨿ​ᨶᩲᨠᩣ᩠ᩃᨷᩢ᩠ᨯᨯ᩠ᨿ᩵ᩅᨶᩦ᩶​ᩋ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨶᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨷᩴᨩ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦᩓ᩠ᩅ ᨤᩫ᩠ᨶᨴᩦ᩵ᨿᩢ᩠ᨦᩋ᩵ᩣ᩠ᩁᨡ᩠ᨿᩁᨯᩱ᩶ ᩈ᩠᩵ᩅᩁᩉᩖᩣ᩠ᨿᨯᩱ᩶ᨠᩯ᩵ᨤᩫ᩠ᨶᨳᩮᩢ᩶ᩣᩁᩂ​​​​ᨻᩕᩈᩘᨥ​ᩋᩣᨿᩩ​ᨶᩢ᩠ᨠ ᪩ ᨣᩤᩴᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨾᩦ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦᩅᨱ᩠ᨱᨿᩩᨲ᩠ᨲ᩼ᨹᩢ᩠ᨶᨯᩱ᩶ ᪆ ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ ᨷᩴ​​​​ᨴᩢ᩠ᨯᨠᩢ᩠ᨶᨠᩢ᩠ᨷᨣᩤᩴ​ᨵᩱ᩠ᨿᩈ᩠ᨿ᩻ᩣ᩠ᨾᨴᩦ᩵​ᨾᩦ ᪅ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦᨴᩮᩢ᩵ᩣᩋᩢ᩠᩶ᨶ ᪨ ᨨᨶᩢ᩠᩶ᨶ ᨳ᩶ᩣᩐᩣᩋᩢᨠ᩠ᨡᩁᨵᩱ᩠ᨿᨾᩣᨡ᩠ᨿᩁᨣᩤᩴᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ ᨣᩴᨧᩢᨿᩮ᩠ᨿᩡᩉᩨ᩶ᩋ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨶᨡ᩠ᨿᩁᨯᩱ᩶ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦᨹᩥ᩠ᨯᨽ᩠ᨿ᩶ᩁ ᨷᩴᨳᩪᨠᨷᩴᨲ᩶ᩬᨦᨲᩣ᩠ᨾᩈ᩠ᨿᨦᨴᩯ᩶ ᪩ ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦᨯᩱᨣᩴᨯᩣ᩠ᨿ ᨷᩢ᩠ᨯᨯ᩠ᨿ᩵ᩅᨶᩦ᩶ᨤᩫ᩠ᨶ​ᩉ᩠ᨶᩩ᩵ᨾᩈᩣ᩠ᩅᨶᩢ᩠ᨠᩉᩖᩣ᩠ᨿᨣᩴ​ᩁᩮᩥ᩠᩵ᨾᩈᩫ᩠ᨶᩋᩫ᩠ᨠᩈᩫ᩠ᨶᨧᩲᨣᩕᩲ᩵​ᩁᩪ᩶ᨣᩕᩲ᩵ᩁ᩠ᨿᩁᨡ᩠ᨿᩁᩋ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨶ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨶᨶᩢ᩠ᨠᨡᩨ᩠᩶ᨶ ᨲᩯ᩵​ᨣᩴᩋᩣ᩠ᨧ​ᨧᩢ​ᩉ᩠ᨿᩩ᩶ᨦ​ᨿᩣ᩠ᨠ ᨿ᩶ᩬᩁᩅ᩵ᩤᨣᩤᩴᩋᩪ᩶ᨣᩤᩴᨧᩤᩈ᩠ᨾᩱ᩠᩻ᨿᨷᩢ᩠ᨯᨯ᩠ᨿ᩵ᩅᨶᩦ᩶ ᩋᩬᨠᩈ᩠ᨿᨦᨷᩴᩉ᩠ᨾᩮᩬᩥᩁᨣᩤᩴᨶᩲᩈ᩠ᨾᩱ᩠᩻ᨿᨠᩮᩢ᩵ᩣᩓ᩠ᩅ ​᪩[1]

ᩃᩣᩴ᩶ᨶᩢ᩠᩶ᨶ ᨶᩱᩁᩢᨭᩛ᩼ᨨᩣ᩠ᨶ ᨷᨴᩮ᩠ᩈᨾ᩠ᨿᩁᨾ᩵ᩣ ᨿᩢ᩠ᨦᨾᩦ​ᨤᩫ᩠ᨶ​ᩋᩪ᩶​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨴᩱ​ᨡᩨ᩠ᨶᨳᩯ᩠ᨾ ᪁᪂᪀,᪀᪀᪀ ᨤᩫ᩠ᨶ ᨪᩮᩥ᩠᩵ᨦᩋ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨶᨡ᩠ᨿᩁᨯᩰ᩠ᨿᨩᩱ᩶​ᩋᩢᨠ᩠ᨡᩁᨴᩱᨡᩨ᩠ᨶ ​ᨴᩦ᩵ᩃᩢᨠ᩠ᨡᨱ​ᨠᩖᩲ᩶ᨤ᩠ᨿᨦᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩋᩢᨠ᩠ᨡᩁᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦᨷᩯ᩠ᨷᩃ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨶᨶᩣ ᪩

ᨻ᩠ᨿᩢᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ[edit | edit source]

ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨧᩢ᩠ᨯ​ᨲᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᨠᩖᩩ᩵ᨾ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩅᩢᨣ᩠ᨣ᩺​ᨲᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨷᩤᩃᩦ ᨷᩯ᩠᩵ᨦ​ᩋᩬᨠ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ ᪅ ᩅᩢᨣ᩠ᨣ᩺ ᩅᩢᨣ᩠ᨣ᩺​ᩃᩡ ᪅ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᩁ᩠ᨿᨠ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ​ “ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩅᩢᨣ᩠ᨣ᩺”​ ᨣᩤᩅ᩵ᩤ ​“ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨶᩲ​ᩅᩢᨣ᩠ᨣ᩺” ᩋᩦ᩠ᨠ ᪈ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨷ᩵​ᨧᩢ᩠ᨯ​ᩀᩪ᩵​ᨶᩲ​ᩅᩢᨣ᩠ᨣ᩺​ᩁ᩠ᨿᨠ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ​“ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩋᩅᩢᨣ᩠ᨣ᩺”​ᩁᩂ​“ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨶᩬᨠ​ᩅᩢᨣ᩠ᨣ᩺”​ᩁᩂ​“ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩆᩮ᩠ᩇ​ᩅᩢᨣ᩠ᨣ᩺” ᨣᩨ ᨿ ᩁ ᩃ ᩅ ᩈ ᩉ ᩊ ᩋᩴ ᨴᩢ᩠ᨦᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ ᪃᪃ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᨧᩥ᩠ᨦ᩻​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨷᩤᩃᩦ​ᨾᩦ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩋᩅᩢᨣ᩠ᨣ᩺​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨴᩯ᩶ ᩋᩦ᩠ᨠ ᪇ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᨷ᩵​ᨯᩣ᩠ᨿ ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩢ᩠ᨦ​ᨣᩴ​ᨲᩬ᩶ᨦ​ᨶᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩈᩕ​ᨧᩫ᩠ᨾ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᩋ ᨣᩴ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᩈᩕ​ᩃᩬ᩠ᨿ​ᨶᩲ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨷᩤᩃᩦ ᨾᩦ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨲᩮᩥ᩠ᨾ​ᩋᩦ᩠ᨠ ᪂ ᨠᩖᩩ᩵ᨾ ᨣᩴ​ᨲᩮᩥ᩠ᨾ ᪂ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᨣᩨ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩣ ᩆ ᩇ ᨻᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᩋ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᩈᩢᨶ᩠ᩈᨠᩂᨲ ᩓ​ᨲᩮᩥ᩠ᨾ​ᩋᩦ᩠ᨠ ᪈ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨻᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᩋ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨴᩱ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨷᩤᩃᩦ​ᨷ᩵​ᨾᩦ​ᨣᩴᨾᩦ ᪄᪃ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ

ᩈ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩁ​ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁ​ᩋ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨶ​ᩋᩬᨠ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᩁ᩠ᨿᨠ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨴᩘ᩠ᩃᩣ᩠ᨿ​ᨶᩢ᩠᩶ᨶ ᨧᩢ​ᩁ᩠ᨿᨠ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ” ᨩᩮ᩠᩵ᨶ ᨠ ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᨠ” ᨡ ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᨡ” ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᨧᩫ᩠᩶ᨶ

ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨷᨠᨲᩥ[edit | edit source]

ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᩓ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨳᩬᨯ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨵᩱ᩠ᨿ​ᩉᩖ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨦᨧᩢ​ᨾᩦ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨷᩴᨴᩢ᩠ᨯᨠᩢ᩠ᨶ ᨧᩢ​ᩁ᩠ᨿᩁᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨴᩯ᩶ᨡᩬᨦ​ᩋᩢᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨧᩣ᩠ᨠ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨩᩨ᩵ ᩓ ᩈᩢᨴ᩠ᨴᩋᩢᨠ᩠ᩇᩬᩁ​ᩈᩣᨠᩫ᩠ᩃ[ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨠᩬᩴ᩵ ]

ᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ᩺
ᩅᨱ᩠ᨱ ᩋᨶᩣᩈᩥ᩠ᨠ ᨶᩣᩈᩥ᩠ᨠ
ᩉ᩠ᨾ᩠ᩅᨯ ᩉᩖᩢᨠ ᨲᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᨾ ᩉᩖᩢᨠ ᨲᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᨾ ᩉᩖᩢᨠ ᨲᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᨾ ᩉᩖᩢᨠ
ᨠ ᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ᩺ ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ
ᨩᩨ᩵ᨾᩱ᩠ᨿ ก๋ะ ข๋ะ ข๋ะ (ฃ๋ะ) ก๊ะ คะ (ฅะ) คะ (ฆะ) งะ
ᨩᩨ᩵ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ
ᨳᩬᨯ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ
ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨩᩨ᩵ /káʔ/ /xáʔ/ /xáʔ/ /ka᷇ʔ/ /xa᷇ʔ/ /xa᷇ʔ/ /ŋa᷇ʔ/
ᩉ᩠ᨾᩪ᩵​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᩈᩪᨦ ᩈᩪᨦ ᨲ᩵ᩣᩴ
ᨧ ᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ᩺ ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ ,
ᨩᩨ᩵ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ จ๋ะ ส๋ะ (ฉ๋ะ) จ๊ะ ซะ ซะ (ฌะ) ญะ
ᨩᩨ᩵ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ
ᨳᩬᨯ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ
ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨩᩨ᩵ /t͡ɕáʔ/ /sáʔ/ /t͡ɕa᷇ʔ/ /sa᷇ʔ/ /sa᷇ʔ/ /ɲa᷇ʔ/
ᩉ᩠ᨾᩪ᩵​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᩈᩪᨦ ᩈᩪᨦ ᨲ᩵ᩣᩴ
ᨭ ᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ᩺ ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ ,
ᨩᩨ᩵ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ หละต๋ะ (หละฏ๋ะ) หละถ๋ะ (หละฐ๋ะ) ด๋ะ หละทะ (หละฒะ) หละนะ (หละณะ)
ᨩᩨ᩵ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ ᩁᨭ ᩁᨮ ᩁᨰ ᩁᨱ
ᨳᩬᨯ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ฑ,ฎ,ด
ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨩᩨ᩵ /lə.táʔ/ /lə.tʰáʔ/ /dáʔ/ /lə.tʰa᷇ʔ/ /lə.na᷇ʔ/
ᩉ᩠ᨾᩪ᩵​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᩈᩪᨦ ᩈᩪᨦ ᨠᩖᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨲ᩵ᩣᩴ
ᨲ ᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ᩺ ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ
ᨩᩨ᩵ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ ต๋ะ ถ๋ะ ต๊ะ ทะ (ธะ) นะ
ᨩᩨ᩵ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ
ᨳᩬᨯ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ
ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨩᩨ᩵ /táʔ/ /tʰáʔ/ /ta᷇ʔ/ /tʰa᷇ʔ/ /na᷇ʔ/
ᩉ᩠ᨾᩪ᩵​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᩈᩪᨦ ᩈᩪᨦ ᨲ᩵ᩣᩴ ᨲ᩵ᩣᩴ
ᨷ ᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ᩺ ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ
ᨩᩨ᩵ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ บ๋ะ ป๋ะ ผ๋ะ ฝ๋ะ ป๊ะ ฟะ พะ (ภะ) มะ
ᨩᩨ᩵ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ
ᨳᩬᨯ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ
ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨩᩨ᩵ /báʔ/ /páʔ/ /pʰáʔ/ /fáʔ/ /pa᷇ʔ/ /fa᷇ʔ/ /pʰa᷇ʔ/ /ma᷇ʔ/
ᩉ᩠ᨾᩪ᩵ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᨠᩖᩣ᩠ᨦ ᩈᩪᨦ ᨲ᩵ᩣᩴ
ᩋᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ᩺
ᩉ᩠ᨾ᩠ᩅᨯ ᩉᩖᩢᨠ ᨲᩮᩥ᩠ᨾ ᩉᩖᩢᨠ ᨲᩮᩥ᩠ᨾ ᩉᩖᩢᨠ ᨲᩮᩥ᩠ᨾ ᩉᩖᩢᨠ
ᩋᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ᩺ ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ
ᨩᩨ᩵ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ ญะ (ยะ) อย๋ะ ละ, ฮะ (ระ) ละ วะ
ᨩᩨ᩵ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ ᨿ
ᨳᩬᨯ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ อย
ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨩᩨ᩵ /ɲa᷇ʔ/ /jáʔ/ /ra᷇ʔ/,/la᷇ʔ/,/ha᷇ʔ/ /la᷇ʔ/ /wa᷇ʔ/
ᩉ᩠ᨾᩪ᩵​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᨲ᩵ᩣᩴ ᨠᩖᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨲ᩵ᩣᩴ ᨲ᩵ᩣᩴ ᨲ᩵ᩣᩴ
ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ
ᨩᩨ᩵ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ ส๋ะ (ศ๋ะ) ส๋ะ (ษ๋ะ) ส๋ะ
ᨩᩨ᩵ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ
ᨳᩬᨯ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ
ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨩᩨ᩵ /sáʔ/ /sáʔ/ /sáʔ/
ᩉ᩠ᨾᩪ᩵​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᩈᩪᨦ ᩈᩪᨦ ᩈᩪᨦ
ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ ,
ᨩᩨ᩵ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ ห๋ะ ละ (ฬะ) อ๋ะ ฮะ
ᨩᩨ᩵ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ
ᨳᩬᨯ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ
ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨩᩨ᩵ /háʔ/ /la᷇ʔ/ /ʔáʔ/ /ha᷇ʔ/
ᩉ᩠ᨾᩪ᩵​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᩈᩪᨦ ᨲ᩵ᩣᩴ ᨠᩖᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨲ᩵ᩣᩴ

ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᨷ ᨾᩦ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ /páʔ/ ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨷᩤᩃᩦ ᨲᩯ᩵​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᨷ ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨲᩮᩥ᩠ᨾ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ ᨤᩫ᩠ᨶ​ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ​ᨣᩴ​ᨩᩲ᩶​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᨸ ᨻᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᩋ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨷᩤᩃᩦ

ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᨭᩛ ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨿᨾᨠ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨷᩤᩃᩦ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᨮ ᨣᩴᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨯ᩠ᨿᩅ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨣᩨ “ᩁᨭᩛ” ᨲᩯ᩵ “ᨷᨮᨾ”


ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ[edit | edit source]

“ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ” ᨣᩤᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨩᩮᩥ᩠ᨦ” ᨣᩤᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨮᩣᨶ” (ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ) ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᩈᩲ᩶​ᩅᩱ᩶​ᨲᩲ᩶​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩋᩨ᩠᩵ᨶ​ᨻᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᩋ​ᨴᩤᩴ​ᩉ᩠ᨶ᩶ᩣᨴᩦ᩵​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨯᩲ​ᨶᩧ᩠᩵ᨦ​ᨯᩢ᩠ᨦᨶᩦ᩶ ᨣᩨ

  • ᨻᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᩋ​ᩉᩨ᩶​ᩈᩕ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨷ᩵​ᨲᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨠᩬ᩵ᩁ ᨲᩯ᩵​ᨲᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨶᩦ᩠᩵ᨦ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ
  • ᨻᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᩋ​ᨴᩤᩴ​ᩉ᩠ᨶ᩶ᩣᨴᩦ᩵​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ[ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨠᩬᩴ᩵ ]
  • ᨻᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᩋ​ᩉ᩠ᨿᩬᩴ᩶​ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨯᩰᩫ᩠ᨿ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᩈᩬᨦ​ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨯ᩠ᩅ᩠᩶ᨿ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨶ ᨣᩴ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩮᩬᩥᩁ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨶ​ᨴᩮᩢ᩵ᩤ​ᨯ᩠ᨿᩅ ᨩᩮ᩠᩵ᨶ “ᨯ᩠ᩃᩦ” ᨴᩯ᩠ᨶ ““ᨯᩦᩉᩖᩦ””

ᨾᩦ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩮᩬᩥᩁ​ᨹᩥ᩠ᨯ​ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ​ᨷᨠᨲᩥ ᨾᩦ᩵​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨾᩦ​ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᩈᩬᨦ​ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ​ᩓ​ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ​ᨾᩦ​ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁ​ᨩᩲ᩶​ᨲ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨣᩬᩁ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨣᩕᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᨦ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩣ᩠ᨿ​ᩈᩬᨦ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨲᩲ᩶ ᨧᩢ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨯᩱ᩶​ᨡ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨦᪧ

ᨣᩬᩁ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩉ᩠ᨶ᩶ᩣ​ᨣᩨ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩣ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨲᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᩋᩣ᩠ᨧ​ᨧᩢ​ᩀᩪ᩵​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨷᨠ᩠ᨠᨲᩥ ᩓ​ᨴᩯ᩠ᨶ​​ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ​ᨷᨠ᩠ᨠᨲᩥ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᨦ ᨣᩴ​ᨾᩦ​ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ​ᩅᩥᩈᩮ᩠ᩈᨩᩨ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩣᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨦ​ᩉᩖᩱ[2](ᩉ᩠ᨶ᩶ᩣ ๕๗๐) ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨠᩮᩢ᩵ᩣ​ᨩᩮ᩠᩵ᨶ ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩲ᩵​ᨩᩮ᩠᩵ᨶ

ᨾᩦ​ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨴᩱ​ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ​ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨯ᩠ᨿᩅ ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᨴᩤᩴ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨠᩮᩢ᩵ᩣ​ᨠᩬ᩵ᩁ ᨣᩨ ᨾᩦ​ᨤ᩠ᩅᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩣ᩠ᨿ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ ᨾᩦ​ᨣᨻ᩠ᨽ

ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨶᩬᨠ​ᩉ᩠ᨶᩮᩬᩥᩋ​ᨧᩣ᩠ᨠ​ᨶᩦ᩶ ᨣᩨ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩣ ᨢ ᨤ ᨪ ᨸ ᨺ ᨼ ᩀ ᩌ ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᩃ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨶᨶᩣ​ᨷᩕᨯᩥ᩠ᨲ​ᨡᩧ᩠᩶ᨶ​ᨾᩣ​ᩋᩮ᩠ᨦ ᨯᩢ᩠ᨦ​ᨶᩢ᩠᩶ᨶ​ᨧᩧ᩠ᨦ​ᨷ᩵​ᨾᩦ​ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨲᩯ᩵​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨯᩱ​ᨣᩴ​ᨲᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᨻᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᩋ​ᩉᩨ᩶​ᩈᩣᨾᨲ᩠ᨳ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨾᩣ​ᨧᩣ᩠ᨠ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨲ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨷᩕᨴᩮ᩠ᩈ​ᨯᩱ᩶​ᨠᩖᩲ᩶​ᨤ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨯᩮᩥ᩠ᨾ​ᨾᩣ᩠ᨠ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᩈᩩᨯ ᨧᩧ᩠ᨦ​ᩈᩫ᩠ᨾ​ᨣ᩠ᩅᩁ​ᨾᩦ​ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁ​ᨷᩕᨯᩥ᩠ᨲ​ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨡᩬᨦ ᨪ ᨸ ᩓ ᨼ ᨡᩧ᩠᩶ᨶ​ᨾᩣ​ᨲᩮᩥ᩠ᨾ

ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶᨴᩦ᩵ᩈᩩᨯᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᩋᩨ᩠᩵ᨶ[edit | edit source]

ᨷᨠᨲᩥ ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ ᨳᩬᨯ​​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᨳᩬᨯ​ᨩᩨ᩵ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ ᩋ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨶ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ
ไม้กั๋ก /k/ ᨯᩬᩢ ᨯᩬᨠ
/ŋ/ ᨩ᩠ᨿᩙᨲᩩᩴ ᨩ᩠ᨿᨦᨲᩩᨦ
ร, น /n/ ᨾ᩠ᩅ᩺᩵ ᨾ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩁ
/w/ ᨯ᩠ᨿᩴ ᨯ᩠ᨿᩅ

ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩢᨴᩤᩴ​ᩉ᩠ᨶ᩶ᩣᨴᩦ᩵​ᩈᩬᨦ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨯᩱ᩶ ᨣᩨ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᩈᩕ​ᩓ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ ᨩᩮ᩠᩵ᨶ “ᩁᩢ” ᩋ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨶ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ ᩁᩢ᩠ᨠ

ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩅᩥᩈᩮ᩠ᩈ (ᨨᨻᩕᩰᩬᩡ)[edit | edit source]

ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ ᨩᩨ᩵ ᨳᩬᨯ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ
ᩃᩯ แล/และ /lɛ̄ː/
ᩃᩯ ᨷᩯ᩠ᨷ​ᨴᩱᩃᩨ᩶
ᨶᩣ นา /nāː/
ᨬᨬ ญฺญ /n.ɲ/
ᩈ ᩈᩬᨦᩉᩬ᩶ᨦ สฺส /t.s/, /s.s/, /sː/
ᩁ ᩁᩰ᩠ᨦ ร (ควบกล้ำ) /r/, /l/, /ʰ/

ᩈᩕ[edit | edit source]

ᨣᩤᩴᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨯᩰᩫ᩠ᨿ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨷᩫ᩠ᨶ​ᩉᩥ᩠ᨶ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨩ᩠ᨿᨦ⁠ᩉ᩠ᨾᩲ᩵

ᩈᩕ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᩉ᩠ᨶ᩶ᩣ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨲᩲ᩶​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨷᩫ᩠ᨶ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩓ​ᨲᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩮᩬᩥᩁ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ ᨾᩦ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᩅᩥᩈᩮ᩠ᩈ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨩᩲ᩶​ᨯᩱ᩶​ᨴᩯ᩠ᨶ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᩋ ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩈᩕ ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩉ᩠ᨶᩦ᩶​ᩁ᩠ᨿᨠ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ​ "ᩈᩕ​ᩃᩬ᩠ᨿ" ᨩᩲ᩶​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩈᩕ​ᨹᩈᩫ᩠ᨾ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨶ​ᩓ​ᨹᩈᩫ᩠ᨾ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨻᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᩋ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᩉᩖᩣ᩠ᨿ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᩈᩕ

ᩈᩕ​ᩃᩬ᩠ᨿ (ᨷᩤᩃᩦ)[edit | edit source]

ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ ᨩᩨ᩵ ᨳᩬᨯ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ
ᩋ ᨷᩯ᩠ᨷ​ᨷᩤᩃᩦ /áʔ/
ᩋᩣ ᨷᩯ᩠ᨷ​ᨷᩤᩃᩦ อา /āː/
ᩋᩥ ᨷᩯ᩠ᨷ​ᨷᩤᩃᩦ อิ /íʔ/
ᩋᩦ ᨷᩯ᩠ᨷ​ᨷᩤᩃᩦ อี /īː/
ᩋᩩ ᨷᩯ᩠ᨷ​ᨷᩤᩃᩦ อุ /úʔ/
ᩋᩪ ᨷᩯ᩠ᨷ​ᨷᩤᩃᩦ อู /ūː/
ᩋᩮ ᨷᩯ᩠ᨷ​ᨷᩤᩃᩦ เอ /ēː/
ᩋᩰ ᨷᩯ᩠ᨷ​ᨷᩤᩃᩦ โอ /ōː/
ᩃᩧ ฤ,ฤๅ (ฤๅ) /lɯ᷇ʔ/
ᩃᩨ /lɯ̄ː/


ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᩈᩕ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨾᩣ​ᨧᩣ᩠ᨠ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨷᩤᩃᩦ ᩈᩣᨾᨲ᩠ᨳ ᩋᩬᨠ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨯᩱ᩶​ᨯᩰᩫ᩠ᨿ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩋᩮ᩠ᨦ​ᨷ᩵​ᨧᩣᩴᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᨲᩬ᩶ᨦ​ᨶᩣᩴ​ᨻᩱ​ᨹᩈᩫ᩠ᨾ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨠᩬ᩵ᩁ ᨲᩯ᩵​ᨷᩢ᩠ᨦ​ᨴᩦ​ᨣ᩠ᨾᩦ​​ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁ​ᨶᩣᩴ​ᨻᩱ​ᨹᩈᩫ᩠ᨾ​​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩁᩂ​ᩈᩕ​ᨴᩯ᩶ ᨩᩮ᩠᩵ᨶ ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨾᩦ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ ᩋᩮᩢᩣ ᩈᩣᨾᨲ᩠ᨳ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨯᩱ᩶​ᨯᩰᩫ᩠ᨿ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᩈᩕ​ᨧᩣ᩠ᨠ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨷᩤᩃᩦ​ᨣᩨ ᩐ ᨲᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᨯ᩠ᩅ᩠᩶ᨿ ᩈᩕ​ᨴᩯ᩶ ᩣ ᨣᩨ ᩐᩣ

ᩈᩕ​ᨧᩫ᩠ᨾ[edit | edit source]

ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᩈᩕ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨷ᩵​ᩈᩣᨾᨲ᩠ᨳ​ᩋᩬᨠ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨯᩱ᩶​ᨯᩰᩫ᩠ᨿ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩋᩮ᩠ᨦ ᨲᩬ᩶ᨦ​ᨶᩣᩴ​ᨻᩱ​ᨹᩈᩫ᩠ᨾ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨠᩬ᩵ᩁ​ᨧᩧ᩠ᨦ​ᨧᩢ​ᩈᩣᨾᨲ᩠ᨳ​ᩋᩬᨠ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨯᩱ᩶​ᩃᩮᩥ᩠ᨿ

ᩈᩕ​ᩈᨯᩯ᩠ᨦ​ᨹᩈᩫ᩠ᨾ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᨠ ᨣᩤᩅ᩵ᩤ ᨣ

ᩈᩕ​ᨧᩫ᩠ᨾ​ᨷ᩵​ᨩᩲ᩶​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨿ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩮᩬᩥᩁ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨶ ᨧᩧ᩠ᨦ​ᨷᩬᨠ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨯᩱ​ᨩᩲ᩶​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨹᩈᩫ᩠ᨾ​ᨯᩱ ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨴᩱ​ᨾᩦ​ᨤ᩠ᩅᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩣ᩠ᨿ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ ᨣᩤᩴᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨴᩱ​ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨴᩱᩃᩨ᩶ ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᨿ ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦᨣᩨ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨡᩬᨦ​ᩈ᩠ᨿ᩻ᩣ᩠ᨾ

ᩈᩕ​ᨧᩫ᩠ᨾ​ᩈᩣᩴᩉᩕᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​​ᨷᩤᩃᩦ[edit | edit source]

ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ ᨩᩨ᩵ ᨳᩬᨯ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ
อ, อั, อะ /a/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ[2]:๕๗๐, ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣᩉ᩠ᨶᩬ᩠᩶ᨿ[3]:๑๕[ᨾᩉ. 1] อา /aː/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ​ᩉᩖ᩠ᩅᨦ[2]:๕๗๐, ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ​ᩅᩰᩫ᩠᩶ᨦ[2]:๕๗๐ อา /aː/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩥ[3]:๑๓[4]:๑๓ [ᨾᩉ. 1] อิ /i/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩦ[2]:๕๗๐ อี /iː/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩩ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓ [ᨾᩉ. 1] อุ /u/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩪ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓ [ᨾᩉ. 1] อู /uː/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩮ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓ [ᨾᩉ. 1] เอ /e/, /eː/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩮᩣ(ᨷᩤᩃᩦ)[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓ [ᨾᩉ. 1] โอ /oː/
โอ /oː/

“ᩅᩣ” ᨾᩦ​ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩮᩬᩥᩁ​ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ​ᨡᩬᨦ “ᨲ” ᨤᩫ᩠ᨶ​ᩈ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩁ​ᩉ᩠ᨿᩲ᩵​ᨧᩧ᩠ᨦ​ᨩᩲ᩶​ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩣ​ᩉᩖ᩠ᩅᨦ​ᨴᩯ᩠ᨶ​ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ​ᨲᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ ᨣ ᨴ ᨵ ᨷ ᩅ ᨷᩢ᩠ᨦ​ᨤᩫ᩠ᨶ​ᨴᩯ᩠ᨶ​ᨲᩣ᩠ᨾ ᨻ ᨯ᩠ᩅ᩠᩶ᨿ ᨣᩴ​ᨩᩱ᩶ “ᨣᩮᩤ” ᪪ᩃ᪪ ᨴᩯ᩠ᨶ “ᨣᩮᩣ” ᩉ᩠ᨾᩮᩬᩥᩁ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨶ

ᩈᩕ​ᩈᩢ᩠᩶ᨶ​ᨡᩬᨦ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨴᩱ​ᩋᩬᨠ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ /ʔ/ ᨣᩬᩁ​ᨷ᩠ᨾᩦ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ

ᨶᩥᨣ᩠ᨣᩉᩥᨲ[edit | edit source]

ᩈᩣᩴᩉᩕᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨶᩥᨣ᩠ᨣᩉᩥᨲ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᩋᩨ᩠᩵ᨶ ᨯᩪ ᨶᩥᨣ᩠ᨣᩉᩥᨲ

ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ ᨩᩨ᩵ ᨽᩣᩈᩣ ᨳᩬᨯ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ
ᨶᩥᨣ᩠ᨣᩉᩥᨲ, ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨦ, ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩢ᩠ᨦᨾᩫ᩠ᨶ[2](ᩉ᩠ᨶ᩶ᩣ ๕๗๐) ᨷᩤᩃᩦ อํ /aŋ/
ᨴᩱ ออ /ɔː/
ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩣᩴ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓ [ᨾᩉ. 1] ᨴᩱ อำ /am/
ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩥ᩠ᨦ[3]:๔๓[4]:๒๓ [ᨾᩉ. 1] ᨷᩤᩃᩦ อิํ /iŋ/
ᩃᩨ᩶[5]:53 อิม /im/
ᨾᩱ᩶​​ᨠᩩᨦ[3]:๔๓[4]:๒๓ [ᨾᩉ. 1] ᨷᩤᩃᩦ ᩃᩨ᩶[5]:53 อุํ /uŋ/

“ᨠᩴ” ᩋᩬᨠ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩮᩬᩥᩁ “ᨠᩬᩴ” ᨶᩲ​ᨶᩬ᩠᩶ᨿ​ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨩᩮ᩠᩵ᨶ “ᨣᩴ”

ᩈᩕ​ᨧᩫ᩠ᨾ​ᩋᩨ᩠᩵ᨶ​ᨾᩦ​ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨯ᩠ᨿᩅ[edit | edit source]

ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ ᨩᩨ᩵ ᨽᩣᩈᩣ ᨳᩬᨯ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩡ[2]:๕๗๐[4]:๒๓ ᨴᩱ อะ /aʔ/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩡᨸᩪᨿᩣ᩠ᨯ[2]:๕๗๐[4]:๒๓ ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[4]:๒๓ /k/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨪᩢ᩠ᨯ[2]:๕๗๒ ᨴᩱ อั /a/
ᨴᩱ อัก /ak/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨪᩢ᩠ᨯ[2]:๕๗๒,
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩢ᩠ᨠ[2]:๕๗๒
ᨴᩱ /k/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩧ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓ [ᨾᩉ. 1] ᨴᩱ อึ /ɯ/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩨ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓ [ᨾᩉ. 1] ᨴᩱ อื /ɯː/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩯ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓ [ᨾᩉ. 1] ᨴᩱ แอ /ɛː/
ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ[6]:ᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ 3.3
ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ ᨩᩨ᩵ ᨽᩣᩈᩣ ᨳᩬᨯ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩫ᩠ᨦ[2]:๕๗๐,
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩰᩡ[2]:๕๗๑
ᨴᩱ /o/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩰ[2]:๕๗๑ ᨴᩱ โอ /oː/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩱ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓ [ᨾᩉ. 1] ᨴᩱ ไอ /ai/
ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ,
ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[2]:
ใอ /aɯ/[ᨾᩉ. 2], /ai/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩮᩢᩣᩉᩬᩴ᩵ᩉ᩠ᨶᩧ᩶ᨦ[3]:๑๘[4]:๒๓


[ᨾᩉ. 1]

ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ,
ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ[6]:ᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ 3.3
ᩃᩨ᩶[5]:37, 53
เอา /au/
ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ[7]:152,
ᩃᩨ᩶[5]:37
ออ /ɔː/

ᩈᩕ​ᨧᩫ᩠ᨾ​ᨷᩕᨠᩬᨷ[edit | edit source]

ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ ᨩᩨ᩵ ᨽᩣᩈᩣ ᨳᩬᨯ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩮᩢᩣ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓ [ᨾᩉ. 1] ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ, ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ, ᩃᩨ᩶[5]:53 เอา /au/
ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[8]
ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ[9]:6
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩮᩢᩣᨧᩪ᩶ᨧᩦ᩶[3]:๑๘[4]:๒๓ [ᨾᩉ. 1] ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ (ᨷ᩠ᩅᩫᩁᩣ᩠ᨱ)
ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ[10]:77 เออะ /ɜʔ/
[ᨾᩉ. 3] ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ[10]:77 เอิก็ /ɜ/
ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[3]:๒๖[4]:๖๐ ᩃᩨ᩶[5]:76 เอิก /ɜː/
ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ[10]:77 เออ, เอิ /ɜː/
[ᨾᩉ. 3] ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ[7]:152 เอิก /ɜː/
[ᨾᩉ. 3] ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[3]:๑๗[4]:๖๐ โอก /oː/

ᨤᩬᨾᨻᩥ᩠ᩅᨴᩮᩬᩥᩁ᩺​ᩈ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩁ​ᩉ᩠ᨿᩲ᩵​ᨷ᩵​ᩉᩨ᩶​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨾᩱ᩶ᨲᩱ᩵ᨣᩪ᩶​ᨷᩫ᩠ᨶ​ᩈᩕ ᩋᩥ ᩋᩦ ᩋᩨ ᨧᩧ᩠ᨦ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᩉ᩠ᨶᩦ᩶​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨾᩱ᩶ᨲᩱ᩵ᨣᩪ᩶​ᨷᩫ᩠ᨶ​​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ ᩓ​ᩈᨯᩯ᩠ᨦ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨳᩬᨯ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ

ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨿᩡ​ᩉ᩠ᨶ᩶ᩣᨴᩦ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᩈᩕ​ᨧᩫ᩠ᨾ[edit | edit source]

ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ ᨩᩨ᩵ ᨽᩣᩈᩣ ᨳᩬᨯ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ
ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨿ[3]:๔๔[4]:๒๒ ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[3]:๑๗[4]:๖๐ ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ[10]:77 ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ[7]:152 ᩃᩨ᩶[5]:52 เอีย /iːa/
ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ[7]:152 ᩃᩨ᩶[5]:52 ออย /ɔːi/
[ᨾᩉ. 4] ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[3]:๒๖[4]:๖๐ ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ[10]:77 ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ[7]:152 ᩃᩨ᩶[5]:52 อว /uːa/
ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[3]:๓๗[4]:๖๐ ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ[7]:153 อวย /uai/
[ᨾᩉ. 4] ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩬᩴ[2]:๕๗๐ ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[3]:๑๗[4]:๒๔ ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ[9]:6 ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ[7]:152 ᩃᩨ᩶[5]:52 ออ /ɔː/
, ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩢ᩠ᨦᩉᩖᩱ[2]:๕๗๐ ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[3]:๑๖[4]:๑๓ ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ[7]:152 ᩃᩨ᩶[5]:52 อัง /aŋ/

ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠ᩠ᩅ᩠ᨿ​ᨷ᩵​ᩅᩥᩈᩮ᩠ᩈ ᨣᩴ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨹᩈᩫ᩠ᨾ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ ᨿ ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ

ᨣᩬᩁ​ᩋᩪ᩶​ᨧᩥ᩠ᨦ ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨦ​ᩉᩖᩱ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ /ŋ/

ᩉ᩠ᨾᩪ᩵​ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨹᩈᩫ᩠ᨾ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ[edit | edit source]

ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ ᨩᩨ᩵ ᨽᩣᩈᩣ ᨳᩬᨯ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩬᩴ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓ ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ ออ /ɔː/
ᩃᩨ᩶​[5]:37
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠ᩠ᩅᩫ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓ ᨴᩱ อัว /uːa/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩮᩬᩥ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓ ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓,
ᩃᩨ᩶[5]:76
เออ /ɜː/
ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ[7]:152, ᩃᩨ᩶[5]:76 เออ /ɜː/
ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ[10]:77 เอือะ /ɯaʔ/
เอือ็ /ɯa/
ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ[10]:77 เอือ /ɯːa/
ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[2]:
ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[3]:๑๘[4]:๖๐
ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ[10]:77
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩮᩬᩥᩋ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓ ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[2]:
ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓
ᩃᩨ᩶[5]:76 เอือ /ɯːa/
ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ ᨩᩨ᩵ ᨽᩣᩈᩣ ᨳᩬᨯ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠ᩠ᨿᩮ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓ ᨴᩱ เอีย /iːa/
ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ[10]:77
ᨴᩱ อัย /ai/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩱ᩠ᨿ[3]:๑๕ ᨴᩱ ไอย
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩱ᩠ᨿ[3]:๑๕,
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩱ᩠ᨿ(ᨷᩤᩃᩦ)[3]:๑๖
ᨷᩤᩃᩦ เอยฺย /aija/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩱ᩠ᨿ[3]:๑๖ ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ ไอย
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩰᩬᩡ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓ ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ, ᩃᩨ᩶[5]:52 เอาะ /ɔʔ/
ᩃᩨ᩶[5]:52 เอาะ /ɔʔ/

ᨲᩫ᩠᩶ᨶ​ᨴᩘ᩠ᩃᩣ᩠ᨿ​ᩉᩨ᩶​ᨩᩨ᩵​ᨯᩰᩫ᩠ᨿ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ​ᨷ᩵ᨯᩣ᩠ᨿ

ᩈᩕ​ᨧᩫ᩠ᨾ​ᨧᩣ᩠ᨠ​​ᩈᩕ​ᨧᩫ᩠ᨾ​ᩋᩨ᩠᩵ᨶ[edit | edit source]

ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ ᨩᩨ᩵ ᨽᩣᩈᩣ ᨳᩬᨯ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩮᩡ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓ ᨴᩱ เอะ /eʔ/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩯᩡ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓ ᨴᩱ แอะ /ɛʔ/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩰᩡ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓ ᨴᩱ โอะ /oʔ/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩮᩬᩥᩡ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓ ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓,
ᩃᩨ᩶[5]:52
เออะ /ɜʔ/
ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ[7]:152 เออะ /ɜʔ/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠ᩠ᨿᩮᩡ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓ ᨴᩱ เอียะ /iaʔ/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩮᩬᩥᩋᩡ ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[2]: เอือะ /ɯaʔ/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩮᩬᩨᩋᩡ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓ ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓ เอือะ /ɯaʔ/
ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠ᩠ᩅᩫᩡ[3]:๑๔[4]:๑๓ ᨴᩱ อัวะ /uaʔ/
ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[8] เอาะ /ɔʔ/
ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ[9]:6 เอาะ /ɔʔ/
ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ[9]:6 เอียะ /iaʔ/

ᨲᩫ᩠᩶ᨶ​ᨴᩘ᩠ᩃᩣ᩠ᨿ​ᩉᩨ᩶​ᨩᩨ᩵​ᨯᩰᩫ᩠ᨿ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ​ᨷ᩵ᨯᩣ᩠ᨿ

ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ ᨽᩣᩈᩣ ᨳᩬᨯ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ
[ᨾᩉ. 3] ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[3]:๒๙[4]:๖๐ ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ[10]:77 เอ็ก /e/
[ᨾᩉ. 3] ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[3]:๒๙[4]:๖๐ ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ[10]:77 แอ็ก /ɛ/
ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[3]:๒๙[4]:๖๐ อ็อก /ɔ/
ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[3]:๒๙[4]:๖๐ อ็วก /ua/
ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[3]:๒๙[4]:๖๐ เอีย็ก /ia/
เอือ็ก /ɯa/
ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[3]:๒๙[4]:๖๐
[ᨾᩉ. 3] ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ[3]:๒๙[4]:๖๐ เอิก็ /ɜ/

ᨲ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ​ᨾᩣᨲᩕᨮᩣ᩠ᨶ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ​ᨾᩦ /ia/ ᩓ /iːa/ ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᩈᩣᩴᨶ᩠ᨿᨦ ᪂ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ /ua/ ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ /uːa/ ᩓ /ɯa/ ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ /ɯːa/ ᨣᩴ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩮᩬᩥᩁ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨶ

ᨤᩬᨾᨻᩥ᩠ᩅᨴᩮᩬᩥᩁ᩺​ᩈ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩁ​ᩉ᩠ᨿᩲ᩵​ᨷ᩵​ᩉᩨ᩶​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨾᩱ᩶ᨲᩱ᩵ᨣᩪ᩶​ᨷᩫ᩠ᨶ​ᩈᩕ อิ อี อื ᨧᩧ᩠ᨦ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨾᩱ᩶ᨲᩱ᩵ᨣᩪ᩶​ᨷᩫ᩠ᨶ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ ᩓ​ᩈᨯᩯ᩠ᨦ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨣᩤᩴᨳᩬᨯ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ

ᩉ᩠ᨾᩣ᩠ᨿᩉᩮᨲᩩ[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 ᨲᩫ᩠᩶ᨶ​ᨾᩦ​ᨩᩨ᩵​ᨯᩰᩫ᩠ᨿ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ​ᨷ᩵ᨯᩣ᩠ᨿ
  2. ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨷ᩠ᩅᩫᩁᩣ᩠ᨱ ᩓ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᩀᩪ᩵​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨷᩕᨴᩮ᩠ᩈ​ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ​ᨳᩥ᩠᩵ᨶ​ᩉ᩠ᨶᩮᩬᩥᩋ
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 ᨣᩬᩁ​ᨲᩫ᩠᩶ᨶ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨠ᩠ᩅᨷ ᨣᩴᨾᩦ​ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩮᩬᩥᩁ “ᨠᩖᩰᩫᨠ” ᨴᩯ᩠ᨶ​ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩮᩬᩥᩁ “ᨠᩰᩫ᩠ᨠ”​
  4. 4.0 4.1 ᨣᩬᩁ​ᨲᩫ᩠᩶ᨶ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨠ᩠ᩅᨷ​ᨶᩲ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ ᨣᩴ​ᨾᩦ​ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩮᩬᩥᩁ “ᩉ᩠ᨶᩋᩢ” ᨣᩤᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᩉ᩠ᨶᩋ᩠ᨠ” ᨴᩯ᩠ᨶ​ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ​ “ᩉ᩠ᨶᩬᨠ”[9]:12 ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᩈᩦᩉᩖᩮᩨᩋ᩠ᨦ” ᨴᩯ᩠ᨶ “ᩈᩦᩉᩖᩮᩬᩨᨦ” ᩓ “ᩉᩖᩅᩙ” ᨴᩯ᩠ᨶ “ᩉᩖ᩠ᩅᩙ” ᨯᩰ᩠᩶ᨿ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩮᩬᩥᩁ[10]:77

ᩅᨱ᩠ᨱᨿᩩᨠ᩠ᨲ᩺[edit | edit source]

ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ ᨩᩨ᩵ ᨽᩣᩈᩣ ᨳᩬᨯ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨩᩨ᩵ ᨳᩬᨯ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ ᩈᨴ᩠ᨴᩋᩢᨠ᩠ᩇᩬᩁ
ᨾᩱ᩶​ᩀᩢ᩠ᨠ[2](ᩉ᩠ᨶ᩶ᩣ ๕๗๔), ᨾᩱ᩶ᩀᩰᩬᩡ[2](ᩉ᩠ᨶ᩶ᩣ ๕๗๔) ᨴᩱ ไม้หยัก, ไม้เหยาะ ◌่ /máj.jǎk/, /máj.jɔ́ʔ/
ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨡᩬᩴ​ᨩ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨦ[2](ᩉ᩠ᨶ᩶ᩣ ๕๗๑), ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨪᩢ᩠ᨯ[7] ᨴᩱ ไม้ขอช้าง, ไม้ซัด ◌้ /máj.xɔ̌ː.t͡ɕáːŋ/ /máj.sát/
ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ[7]
ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ, ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ ◌๊
ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨡᩣᨸᩮ ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ, ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ, ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ ไม้ขาเป ◌๋
ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠ᩷​ᩉ᩠ᨶᩮᩬᩦ ᩃᩨ᩶, ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ ไม้กอเหนือ
ᨾᩱ᩶​ᩈᩬᨦ​ᩉ᩠ᨶᩮᩬᩦ ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ ไม้สองเหนือ
ᨾᩱ᩶​ᩈᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᨡᩦ᩠ᨯ ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ ไม้สามขีด

ᨣᩤᩴᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᩈᩣᨾᨲ᩠ᨳ​ᨹᩢ᩠ᨶ​ᨯᩱ᩶ ᪆ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ ᨣᩬᩁ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨾᩦ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᩈᩪᨦ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨲ᩵ᩣᩴ ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᩅᨱ᩠ᨱᨿᩩᨠ᩠ᨲ᩺​ᨣᩴ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨯᩱ᩶ ᨣᩬᩁ​ᨾᩦ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨠᩖᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨷ᩵​ᨯᩣ᩠ᨿ ᨣᩴ​ᩈᨯᩯ᩠ᨦ​ᨹᩢ᩠ᨶ ᪃ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨷ᩵​ᨯᩣ᩠ᨿ ᩅᨱ᩠ᨱᨿᩩᨠ᩠ᨲ᩺ ᪂ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨷ᩵​ᨣᩴ​ᨻᩬᩴ ᨶᩲ​ᨣᩤᩴᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨯᩰᩫ᩠ᨿ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨾᩦ​ᨷᨬ᩠ᩉᩣ​ᨶᩬ᩠᩶ᨿᩈᩣᩴᩉᩕᩢ᩠ᨷ /d b j ʔ/ ᨶᩬ᩠᩶ᨿ​ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨾᩦ​ᨷᨬ᩠ᩉᩣ ᨩᩮ᩠᩵ᨶ “ᩋᩮᩬᩥ᩠᩶ᨿ” (ᨾᩦ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨲᩦ​ᨣᩴ​ᨷ᩠ᨾᩦ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨲᩦ​ᩅᩥᩈᩮ᩠ᩈ) ᨶᩲ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨴᩱ​ᩃᩨ᩶​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᩋ ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᩈᩪᨦ ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨴᩱ​ᩃᩨ᩶​ᩁᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᩋᩣᩴᨶᩣ᩠ᨯ” ᨧᩣ᩠ᨠ​ᩃ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨶᨶᩣ​ᨲᩯ᩵​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨣᩤᩴᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ ᩋ ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨶᩦ᩶​ᨾᩦ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨲ᩵ᩣᩴ ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨴᩱ​ᩃᩨ᩶​ᨧᩧ᩠ᨦ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᩋ᩷ᩣᩴᨶᩣ᩠ᨯ”

ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ​ᨠᩖᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨣᩮᩥ᩠ᨿ​ᨾᩦ​ᨷᨬ᩠ᩉᩣ​ᨩᨶᩥ᩠ᨯ​ᨶᩦ᩶​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨠᩖᩣ᩠ᨦ ᩃᩯ᩠ᩅ​ᨣᩴ​ᨲᩮᩥ᩠ᨾ​ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨲᩦ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨧᨲ᩠ᨲᩅᩤ[ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨠᩬᩴ᩵ ] ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁ​ᨲᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᨾ ᪂ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨣᩴ​ᨻᩬᩴ ᨻᩕᩰᩬᩡ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨠᩖᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨾᩦ ᪅ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨷ᩵​ᨯᩣ᩠ᨿ ᨣᩬᩁ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨣᩤᩴᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨯᩰᩫ᩠ᨿ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ​ᩓ​ᨩᩱ᩶​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨠᩖᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨣᩴ​ᨾᩦ​ᨷᨬ᩠ᩉᩣ​ᨻᩕᩰᩬᩡ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ /p t k/ ᨾᩦ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ​ᨠᩖᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨠᩖᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨷ᩵​ᨯᩣ᩠ᨿ ᩓ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᩉ᩠ᨶᩮᩬᩥᩋ​ᨩᩱ᩶​ᨾᩣ᩠ᨠ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᩅᨱ᩠ᨱᨿᩩᨠ᩠ᨲ᩺​ᨴᩢ᩠ᨦ ᪆ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨴᩧ᩠ᨦ​ᨸᩧ᩠ᨠ

ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᩅᨱ᩠ᨱᨿᩩᨠ᩠ᨲ᩺​ᩈᩣᩴᨶ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨩ᩠ᨿᨦᩉ᩠ᨾᩲ᩵​ᨾᩦ ᪆ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨣᩨ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨧᨲ᩠ᨲᩅᩤ,ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᩋᩮ᩠ᨠ, ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨴᩰ​ᩅᩥᩈᩮ᩠ᩈ, ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᩈᩣᨾᨬ᩠ᨬ, ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨾᩰ, ᩓ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​​ᨲᩦ[11]

ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᩅᨱ᩠ᨱᨿᩩᨠ᩠ᨲ᩺ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁ​ᨳᩬᨯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁᩋᩬᨠᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ ᨤ᩠ᩅᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩣ᩠ᨿ​ᨶᩲ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨠᩖᩣ᩠ᨦ
ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨧᨲ᩠ᨲᩅᩤ ᨡᩣ /xǎː/ [xaː˩˦] ขา
ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᩋᩮ᩠ᨠ ᨡ᩵ᩣ /xàː/ [xaː˨˨] ข่า
ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨴᩰᩅᩥᩈᩮ᩠ᩈ ᨡ᩶ᩣ /xa᷇ː/ [xaː˥˧] ฆ่า
ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᩈᩣᨾᨬ᩠ᨬ ᨤᩣ /xaː/ [xaː˦˦] หญ้าคา
ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦᨴᩰ ᩌᩱ᩵ /hâjː/ [hajː˦˩] ไร่
ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦᨲᩦ ᨼ᩶ᩣ /fáː/ [faː˦˥˦] ฟ้า

ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨴᩰ​ᩅᩥᩈᩮ᩠ᩈ(ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ: โทพิเศษ)ᨾᩦ​ᩉᩖᩣ᩠ᨿ​ᨩᩨ᩵​ᨣᩨ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨲᩦᩅᩥᩈᩮ᩠ᩈ(ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ: ตรีพิเศษ), ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᩅᩥᩈᩮ᩠ᩈ(ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ: พิเศษ)[3](ᩉ᩠ᨶ᩶ᩣ ๒๑), ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨲᩦ​ᨻ᩠ᨿ᩶ᩁ(ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ: ตรีเพี้ยน)[3](ᩉ᩠ᨶ᩶ᩣ ๒๑), ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨠᩮᩥ᩠᩵ᨦ​ᨲᩦ​ᨠᩮᩥ᩠᩵ᨦ​ᨴᩰ(ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ: ครึ่ง​ตรี​ครึ่ง​โท)[2](ᩉ᩠ᨶ᩶ᩣ ฉ)

ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁᩈᨯᩯ᩠ᨦᩈ᩠ᨿᨦᩅᨱ᩠ᨱᨿᩩᨠ᩠ᨲ᩺[edit | edit source]

ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁ​ᩈᨯᩯ᩠ᨦ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᩅᨱ᩠ᨱᨿᩩᨠ᩠ᨲ᩺ ᨡᩬᨦ​ᨣᩤᩴᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᩈᩣᩴᨶ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨩ᩠ᨿᨦᩉ᩠ᨾᩲ᩵

ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᩅᨱ᩠ᨱᨿᩩᨠ᩠ᨲ᩺ ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ ᨷ᩵ᨾᩦ​ᨾᩱ᩶​ᩅᨱ᩠ᨱᨿᩩᨠ᩠ᨲ᩺ ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ ᨾᩱ᩶​ᩀᩢ᩠ᨠ ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨡᩬᩴ​ᨩ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨲᩣ᩠ᨿ ᩈᩕ​ᩈᩢ᩠᩶ᨶ ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨲᩣ᩠ᨿ ᩈᩕ​ᨿᩣ᩠ᩅ
ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᩈᩪᨦ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨧᨲ᩠ᨲᩅᩤ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᩋᩮ᩠ᨠ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨴᩰᩅᩥᩈᩮ᩠ᩈ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦᨧᨲ᩠ᨲᩅᩤ[ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨠᩬᩴ᩵ ] ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦᩋᩮ᩠ᨠ
ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨠᩖᩣ᩠ᨦ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᩈᩣᨾᩢᨬ᩠ᨬ
ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨲ᩵ᩣᩴ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨴᩰ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨲᩦ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨲᩦ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨴᩰ

ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩁᨷ᩠ᨿᨷ​ᩋᩨ᩠᩵ᨶ[edit | edit source]

ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᩅᩢᨣ᩠ᨣ᩺[edit | edit source]

ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ ᨴᩱᩃᩨ᩶ᩉ᩠ᨾᩲ᩵ ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ ᨻᨾ᩵ᩣ ᨡ᩠ᨾ᩻ᩮᩁ
IPA ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᨩᩮᩥ᩠ᨦ
/ká/ -᩠ᨠ က
/xá/ -᩠ᨡ
/xá/ - - - - -
/ka᷇/ -᩠ᨣ
/xa᷇/ - - - -
/xa᷇/ -᩠ᨥ -
/ŋa᷇/ -᩠ᨦ
ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ ᨴᩱᩃᩨ᩶ᩉ᩠ᨾᩲ᩵ ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ ᨻᨾ᩵ᩣ ᨡ᩠ᨾ᩻ᩮᩁ
IPA ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᨩᩮᩥ᩠ᨦ
/t͡ɕá/ -᩠ᨧ
/sá/ -᩠ᨨ -
/t͡ɕa᷇/ -᩠ᨩ
/sa᷇/ - - - -
/sa᷇/ -᩠ᨫ -
[ᨾᩉ. 1]
/ɲa᷇/
/ja᷇/[ᨾᩉ. 2]
-᩠ᨬ -
ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ ᨴᩱᩃᩨ᩶ᩉ᩠ᨾᩲ᩵ ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ ᨻᨾ᩵ᩣ ᨡ᩠ᨾ᩻ᩮᩁ
IPA ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᨩᩮᩥ᩠ᨦ
/tá/ -᩠ᨭ -
/tʰá/ -᩠ᨮ, -ᩛ -
/dá/ -᩠ᨯ ฑ,ด ,ດ
/tʰa᷇/ -᩠ᨰ -
/na᷇/ -᩠ᨱ -
ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ ᨴᩱᩃᩨ᩶ᩉ᩠ᨾᩲ᩵ ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ ᨻᨾ᩵ᩣ ᨡ᩠ᨾ᩻ᩮᩁ
IPA ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᨩᩮᩥ᩠ᨦ
/tá/ -᩠ᨲ
/tʰá/ -᩠ᨳ
/ta᷇/ -᩠ᨴ
/tʰa᷇/ -᩠ᨵ
/na᷇/ -᩠ᨶ
ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ ᨴᩱᩃᩨ᩶ᩉ᩠ᨾᩲ᩵ ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ ᨻᨾ᩵ᩣ ᨡ᩠ᨾ᩻ᩮᩁ
IPA ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᨩᩮᩥ᩠ᨦ
/bá/ -᩠ᨷ
/pá/ -
/pʰá/ -᩠ᨹ
/fá/ - - -
/pa᷇/ -᩠ᨻ, -ᩛ
/fa᷇/ - - -
/pʰa᷇/ -᩠ᨽ
/ma᷇/ -᩠ᨾ, -ᩜ

ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᩋᩅᩢᨣ᩠ᨣ᩺[edit | edit source]

ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ ᨴᩱᩃᩨ᩶ᩉ᩠ᨾᩲ᩵ ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ ᨻᨾ᩵ᩣ ᨡ᩠ᨾ᩻ᩮᩁ
IPA ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᨩᩮᩥ᩠ᨦ
/ɲa᷇/
/ja᷇/[ᨾᩉ. 2]
ᨿ -᩠ᨿ ย ᨲ᩵ᩣᩴ
/já/ - ย ᨠᩖᩣ᩠ᨦ, อย - -
/ha᷇/
/la᷇/
-᩠ᩁ, -ᩕ
/lɯ́ʔ/ - - -
/la᷇/ -᩠ᩃ, -ᩖ
/lɯ̄ː/ - - -
/wa᷇/ -᩠ᩅ
ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ ᨴᩱᩃᩨ᩶ᩉ᩠ᨾᩲ᩵ ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ ᨻᨾ᩵ᩣ ᨡ᩠ᨾ᩻ᩮᩁ
IPA ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ ᨩᩮᩥ᩠ᨦ
/sá/ -᩠ᩆ -
/sá/ -᩠ᩇ -
/sá/ -᩠ᩈ
/há/ -᩠ᩉ
/la᷇/ -᩠ᩊ -
/ʔá/ -᩠ᩋ
/ha᷇/ - - - -

ᩉ᩠ᨾᩣ᩠ᨿᩉᩮ᩠ᨲᩩ[edit | edit source]

  1. ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨾᩬᩁ
  2. 2.0 2.1 ᨶᩲ​ᨴᩱ​ᩃᩨ᩶

ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ[edit | edit source]

ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᩃᩮ᩠ᨡᩉᩰᩁᩣ
ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ​ᨩᩲ᩶​ᨶᩲ​ᨵᨾ᩠ᨾ᩺
ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᩃᩮ᩠ᨡᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ
ᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ​ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ
ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᩃᩮ᩠ᨡᨻᨾ᩵ᩣ
ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ​ᨡ᩠ᨾ᩻ᩮᩁ

ᩀᩪᨶᩥᨣᩰᩫ᩠ᨯ[edit | edit source]

ᨷᩅᨲ᩠ᨲᩥᨠᩣ᩠ᩁᨩ᩠ᩅ᩠᩵ᨿᨦᩣ᩠ᨶ[edit | edit source]

ᨾᩣᨲᩕᨮᩣ᩠ᨶᩀᩪᨶᩥᨣᩰᩫ᩠ᨯᨲᩮᩥ᩠ᨾ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨲᩢ᩠᩶ᨦ​ᨲᩯ᩵​ᩁᩩ᩵ᩁ 5.2 (ᨴᩦ᩵​ᩋᩬᨠ​ᨲᩩᩃᩣᨣᩫ᩠ᨾ ᪂᪅᪅᪂)

ᩁᨷ᩠ᨿᨷ​ᨷᨭᩥᨷᨲ᩠ᨲᩥ​ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁ[ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨠᩬᩴ᩵ ]ᨴᩦ᩵​ᩁᩬᨦ​ᩁᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩀᩪᨶᩥᨣᩰᩫ᩠ᨯ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨶᩲ​ᨲᩬᩁ​ᨶᩦ᩶​ ᨯᩱ᩶ᨠᩯ᩵ ᩋᩪᨷᩩᨶ᩠ᨲᩩ (ᩋᩢ᩠ᨦᨠᩕᩥ᩠ᩇ: Ubuntu) ᨲᩢ᩠᩶ᨦ​ᨲᩯ᩵ 11.04 ᨯᩰᩫ᩠ᨿ​ᩋᩣᩆᩢ᩠ᨿ​ᨼᩬᨶ᩠ᨲ᩺[ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨠᩬᩴ᩵ ]ᨷᩯ᩠ᨷᩋᩰᨻᩮ᩠ᨶᨴᩱᨸ᩺[ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨠᩬᩴ᩵ ] (ᩋᩢ᩠ᨦᨠᩕᩥ᩠ᩇ: OpenType) ᩈ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩁ​ᩁᨷ᩠ᨿᨷ​ᨷᨭᩥᨷᨲ᩠ᨲᩥ​ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁ​ ᩅᩥ᩠ᨶᨯᩰᩅ᩠ᩈ᩺ ᨶᩢ᩠᩶ᨶ​ᨿᩢ᩠ᨦ​ᨷ᩵​ᩁᩬᨦ​ᩁᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨷᩯ᩠ᨷ​ᩀᩪᨶᩥᨣᩰᩫ᩠ᨯ ᨲᩯ᩵ᩅᩮᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨷᩕᩮᩢᩣᩅ᩺ᨪᩮᩬᩥᩁ᩺[ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨠᩬᩴ᩵ ]​ Mozilla Firefox ᩁᩩ᩵ᩁ 4.0 ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ​ᨻᩱ (ᩋᩣᩆᩢ᩠ᨿ​ᨼᩬᨶ᩠ᨲ᩺​ᨷᩯ᩠ᨷ​ᩋᩰᨻᩮ᩠ᨶᨴᩱᨸ᩺) ᨶᩬᨠ​ᨧᩣ᩠ᨠ​ᨶᩦ᩶​ᩓ᩠ᩅ​ᨿᩢ᩠ᨦ​ᩈᩣᨾᨲ᩠ᨳ​ᨩᩱ᩶​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨷᩯ᩠ᨷ​ᩀᩪᨶᩥᨣᩰᩫ᩠ᨯ​ᨶᩲ​ᨸᩕᩰᨠᩕᩯ᩠ᨾ[ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨠᩬᩴ᩵ ]​ᩈᩣᩴᨶᩢ᩠ᨠ​ᨦᩣ᩠ᨶ​ᨯᩱ᩶​ᨯᩰᩫ᩠ᨿ​ᨸᩕᩰᨠᩕᩯ᩠ᨾ OpenOffice ᩁᩩ᩵ᩁ 3.2 ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ​ᨻᩱ (ᩋᩣᩆᩢ᩠ᨿ​ᨼᩬᨶ᩠ᨲ᩺​ᨷᩯ᩠ᨷ Graphite)

ᩉ᩠ᨾᩪ᩵ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ[edit | edit source]

ᩉ᩠ᨾᩪ᩵​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᩀᩪᨶᩥᨣᩰᩫ᩠ᨯ​ᩉᩨ᩶​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨩᩨ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩣ ​ᨴᩱ​ᨵᩢᨾ᩠ᨾ᩺ (ᩋᩢ᩠ᨦᨠᩕᩥ᩠ᩇ: Tai Tham) ᩉ᩠ᨾᩪ᩵ ᨣᩨ U+1A20–U+1AAF:


ᨴᩱ​ᨵᩢᨾ᩠ᨾ᩺ (ᨩᩨ᩵​ᨲᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᨾᩣᨲᩕᨮᩣ᩠ᨶ​ᩀᩪᨶᩥᨣᩰᩫ᩠ᨯ)
ᨹᩢ᩠ᨦᨴᩦ᩵ unicode.org (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1A2x
U+1A3x ᨿ
U+1A4x
U+1A5x  
U+1A6x
U+1A7x     ᩿
U+1A8x            
U+1A9x            
U+1AAx    


ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨷᩫ᩠ᨴᨤ᩠ᩅᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᨨᨷᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨶᩦ᩶​ᨸᩖᩯ​ᨩᩨ᩵​ᨡᩬᨦ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩀᩪᨶᩥᨣᩰᩫ᩠ᨯ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ

ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ ᨩᩨ᩵
U+1A20 – U+1A4C ᨠ – ᩌ
U+1A4D – U+1A52 ᩍ – ᩒ
U+1A53
U+1A54 [3]:๔๘[4]:๒๔
U+1A55 ᩁ ᩌᩰᩫᨦ[3]:๔๔[4]:๒๒
U+1A56  ᩖ ᩃ ᩉ᩠ᨶᩬ᩠᩶ᨿ[4](ᩉ᩠ᨶ᩶ᩣ ๒๒)
U+1A57  ᩗ ᩃ ᨴᩘ᩠ᩃᩣ᩠ᨿ
U+1A58 ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨦ​ᩉᩖᩱ
U+1A59 ᨦ ᩉ᩠ᨶᩮᩬᩥᩋ[ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨠᩬᩴ᩵ ]
U+1A5A ᨻ ᩉ᩠ᨶᩮᩬᩥᩋ[ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨠᩬᩴ᩵ ]
U+1A5B ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨮ ᩁᩂ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨻ
U+1A5C ᨩᩮᩥ᩠ᨦ ᨾ[ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨠᩬᩴ᩵ ]
U+1A5D ᨩᩮᩥ᩠ᨦ ᨷ[ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨠᩬᩴ᩵ ]
U+1A5E ᨩᩮᩥ᩠ᨦ ᩈ[ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨠᩬᩴ᩵ ]
U+1A60  ᩠ ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ
U+1A61 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩡ
ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ ᨩᩨ᩵
U+1A62 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨪᩢ᩠ᨯ
U+1A63 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ
U+1A64 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣᩉᩖ᩠ᩅᨦ
U+1A65 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩥ
U+1A66 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩦ
U+1A67 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩧ
U+1A68 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩨ
U+1A69 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩩ
U+1A6A ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩪ
U+1A6B ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩫ᩠ᨦ
U+1A6C ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩬᩴ
U+1A6D ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩭ
U+1A6E ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩮ
U+1A6F ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩯ
U+1A70 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩰ
U+1A71 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩱ
ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ ᨩᩨ᩵
U+1A72 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩲᨾ᩠ᩅ᩶ᩁ[ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨠᩬᩴ᩵ ]
U+1A73 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩮᩢᩣᩉᩬᩴ᩵ᩉ᩠ᨶᩧ᩶ᨦ
U+1A74 ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨦ
U+1A75 ᨾᩱ᩶​ᩀᩢ᩠ᨠ
U+1A76 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨡᩬᩴᨩ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨦ
U+1A77 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩬᩴᩉ᩠ᨶᩮᩬᩦ
U+1A78 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᩬᨦᩉ᩠ᨶᩮᩬᩥᩋ
U+1A79 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᩣ᩠ᨾᨡᩦ᩠ᨯ
U+1A7A ᩁ ᩉ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨾ[3]:๔๑[4]:๒๓
U+1A7B ᨾᩱ᩶ᨪ᩶ᩣᩴ[3]:๔๑[4]:๒๓
U+1A7C ᩁ ᩉ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ​ᩃᩨ᩶
U+1A7F ᩿ ᨾᩱ᩶ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ
U+1A80 ᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ​ᩉᩰᩁᩣ​ᩈᩪᨬ᩺
U+1A81 ᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ​ᩉᩰᩁᩣ​ᨶᩧ᩠᩵ᨦ
U+1A82 ᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ​ᩉᩰᩁᩣ​ᩈᩬᨦ
U+1A83 ᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ​ᩉᩰᩁᩣ​ᩈᩣ᩠ᨾ
ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ ᨩᩨ᩵
U+1A84 ᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ​ᩉᩰᩁᩣ​ᩈᩦ᩵
U+1A85 ᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ​ᩉᩰᩁᩣ​ᩉ᩶ᩣ
U+1A86 ᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ​ᩉᩰᩁᩣ​ᩉᩫ᩠ᨠ
U+1A87 ᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ​ᩉᩰᩁᩣ​ᨧᩮᩢ᩠ᨯ
U+1A88 ᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ​ᩉᩰᩁᩣ​ᨸᩯ᩠ᨯ
U+1A89 ᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ​ᩈᩰᩁᩣ​ᨠᩮᩢ᩶ᩣ
U+1A90 ᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ​ᨵᩢᨾ᩠ᨾ᩺​ᩈᩪᨬ᩺
U+1A91 ᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ​ᨵᩢᨾ᩠ᨾ᩺​ᨶᩧ᩠᩵ᨦ
U+1A92 ᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ​ᨵᩢᨾ᩠ᨾ᩺​ᩈᩬᨦ
U+1A93 ᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ​ᨵᩢᨾ᩠ᨾ᩺​ᩈᩣ᩠ᨾ
U+1A94 ᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ​ᨵᩢᨾ᩠ᨾ᩺​ᩈᩦ᩵
U+1A95 ᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ​ᨵᩢᨾ᩠ᨾ᩺​ᩉ᩶ᩣ
U+1A96 ᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ​ᨵᩢᨾ᩠ᨾ᩺​ᩉᩫ᩠ᨠ
U+1A97 ᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ​ᨵᩢᨾ᩠ᨾ᩺​ᨧᩮᩢ᩠ᨯ
U+1A98 ᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ​ᨵᩢᨾ᩠ᨾ᩺​ᨸᩯ᩠ᨯ
U+1A99 ᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ​ᨵᩢᨾ᩠ᨾ᩺​ᨠᩮᩢ᩶ᩣ
U+1AA0 – U+1AAD ᪠ – ᪭

ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ[edit | edit source]

ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨷᨠᨲᩥ​ᩓ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨾᩦ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩮᩬᩥᩁ​ᨹᩥ᩠ᨯ ᨻᩕᩰᩬᩡ​ᩋᩬᨠ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩮᩬᩥᩁ​ᨹᩥ᩠ᨯ ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨲᩥ᩠ᨠ” ᩓ​ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨲᩥᨠ” ᩋᩬᨠ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩮᩬᩥᩁ​ᨹᩥ᩠ᨯ ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨡᩬᨦ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩀᩪᨶᩥᨣᩰᩫ᩠ᨯ ᪂ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨯ᩠ᩅ᩠᩶ᨿ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨶ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩉᩖᩢᨦ​ᨣᩨ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩀᩪᨶᩥᨣᩰᩫ᩠ᨯ​ᩈᩣᩴᩉᩕᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨷᨠᨲᩥ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩉ᩠ᨶ᩶ᩣ​ᨣᩨ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩅᩥᩈᩮ᩠ᩈ​ᨩᩨ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩣ "ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ" (ᩀᩪᨶᩥᨣᩰᩫ᩠ᨯ: U+1A60 TAI THAM SIGN SAKOT)[12]:ᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ 2

ᨣᩬᩁ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨷᨠᨲᩥ​ᨶᩧ᩠᩵ᨦ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨾᩦ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ ᪂ ᨩᨶᩥ᩠ᨯ ᩓ​ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨲ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨠ᩠ᨿ᩵ᩅ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩣ᩠ᨿ ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨩᩲ᩶​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ​ᨷᩕᨧᩣᩴ ᨾᩢ᩠ᨶ​ᨩᩱ᩶​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ "ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ" ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ​ᩋᩨ᩠᩵ᨶ​ᨣᩴ​ᨾᩦ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨡᩬᨦ​ᩋᩮ᩠ᨦ

ᨾᩦ​ᨣᩪ᩵​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ ᪇ ᨣᩪ᩵​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨾᩦ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨲ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨶ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨶᩦ᩶​ᨣᩨ ᩁ ᩃ ᨷ ᩈ ᨾ ᨳ ᨻ

“ᨣᩕᩪ” ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A23 ᨣ, U+1A55 ᩁ ᩌᩰᩫᨦ, U+1A6A ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩪ> ᨲᩯ᩵ “ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁ” ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A20 ᨠ, U+1A63 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A41 ᩁ>[12]:ᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ 4

“ᩆᩦ᩠ᩃ” ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A46 ᩆ, U+1A66 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩦ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A43 ᩃ>[12]:ᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ 14.5 ᨲᩯ᩵ “ᨸᩖᩦ” ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A38 ᨸ, U+1A56 ᩃ ᩉ᩠ᨶᩬ᩠᩶ᨿ, U+1A66 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩦ>[12]:ᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ 4

U+1A57 ᩃ ᨴᩘ᩠ᩃᩣ᩠ᨿ ᨯᩪ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩮᩬᩥᩁ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ ᩃ ᨲᩯ᩵​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨲ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨣᩴ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᨷᩕᩈᩫ᩠ᨾ​ᨧᩣ᩠ᨠ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨦ ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ ᩃ ᩉᩬ᩠᩶ᨿ[4](ᩉ᩠ᨶ᩶ᩣ ๒๒) ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨴᩱ​ᩃᩨ᩶​ᨩᩲ᩶​ᨻᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᩋ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨴᩘ᩠ᩃᩣ᩠ᨿ” ᨩᩮ᩠᩵ᨶ “ᨴᩢ᩵ᩗᩣ”[13]

“ᨣᩝᩴ” ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A23 ᨣ, U+1A5D ᨩᩮᩥ᩠ᨦ ᨷ, U+1A74 ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨦ>, ᨲᩯ᩵ “ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ” ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A20 ᨠ, U+1A62 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨪᩢ᩠ᨯ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A37 ᨷ> ᩓ “ᨠᩢᨷ᩠ᨷ᩺” ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A20 ᨠ, U+1A62 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨪᩢ᩠ᨯ, U+1A37 ᨷ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A37 ᨷ, U+1A7A ᩁ ᩉ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨾ>

ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨬᨲ᩠ᨲᩥ​ᨲᩮ᩠ᨾ​ᨡᩣ᩠ᨯ[12](ᩉ᩠ᨶ᩶ᩣ 1) ᨴᩦ᩵ᩀᩪᨶᩥᨣᩰᩫ᩠ᨯ​ᨣᩬᨱᨪᩬᩴᩁ᩺ᨴ᩠ᨿᨾ (ᩋᩢ᩠ᨦᨠᩕᩥ᩠ᩇ: Unicode Consortium) ᩁᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ​ᨩᩮᩥ᩠ᨦ ᨷ ​ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, ᨷ> ᩓ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨷ (ᨩᩮ᩠᩵ᨶ “ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ”) ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, ᨸ> ᨲᩯ᩵​ᨲᩬᩁ​ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁ​ᩈ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨾᩣᨲᩕᨮᩣ᩠ᨶ ᨣᩣᩴ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩣ᩠ᨿ​ᨡᩬᨦ <ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, ᨷ> ᨸᩖ᩠ᨿ᩵ᩁ [14] ᩓ​ᨲᩮᩥ᩠ᨾ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩀᩪᨶᩥᨣᩰᩫ᩠ᨯ​ᨩᩨ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩣ ᨩᩮᩥ᩠ᨦ ᨷ (ᩋᩢ᩠ᨦᨠᩕᩥ᩠ᩇ: SIGN BA) ᨲᩯ᩵​ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩣ᩠ᨿ​ᨡᩬᨦ <ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, ᨸ> ᩀᩪ᩵​ᩀᩪ᩵ ᨣᩴ​ᨯᩪ​ᨿᩬᨾ​ᩈᩣᩴᩉᩕᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨾᩣ​ᨧᩣ᩠ᨠ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨾᩦ ป ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ (ᨬᨲ᩠ᨲᩥ​ᩉᩖᩮ᩶ᨾ​ᨶᩦ᩵​ᩁ᩠ᨿᨠ <ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, ᨸ> ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨹᩥ᩠ᨯ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, ᨹ>)

ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨷᩤᩃᩦ​ᨩᩲ᩶​ᨲ᩠ᩅ᩶ ᨸ ᨴᩯ᩠ᨶ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᨷ ᩉᩯ᩠᩵ᨦ​ᨷᩕᨴᩮ᩠ᩈ​ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩉᩯ᩠᩵ᨦ​ᨴᩬ᩶ᨦ​ᨳᩥ᩠᩵ᨶ​ᩋᩦᩈᩣ᩠ᨶ ᨧᩧ᩠ᨦ​ᨲᩬ᩶ᨦ​ᩉ᩠ᩅᩢᨦ​ᨻᩫ᩠ᨷ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨷ ᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A38 ᨸ> ᨯ᩠ᩅ᩠᩶ᨿ

ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨴᩱ​ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ​ᨾᩦ​ᩅᩥᨵᩦ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ ᩈ ᪂ ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᩃᩮᩞ” (ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ: เลศ) ᨾᩢ᩠ᨶ​ᨳᩪᨠ​ᨲᩬ᩶ᨦ ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᩃᩮ᩠ᩈ” ᨣᩴ​ᨹᩥ᩠ᨯ[14] ᨲᩯ᩵​ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᩈᨶ᩠ᨶᩥᩅᩤ᩠ᩈ” ᨾᩢ᩠ᨶ​ᨳᩪᨠ​ᨲᩬ᩶ᨦ​ ᨲᩯ᩵​ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᩈᨶ᩠ᨶᩥᩅᩤᩞ” ᨣᩴ​ᨹᩥ᩠ᨯ! “ᩃᩮᩞ” ᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A43 ᩃ, U+1A6E ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩮ, U+1A5E ᨩᩮᩥ᩠ᨦ ᩈ> ᩓ “ᩃᩮ᩠ᩈ” ᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A43 ᩃ, U+1A6E ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩮ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A48 ᩈ>

ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨴᩱ​ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ​ᨾᩦ​ᩅᩥᨵᩦ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨾ ᩋᩦ᩠ᨠ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨲᩮᩥ᩠ᨾ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩀᩪᨶᩥᨣᩰᩫ᩠ᨯ​ᨻᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᩋ​ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨶᩦ᩶[15](ᨷᩫ᩠ᨴ ᪉) ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᩃ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨶᨶᩣ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨵᨾ᩠ᨾ᩺” ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨴᩱ​ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ​ᨣᩴ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨵᨾ᩠ᨾ᩼” ᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᨯᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A35 ᨵ, U+1A3E ᨾ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A3E ᨾ, U+1A7C ᩁ ᩉ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ​ᩃᩨ᩶> ᩓ​ᨣᩴ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨯ᩠ᩅ᩠᩶ᨿ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨵᨾᩜ᩼” ᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᨯᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A35 ᨵ, U+1A3E ᨾ, U+1A5C ᨩᩮᩥ᩠ᨦ ᨾ, U+1A7C ᩁ ᩉ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ​ᩃᩨ᩶>

ᨾᩦ​ᩅᩥᨵᩦ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ ᪂ ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᩈᩣᩴᩉᩕᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨡᩬᨦ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᨮ ᩓ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᨻ ᨴᩩᨠ​ᩈᩬᨦ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨶᩥᨣᨱᩛ”[2](ᩉ᩠ᨶ᩶ᩣ ๓๖๘) ᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᨯᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A36 ᨶ, U+1A65 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩥ, U+1A23 ᨣ, U+1A31 ᨱ, U+1A5B ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨮ ᩁᩂ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨻ> ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᩁᩣᨩᨽᩢ᩠ᨮ”[12](ᩉ᩠ᨶ᩶ᩣ 3) ᨣᩴᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᨯᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A41 ᩁ, U+1A63 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ, U+1A29 ᨩ, U+1A3D ᨽ, U+1A62 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨪᩢ᩠ᨯ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A2E ᨮ> ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨶᩥᨻᩛᩣᨶ” ᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᨯᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A36 ᨶ, U+1A65ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩥ, U+1A3B ᨻ, U+1A5B ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨮ ᩁᩂ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨻ, U+1A63 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ, U+1A36 ᨶ> ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨴᩮ᩠ᨻ” ᨣᩴ​ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A34 ᨴ, U+1A6E ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩮ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A3B ᨻ> ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨶᩦ᩶​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᩋᩦ᩠ᨠ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨴᩮ᩠ᨷ” ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨪᩬ᩶ᨾ “ᨲ᩠ᨳ” (ᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᨯᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A32 ᨲ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A33 ᨳ>) ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ​ᨯᩪ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩮᩬᩥᩁ “ᨲᩛ” ᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᨯᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A32 ᨲ, U+1A5B ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨮ ᩁᩂ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨻ> ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ​ᨡᩬᨦ U+1A5B ᨲᩬ᩶ᨦ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨯᩰᩫ᩠ᨿ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨲᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨷᩫ᩠ᨶ

ᩈᩕ​ᨧᩫ᩠ᨾ​ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩬᩴ​ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩅᩥᩈᩮ᩠ᩈ​ᨣᩨ <U+1A6C ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩬᩴ> ᩀ᩵ᩣᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᨯᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A4B ᩋ> ᩈᩕ​ᨧᩫ᩠ᨾ​ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩭ ᨡᩬᨦ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨴᩱ​ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨴᩱ​ᩃᩨ᩶​ - ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ “ᨶ᩶ᩭ” - ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩅᩥᩈᩮ᩠ᩈ​ᨣᩨ <U+1A6D ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩭ> ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨶᩦ᩶​ᨷ᩵​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A6C ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩬᩴ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A3F ᨿ> ᨷ᩵​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A40 ᩀ>[12]:ᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ 5

ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨡᩣ᩠ᨯ​ᩋᩨ᩠᩵ᨶ[edit | edit source]

ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨦ​ᨾᩫ᩠ᨶᩓ​ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨦ​ᩉᩖᩱᨾᩦ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨲ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨶ ᨣᩨ U+1A74 ᩓ U+1A58 ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᩅ ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨷᩫ᩠ᨶ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨷ᩵​ᨾᩦ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩀᩪᨶᩥᨣᩰᩫ᩠ᨯ​ᨡᩬᨦ​ᩋᩮ᩠ᨦ ᨣᩴ​ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ U+1A74 ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨦᨾᩫ᩠ᨶ ᨩᩮ᩠᩵ᨶ​ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨴᩱ​ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨯ᩠ᨿᩴ” ᩋ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨶ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨯ᩠ᨿᩅ” ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨯᩮ᩠ᩅ”

ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁ​ᩃᩮᩬᩥᨠ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᩉᩨ᩶​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᩁᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨷᩫ᩠ᨶ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨣᩕᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᨦ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩣ᩠ᨿ​ᨡ᩶ᩣ​ᩈᩕ​ᨾᩢ᩠ᨶ​ᨿᩣ᩠ᨠ ᨪᩢ᩠ᨠ​ᨸᩖᩦ ᨻ.ᩆ. ᪂᪄᪈᪀ ᨤᩫ᩠ᨶ​ᨴᩱ​ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩓ​ᨣᩕᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᨦ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩣ᩠ᨿ​ᨯᩰᩫ᩠ᨿ​​ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷᨯ᩠ᨿᩅ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨶ ᨹᩪ᩶​ᩈ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᩈᩬᨷ​ᩁᩮᩬᩥᨦ ​ᨣᩴ​ᨲᩬᨷ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ​ᨾᩦ​​ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ​ᨯ᩠ᨿᩅ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨶ​ᩀᩪ᩵ ᩓ᩠ᩅ​ᨹᩪ᩶​ᩈ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨦ​​ᨣᩴ​ᩃᩮᩬᩥᨠ​ᩃᩮ᩠ᨡ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨯ᩠ᨿᩅ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨶᨣᩨ U+1A7A ᩁ ᩉ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨾ ᩓ᩠᩶ᩅ​​ᨣᩴ​ᩁ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ​ᨤᩫ᩠ᨶ​ᨴᩱ​ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ​ᨸᩖ᩠ᨿ᩵ᩁ​ᨾᩣ​​ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ​ᨡᩬᨦ​ᨣᩕᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᨦᩉ᩠ᨾᩣ᩠ᨿ ᩓ᩠ᩅ​​ᨣᩴ​ᨴᩤᩴ​ᩉᩨ᩶​​ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩲ᩵​ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ U+1A7C ᩁ ᩉ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ​ᩃᩨ᩶

ᨷᩫ᩠ᨴᨤ᩠ᩅᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᨾᩣ᩠ᨠ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᩅᩥᨠᩥᨻᩦᨯ᩠ᨿᩮ​ᨣᩤᩴᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨩᩲ᩶ U+1A7C ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᨣᩕᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᨦ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩣ᩠ᨿ​ᨡ᩶ᩣ​ᩈᩕ

ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩅᩥᩈᩮ᩠ᩈ[edit | edit source]

ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩅᩥᩈᩮ᩠ᩈ​ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨶᩦ᩶

ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ ᨩᩨ᩵ ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ
xpx40 ᩃᩯ <U+1A53 ᩓ>
xpx40 ᩃᩯ ᨷᩯ᩠ᨷ​ᨴᩱᩃᩨ᩶
xpx40 ᨶᩣ <U+1A36 ᨶ, U+1A63 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ>
xpx40 ᨬᨬ <U+1A2C ᨬ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A2C ᨬ>
xpx40 ᩈ ᩈᩬᨦᩉᩬ᩶ᨦ <U+1A54 ᩔ>
xpx40 ᩁ ᩌᩰᩫᨦ <U+1A55 ᩁ ᩌᩰᩫᨦ>

ᨣᩬᩁ​ᩁᩪᨷ​ᨡᩬᨦ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᨶ ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩣ​ᨧᩢ​ᩀᩪ᩵​ᨡ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨦᪧ ᨣᩴ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᩁᩪᨷ​ᨯ᩠ᨿᩅ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ ᨶᩣ ᨴᩯ᩠ᨶ ᪂ ᩁᩪᨷ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ ᨶ‌ᩣ ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨶᩦ᩵​ᨾᩯ᩠ᨶ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩣ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᨶ ᨾᩦ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨣᩤᩅ᩵ᩤ​ᨣᩕᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᨦᩉ᩠ᨾᩣ᩠ᨿ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ: “ᨾᨶ᩠ᨲᩣ” (ᩋ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨶ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ ᨾᩢ᩠ᨶ-ᨲᩣ, ᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A3E ᨾ, U+1A36 ᨶ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A32 ᨲ, U+1A63 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ>) ᩓ “ᨶᩮᩢᩣ” ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <1A36 ᨶ, 1A6E ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩮ, 1A62 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨪᩢ᩠ᨯ, U+1A63 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ>) ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨶ ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ​ᨷ᩵​ᨠᩖᩣ᩠ᨿ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᩁᩪᨷ​ᨯ᩠ᨿᩅ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ: “ᩉ᩠ᨶᩣ” (ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A49 ᩉ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, 1A36 ᨶ, U+1A63 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ>)

ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᩈ​ᩈᩬᨦᩉᩬ᩶ᨦᨾᩦ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨡᩬᨦ​ᩋᩮ᩠ᨦ ᨻᩕᩰᩬᩡ​ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᩅᩥᩈᩮ᩠ᩈ” ᨾᩦ​ᩁᩪᨷ​ᨲ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨧᩣ᩠ᨠ “ᩅᩥᩔᩮ”

ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈᨡᩬᨦᩈᩕᩃᩬ᩠ᨿ[edit | edit source]

ᩈᩕᩃᩬ᩠ᨿ ᪅ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨣᩤᩴᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨩᩲ᩶ ᨾᩢ᩠ᨶ​ᨾᩦ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨡᩬᨦ​ᩋᩮ᩠ᨦ ᨣᩨ ᩍ ᩎ ᩏ ᩐ ᩑ[12]:ᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ 3

ᩈᩕᩃᩬ᩠ᨿ ᩋ ᩓ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ ᩋ ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨯ᩠ᨿᩅ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨶ

ᩈᩕᩃᩬ᩠ᨿ ᩋᩣ ᩓ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᩋ ᨷᩕᩈᩫ᩠ᨾ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ​ᨾᩦ​​ᩁᩪᨷ​ᨯ᩠ᨿᩅ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨶ ᨧᩧ᩠ᨦ​ᨾᩦ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨯ᩠ᨿᩅ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨶ​ᨣᩨ <U+1A20 ᩋ, U+1A63 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ>

ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨣᩤᩴᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ ᩈᩕᩃᩬ᩠ᨿ​ᨴᩦ᩵ ᪈ ᨷ᩵​ᨾᩦ​ᩁᩪᨷ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩮᩬᩥᩁ​ᨹᩥ᩠ᨯ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᩋ ᨷᩕᩈᩫ᩠ᨾ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩰ​ᨣᩨ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩣ ᩋᩰ ᨬᨲ᩠ᨲᩥ[12]:ᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ 3ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​​ᨶᩦ᩶​ᩅ᩵ᩤ ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨷ᩵​​ᨩᩲ᩶​ᩈᩕᩃᩬ᩠ᨿ​ᩅ᩵ᩤᩒ ᩈᩣᩴᩉᩕᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᩋᩨ᩠᩵ᨶ ​ᨣᩴ​ᨾᩦ <U+1A52 ᩒ>

ᩃᩣᩴᨯᩢ᩠ᨷᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᩀᩪᨶᩥᨣᩰᩫ᩠ᨯ[edit | edit source]

ᨬᨲ᩠ᨲᩥ​ᩈ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ[12]​ᨯᩱ᩶​ᩈ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁ​ᩃᩣᩴᨯᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩀᩪᨶᩥᨣᩰᩫ᩠ᨯ

ᩉ᩠ᨾᩮᩬᩥᩁ​ᩅᩥᨵᩦ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨻᨾ᩵ᩣ ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨡ᩠ᨾ᩻ᩮᩁ ᩓ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᩍᨶ᩠ᨯ᩠ᨿᩮ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩀᩪᨶᩥᨣᩰᩫ᩠ᨯ​ᨾᩦ​ᩃᩣᩴᨯᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨲᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᩃᩣᩴᨯᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨶᩬᨠ​ᨧᩣ᩠ᨠ​ᨡᩬ᩶​ᨨᨻᩕᩰᩬᩡ[17] ᨣᩬᩁ​ᩈᩣᩴᨶ᩠ᨿᨦ ᪂ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨷᩕᩈᩫ᩠ᨾ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨯ᩠ᨿᩅ ᨣᩴ​ᨩᩱ᩶​ᩃᩣᩴᨯᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨠᩮᩢ᩵ᩣ ᩃᩣᩴᨯᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨶᩦ᩶​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩮᩬᩥᩁ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ​ᩈ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩁ​ᨷᨠ᩠ᨠᨲᩥ ᨣᩬᩁ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨷ᩵​ᨾᩦ​ᩃᩣᩴᨯᩢ᩠ᨷ ᨣᩴ​ᨩᩱ᩶​ᩃᩣᩴᨯᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᩉᩢ᩠ᨶ ᩁᩂ ᩅᩥᨵᩦ​ᩋᩨ᩠᩵ᨶ​ᩅᩥᩈᩮ᩠ᩈ

ᨾᩦ​ᩅᩥᨵᩦ​ᩅᩥᩈᩮ᩠ᩈ​ᩈᩣᩴᩉᩕᩢ᩠ᨷ

(ᨠ) ᩃᩣᩴᨯᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨡᩬᨦ​ᩈᩕ
(ᨡ) ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠ᩠ᨿᩮ​ᨴᩢ᩠ᨦ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ
(ᨣ) ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠ᩠ᩅᩫᨴᩢ᩠ᨦ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ
(ᨦ) ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩣᩴ
(ᨧ) ᨠᩣ᩠ᩁ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨾᩱ᩶​ᩅᨱ᩠ᨱᨿᩩᨠ᩠ᨲ᩺

ᩃᩣᩴᨯᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩀᩪᨶᩥᨣᩰᩫ᩠ᨯ​ᩈᩣᩴᩉᩕᩢ᩠ᨷ​​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩈᩕ​ᨣᩨ ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨲᩫ᩠᩶ᨶ, ᨾᩱ᩶​ᩈᩕ​ᨴᩯ᩶, ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨲᩫ᩠᩶ᨶ, ᨾᩱ᩶​ᩈᩕ​ᨴᩯ᩶, ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ,...[12]:ᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ 14 ᨻᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᩋ​ᩈᨯ᩠ᩅᨠ​ᨶᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ​ᨣᩕᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᨦ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩣ᩠ᨿ​ᨡ᩶ᩣ​ᩈᩕ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᩈᩕ

ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨲᩫ᩠᩶ᨶ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩈᩕ​ᩃᩬ᩠ᨿ​ᨣᩤᩅ᩵ᩤ​ᨣᩕᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᨦ​ᨾᩱ᩶​ᩅᩥᩈᩮ᩠ᩈ ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩪ᩵​ᨾᩦ​ᩃᩣᩴᨯᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨲᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᩃᩣᩴᨯᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᩋᩬᨠ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨣᩤᩅ᩵ᩤ​ᨣᩮᩥ᩠ᨿ​ᩋᩬᨠ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ

ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ: ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨻᩩᨴ᩠ᨵ” (ᩋ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨶ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ ᨻᩩᨯ-ᨵᩡ)

ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨲᩫ᩠ᨶ: ᨻ
ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩈᩕ​ᨴᩯ᩶: ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩩ
ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ: ᨴ
ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨲᩫ᩠ᨶ: ᨵ
ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩈᩕ​ᨴᩯ᩶: (ᨷ᩵​ᨾᩦ​ᩁᩪᨷ)
ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ: (ᨷ᩵​ᨾᩦ)

ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A3B ᨻ, U+1A69 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩩ, U+1A34 ᨴ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A35 ᨵ>

ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ: ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨻᩕ” ᨾᩦ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ​ᨯ᩠ᨿᩅ​ᨣᩨ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩣ ᨽ ᨲᩯ᩵​ᨾᩮᩬᩥᩋ​ᨠᩬ᩵ᩁ​ᨾᩦ ᪂ ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ ᨣᩨ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩣ ᨻ, ᩁ ᩉ᩠ᨾᩮᩬᩥᩁ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ​ᨠᩖᩣ᩠ᨦ ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨶᩦ᩵​ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <ᨻ, ᩁ ᩌᩰᩫᨦ>

ᨶᩬᨠ​ᨧᩣ᩠ᨠ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᩁ ᩌᩰᩫᨦ ᩃᩣᩴᨯᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩁᩪ᩠ᨷ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨴᩮᩢ᩵ᩤ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩃᩣᩴᨯᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩈ᩠ᨿᨦ ᩈ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩁ​ᩉ᩠ᨿᩲ᩵ ᩁ ᩌᩰᩫᨦ ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᩈᩩᨯ ᨲᩯ᩵​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᩅ ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠ᩠ᩅᩫ ᩓ ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ ᨿ ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠ᩠ᨿᩮ​ᨲᩣ᩠ᨾ ᩁ ᩌᩰᩫᨦ

ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ:

ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᩆᩣᩈ᩠ᨲᩕ᩺” ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A46 ᩆ, U+1A63 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ, U+1A48 ᩈ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A32 ᨲ, U+1A55 ᩁ ᩌᩰᩫᨦ, U+1A7A ᩁ ᩉ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨾ>
ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨠᩕᩈᩢ᩠ᨲ” ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A20 ᨠ, U+1A55 ᩁ ᩌᩰᩫᨦ, U+1A48 ᩈ, U+1A62 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨪᩢ᩠ᨯ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A32 ᨲ>
ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᩈᩕ᩠ᩅᨾ” ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A48 ᩈ, U+1A55 ᩁ ᩌᩰᩫᨦ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A45 ᩅ, U+1A3E ᨾ>
ᨲᩯ᩵​ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨲᩕ᩠ᨶᩬᨾ” (ᩋ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨶ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ ᨳ-ᩉ᩠ᨶᩬᨾ) ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A32 ᨲ, U+1A55 ᩁ ᩌᩰᩫᨦ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A36 ᨶ, U+1A6C ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩬᩴ, U+1A3E ᨾ>

ᩈᩣᩴᩉᩕᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ “ᨧᩮᩢ᩶ᩣ” ᨾᩦ​ᩅᩥᨵᩦ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ​ᨣᩕᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᨦ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩣ᩠ᨿ​ᩈᩣᩴᩉᩕᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩈᩕ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩅᨱ᩠ᨱᨿᩩᨠ᩠ᨲ᩺​ᨾᩦ​ᩃᩣᩴᨯᩢ᩠ᨷ:[12]:ᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ 5 ᩈ᩠ᩅᩁ​ᩁᩯ᩠ᨠ, 5.3 ᩓ 13

(᪁) ᩈᩕ​ᩉ᩠ᨶ᩶ᩣ
(᪂) ᩈᩕ​ᩀᩪ᩵​ᨲᩱ᩶ (ᨷᩫ᩠ᨶ​ᨻᩱ​ᨲᩱ᩶)
(᪃) ᩈᩕ​ᩀᩪ᩵​ᨷᩫ᩠ᨶ (ᨲᩱ᩶​ᨻᩱ​ᨷᩫ᩠ᨶ)
(᪄) ᨾᩱ᩶​ᩅᨱ᩠ᨱᨿᩩᨠ᩠ᨲ᩺ (ᨪ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨿ​ᨻᩱ​ᨡ᩠ᩅᩣ)
(᪅) ᩈᩕ​ᨲᩣ᩠ᨾ (ᨪ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨿ​ᨻᩱ​ᨡ᩠ᩅᩣ)

ᨴᩦ᩵​ᩅᩥᨵᩦ​ᨶᩦ᩶​ᨶᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨦ​ᨾᩫ᩠ᨶ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᩈᩕ ᨾᩯ᩠ᨶ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩣ​ᨴᩤᩴ​ᩉ᩠ᨶ᩶ᩣᨴᩦ᩵​ᨡᩬᨦ​ᨶᩥᨣ᩠ᨣᩉᩥᨲ ᩁᩦ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ ᨶᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩀᩪᨶᩥᨣᩰᩫ᩠ᨯ​ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨪᩢ᩠ᨯ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᩈᩕ ᨾᩯ᩠ᨶ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩣ​ᨴᩤᩴ​ᩉ᩠ᨶ᩶ᩣᨴᩦ᩵​ᨡᩬᨦ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ ᩁᩦ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨠ ᩁᩦ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᩈᩩᨯ ᨾᩯ᩠ᨶ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩣ​ᨴᩤᩴ​ᩉ᩠ᨶ᩶ᩣᨴᩦ᩵​ᨸᩖ᩠ᨿ᩵ᩁ​ᩈᩕ​ᨿᩣ᩠ᩅ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ​ᩈᩕ​ᩈᩢ᩠᩶ᨶ​ᨩᩮ᩠᩵ᨶ “ᨸᩮᩢ᩠ᨯ”

ᩅᩥᨵᩦ​ᩃᩣᩴᨯᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨶᩦ᩶​ᨠ᩠ᨿ᩵ᩅ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨣᩕᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᨦ​ᩉ᩠ᨾᩣ᩠ᨿ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᩀᩪ᩵​ᨷᩫ᩠ᨶ​ᩁᩂ​ᨲᩱ᩶ ᨲᩬ᩶ᨦ​ᨲᩣ᩠ᨾ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ​ᨩᩮ᩠᩵ᨶ เจ้า เกี่ว ชุํ ᩓ ບິ່.

ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ:

ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨧᩮᩢ᩶ᩣ” ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A27 ᨧ, U+1A6E ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩮ, U+1A62 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨪᩢ᩠ᨯ, U+1A76 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨡᩬᩴᨩ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨦ, U+1A63 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ>[12]:ᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ 5 ᨴᩦ᩵ 29
ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ​ “ᨾᩢᩣ” (ᩋ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨶ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ ᨾᩣ᩠ᨠ) ᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A3E ᨾ, U+1A62 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨪᩢ᩠ᨯ, U+1A63 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ>
ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᩃᩪᩢ” (ᩋ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨶ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ ᩃᩪᨠ) ᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A43 ᩃ, U+1A6A ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩪ, U+1A62 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨪᩢ᩠ᨯ>
ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨶᩮᩢᩣ” ᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A36 ᨶ, U+1A6E ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩮ, U+1A62 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨪᩢ᩠ᨯ, U+1A63 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ>
ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᩋᩫᨶ᩠ᨲᩕᩣ᩠ᨿ” (ᩋ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨶᩅ᩵ᩤ ᩋᩫ᩠ᨶ-ᨳ-ᩉᩖᩣ᩠ᨿ) ᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A4B ᩋ, U+1A6B ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩫ᩠ᨦ, U+1A36 ᨶ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A32 ᨲ, U+1A55 ᩁ ᩌᩰᩫᨦ, U+1A63 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A3F ᨿ>

ᩈᩣᩴᩉᩕᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠ᩠ᨿᩮ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᨴᩢ᩠ᨦ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ ᩅᩥᨵᩦ​ᨸᩖᩯ​ᨣᩨ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩣ​ᩉᩣ᩠ᨦ​ ᨿ​ᩓ​ᨩᩮᩥ᩠ᨦ ᩅ[ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᨠᩬᩴ᩵ ] ᨶᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩀᩪ᩵​ᩋᨠ᩠ᨡᩁ​ᨲᩫ᩠᩶ᨶ[12]:ᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ 14.3


ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ:

ᨣᩤᩴᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᩈ᩠ᨿᩮ” ᨧᩧ᩠ᨦ​ᨸᩖᩯ​ᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈ​ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A48 ᩈ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A3F ᨿ, U+1A6E ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩮ>[12]:ᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ 5 ᨴᩦ᩵ 33
ᨣᩤᩴᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨸ᩠ᩃ᩠ᨿ᩵ᩁ” ᨧᩧ᩠ᨦ​ᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A38 ᨸ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A43 ᩃ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A3F ᨿ, U+1A75 ᨾᩱ᩶​ᩀᩢ᩠ᨠ, U+1A41 ᩁ>[12]:ᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ 14.9
ᨣᩤᩴᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ” ᨧᩧ᩠ᨦ​ᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A32 ᨲ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A45 ᩅ, U+1A6B ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩫ᩠ᨦ>[12]:ᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ 14.3
ᨣᩤᩴᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᩈ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩁ” ᨧᩧ᩠ᨦᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᨯᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A48 ᩈ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A45 ᩅ, U+1A75 ᨾᩱ᩶​ᩀᩢ᩠ᨠ, U+1A41 ᩁ>
ᨣᩤᩴᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨠᩖ᩠ᩅ᩠᩶ᨿ” ᨧᩧ᩠ᨦᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᨯᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A20 ᨠ, U+1A56 ᩃ ᩉ᩠ᨶᩬ᩠᩶ᨿ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A45 ᩅ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A76 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨡᩬᩴᨩ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨦ, U+1A3F ᨿ>
(<U+1A60, U+1A76> ᨴᩮᩢ᩵ᩣ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ <U+1A76, U+1A60> ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᩀᩪᨶᩥᨣᩰᩫ᩠ᨯ)

ᨶᩬᨠ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᩃ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨶᨶᩣ ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨦ​ᨶᩲ​ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩣᩴ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨷᩫ᩠ᨶ​ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ ᨴᩦ᩵​ᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ​ᩃ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨶᨶᩣ​ᨣᩴ​ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁ​ᨴᩦ᩵​ᩉᩖᩣ᩠ᨿ​ᨴᩦ᩵ - ᨷᩫ᩠ᨶ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ ᨷᩫ᩠ᨶ​ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ ᩓ​ᩉ᩠ᩅ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᨻ᩠ᨿᨬ᩠ᨩᨶ​ᩓ​ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ ᩀᩪᨶᩥᨣᩰᩫ᩠ᨯ​ᨣᩬᨱᨪᩬᩴᩁ᩺ᨴ᩠ᨿᨾ​ᨯᩱ᩶​ᨷᨭᩥᩈᩮᨵ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩀᩪᨶᩥᨣᩰᩫ᩠ᨯ​ᨡᩬᨦ​ᩋᩮ᩠ᨦ ᨣᩤᩴᩅ᩵ᩣ “ᨷᩴ᩠᩵ᨾᩣ” (ᩋ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨶᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨷᩴ᩵ᨾᩣ”) ᨷ᩵​ᨲᩬ᩶ᨦ​ᨯᩪ​ᨾᩦ​ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩈᩕ​ᨴᩮᩢ᩵ᩤ​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨲ᩵ᩣᩴ” ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩣᩴ​ᨧᩧ᩠ᨦ​ᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A63 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ, U+1A74 ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨦ> ᨣᩤᩴᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨷᩴ᩠᩵ᨾᩣ” ᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A37 ᨷ, U+1A74 ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨦ, U+1A75 ᨾᩱ᩶​ᩀᩢ᩠ᨠ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A3E ᨾ, U+1A63 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ> ᨣᩤᩴᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨲ᩵ᩣᩴ” ᨣᩴ ᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A32 ᨲ, U+1A75 ᨾᩱ᩶​ᩀᩢ᩠ᨠ, U+1A63 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ, U+1A74 ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨦ> ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣᩴᩉᩖ᩠ᩅᨦ ᨣᩴ ᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A64 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣᩉᩖ᩠ᩅᨦ, U+1A74 ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨦ>

U+1A5A ᨻ ᩉ᩠ᨶᩮᩬᩥᩋ ᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ ᨡᩬᩴ᩶​ᨨᨻᩕᩰᩬᩡ ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨴᩱ​ᩃᩨ᩶ “ᨣᨽᩚ” (ᩋ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨶᩅ᩵ᩤ ᨣᨻ᩠ᨽ) ᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A23 ᨣ, U+1A3D ᨽ, U+1A5A ᨻ ᩉ᩠ᨶᩮᩬᩥᩋ>[12]:ᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ 4

ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫ​ᩀ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᩈᨯᩯ᩠ᨦ​ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨦ​ᩉᩖᩱ​ᩓ ᩃ ᨴᩘ᩠ᩃᩣ᩠ᨿᨣᩨ:

ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨷᩤᩃᩦ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᩈᩘᨥᩮᩣ” ᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A48 ᩈ, U+1A58 ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨦ​ᩉᩖᩱ, U+1A25 ᨥ, U+1A6E ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩮ, U+1A63 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ>
ᨣᩤᩴ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨴᩘ᩠ᩃᩣ᩠ᨿ” (ᩋ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨶ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ ᨴᩢ᩠ᨦᩉᩖᩣ᩠ᨿ) ᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A34 ᨴ, U+1A58 ᨾᩱ᩶​ᨠᩢ᩠ᨦ​ᩉᩖᩱ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A43 ᩃ, U+1A63 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ, U+1A60 ᨾᩱ᩶ᩈᨠᩫ᩠ᨯ, U+1A3F ᨿ>
ᨣᩤᩴ​ᨴᩱ​ᩃᩨ᩶​ᩅ᩵ᩤ “ᨴᩢᩗᩣ” (ᩋ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨶ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ ᨴᩢ᩠ᨦᩉᩖᩣ᩠ᨿ) ᨸᩖᩯᩁᩉᩢ᩠ᩈᨸᩮ᩠ᨶ <U+1A34 ᨴ, U+1A62 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨪᩢ᩠ᨯ, U+1A57 ᩃ ᨴᩘ᩠ᩃᩣ᩠ᨿ, U+1A63 ᨾᩱ᩶ᨠᩣ>

ᨼᩬᨶ᩠ᨲ᩺[edit | edit source]

There are currently a few fonts that support this range. Thai people are used to typing the Thai script by placing a front vowel before a consonant; this might cause incorrect input method for Tai Tham script because the consonant must be always typed before the associated vowel, regardless of the relative written position of the vowel, similar to typing the Khmer, Myanmar or Tamil script.

  • A Tai Tham KH New – 244 characters in version 1.000 September 15, 2016
    • Ranges: Basic Latin (100); Tai Tham (144)
    • OpenType layout tables: Default
    • Family: Sans-serif
    • Styles: Regular
    • Availability: Free download[18]
  • A Tai Tham KH – 239 characters in version 2.000 February 27, 2016
    • Ranges: Basic Latin (95); Tai Tham (144)
    • OpenType layout tables: Default
    • Family: Sans-serif
    • Styles: Regular
    • Availability: Free download[18]
  • Tai Tham LN – 244 characters in version 1.000 November 15, 2014
    • Ranges: Basic Latin (100); Tai Tham (144)
    • OpenType layout tables: Default
    • Family: Sans-serif
    • Styles: Regular
    • Availability: Free download[18]

(The following links are from Alan Wood’s Unicode Resources,[19] which is no longer being maintained.[20])

  • Chiangsaen Alif – 318 characters (376 glyphs) in version 1.00 February 24, 2010, initial release
    • Ranges:   Basic Latin (96); Tai Tham (127); Geometric Shapes (1)
    • OpenType layout tables:   Latin
    • Family:   Sans-serif
    • Styles:   Regular
    • Availability:   Free download[21]
  • Lanna Alif – 318 characters (376 glyphs) in version 1.00 February 24, 2010, initial release
    • Ranges:   Basic Latin (96); Tai Tham (127); Geometric Shapes (1)
    • OpenType layout tables:   Latin
    • Family:   Sans-serif
    • Styles:   Regular
    • Availability:   Free download[21]
  • Lanna Unicode UI – 374 characters (487 glyphs) in version 0.40 July 14, 2010
    • Ranges:   Basic Latin (25); Latin-1 Supplement (5); Greek and Coptic (1); Tai Tham (127); Mathematical Operators (1); Geometric Shapes (1)
    • OpenType layout tables:   Latin
    • Family:   Sans-serif
    • Styles:   Regular
    • Availability:   Free download[22]
  • Alan Wood's Tai Tham test page[23]


ᩋ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨦ​ᩋᩥ᩠ᨦ[edit | edit source]

  1. บุรุษภักดี, นาตนภางค์ (October 2004). คนเมืองเหนือกับภาษาเมือง: ทัศนคติของคนหนุ่มสาวทางภาคเหนือที่มีต่อคำเมืองและตัวอักษรล้านนา Khon Muang Neu Kap Phasa Muang: Attitudes of Northern Thai Youth towards Kammuang and the Lanna Script (M.A. Thesis). Presented at 4th National Symposium on Graduate Research, Chiang Mai, Thailand, August 10–11, 2004 (ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᩋᩢ᩠ᨦᨠᩕᩥ᩠ᩈ). Asst. Prof. Dr. Kirk R. Person, adviser. Chiang Mai: Payap University. P. 7, digital image 30. ᩃᩮ᩠᩶ᨾ​ᨡᩬᩴ᩶ᨾᩪᩃ᩼​ᨠᩮᩢ᩵ᩣ​ᨠᩮᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩃᩩᨠ ᨨᨷᩢ᩠ᨷᨯᩮᩥ᩠ᨾ (PDF) ᨳᩮᩥ᩠ᨦ 2013-06-14. ᩈᩨ᩠ᨷᨪᩰᩬᩡ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᩋ June 8, 2013. The reason why they called this language ‘Kammuang’ is because they used this language in the towns where they lived together, which were surrounded by mountainous areas where there were many hill tribe people.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 รุ่งเรืองศรี, อุดม (January 2004). ᨻᨧᨶᩣᨶᩩᨠᩕᩫ᩠ᨾᩃ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨶᨶᩣ - ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ: ᨨᨷᩢ᩠ᨷᨾᩯ᩵ᨼ᩶ᩣᩉᩖ᩠ᩅᨦ พจนานุกรมล้านนา ~ ไทย: ฉบับแม่ฟ้าหลวง. ᨩ᩠ᨿᨦᩉ᩠ᨾᩲ᩵: มหาวิทยาลัยเชียงใหม่. ISBN 974-685-175-6.
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 3.22 3.23 3.24 3.25 3.26 3.27 3.28 3.29 3.30 3.31 3.32 3.33 3.34 3.35 3.36 3.37 3.38 3.39 3.40 3.41 3.42 3.43 3.44 3.45 3.46 3.47 3.48 3.49 3.50 3.51 3.52 3.53 3.54 3.55 3.56 3.57 3.58 ᨷᩯ᩠ᨷᩁ᩠ᨿᩁᨽᩣᩈᩣᩃ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨶᨶᩣ แบบเรียนภาษาล้านนา. ᨩ᩠ᨿᨦᩉ᩠ᨾᩲ᩵. September 2000.
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 4.21 4.22 4.23 4.24 4.25 4.26 4.27 4.28 4.29 4.30 4.31 4.32 4.33 4.34 4.35 4.36 4.37 4.38 4.39 4.40 4.41 4.42 4.43 4.44 4.45 4.46 4.47 4.48 4.49 4.50 4.51 4.52 4.53 4.54 4.55 4.56 วัชรศาสตร์, บุญคิด (2005). ᨷᩯ᩠ᨷᩁ᩠ᨿᩁᨽᩣᩇᩣᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦᩃ᩶ᩣ᩠ᨶᨶᩣ แบบเรียนภาษาเมืองล้านนา (ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ). ᨩ᩠ᨿᨦᩉ᩠ᨾᩲ᩵: ธาราทองการพิมพ์. ISBN 974-85472-0-5.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 เตชะศิริวรรณ, อภิรดี (2 May 2003). "พัฒนาการของอักษรและอัขรวิธีในเอกสานไทลื้" (pdf) (ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ).CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  6. 6.0 6.1 Kourilsky, Grégory (June 2005). "Exemple d'écriture iɡnorée par Unicode : l'écriture Tham du Laos" (pdf) (ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨺᩕᩢ᩠᩵ᨦᩆᩮ᩠ᩈ).CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 Owen, R. Wyn (2017). "A description and linguistic analysis of the Tai Khuen writing system". Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society. 10.1: 140–164. hdl:10524/52403.
  8. 8.0 8.1 เดชะวงศ์, สงบ (2003). คู่มือการเรียนหนังสือตัวเมือง แบบง่าย (ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᨴᩱ᩠ᨿ). สภาวัฒนธรรมอำเภอแม่อาย จังหวักเชียงใหม่.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Kourilsky, Grégory; Berment, Vincent (May 2005). "Towards a Computerization of the Lao Tham System of Writing" (pdf) (ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᩋᩢ᩠ᨦᨠᩂᩇ).CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  10. 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 10.11 ເດືອນຮັກຩາ, ຈັນທຣ໌ຖນອມ. "ᨾᩣᩁ᩠ᨿᩁᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᩉ᩠ᨶᩢᨦᩈᩨᨵᩢᨾ᩠ᨾ᩺ᨽᩢ᩠ᨶᨳᩦ᩠ᨠᨴᩦ᩵ᨯᩱ᩶ᨡ᩠ᨿᩁᨽᩣᩈᩣᨷᩤᩃᩦᩓᩈᩢᨶ᩠ᩈᨠᩂᨲ" ມາຣຽນໂຕໜັງສືຘັມມືຠັນຖີດທີ່ໃຊ້ຂຽນຠາສາບາລີ ແລະ ສັນສກຣິຕ (PDF) (ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᩃᩣ᩠ᩅ). ᩈᩨ᩠ᨷᨪᩰᩬᩡ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᩋ 14 July 2018.
  11. Gedney, William J., and Thomas J. Hudak. William J. Gedney's Tai Dialect Studies: Glossaries, Texts, and Translations. Ann Arbor, MI: Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, The University of Michigan, 1997. Print.
  12. 12.00 12.01 12.02 12.03 12.04 12.05 12.06 12.07 12.08 12.09 12.10 12.11 12.12 12.13 12.14 12.15 12.16 12.17 12.18 Everson, Michael; Hosken, Martin; Constable, Peter (21 March 2007). "Revised proposal for encoding the Lanna script in the BMP of the UCS" (PDF). Unicode (ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᩋᩢ᩠ᨦᨠᩂᩇ).CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  13. Khotsimeuang, Veomany. "Tai Lue: Complex Orthographic Rules: Graphic Blends(I)". SEAsite (ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᩋᩢ᩠ᨦᨠᩕᩥ᩠ᩈ). ᩈᩨ᩠ᨷᨪᩰᩬᩡ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᩋ 10 June 2018.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Hosken, Martin (28 January 2008). "Tai Tham Subjoined Variants" (PDF). Unicode (ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᩋᩢ᩠ᨦᨠᩕᩥ᩠ᩈ).
  15. "Tai Tham Ad-hoc Meeting Report (WG2 N3379)" (PDF). Unicode (ᨽᩣᩈᩣ​ᩋᩢ᩠ᨦᨠᩂᩇ). 22 January 2008.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  16. ᩋ᩵ᩣ᩠ᨶ​ᩅ᩵ᩤ COENG ᨣᩨ U+17D2 KHMER SIGN COENG
  17. "The encoding model for Lanna is similar to that for Myanmar and Khmer, using a CEONG[16]-like character plus some combining medial-consonant characters."[12]:ᩅᨣ᩠ᨣ 14
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 "Tai Tham Fonts". Kengtung.org. ᩃᩮ᩠᩶ᨾ​ᨡᩬᩴ᩶ᨾᩪᩃ᩼​ᨠᩮᩢ᩵ᩣ​ᨠᩮᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩃᩩᨠ ᨨᨷᩢ᩠ᨷᨯᩮᩥ᩠ᨾ ᨳᩮᩥ᩠ᨦ 29 January 2017.
  19. Wood, Alan (15 September 2012). "Southeast Asian Unicode fonts for Windows computers". Alan Wood’s Unicode Resources. ᩃᩮ᩠᩶ᨾ​ᨡᩬᩴ᩶ᨾᩪᩃ᩼​ᨠᩮᩢ᩵ᩣ​ᨠᩮᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩃᩩᨠ ᨨᨷᩢ᩠ᨷᨯᩮᩥ᩠ᨾ ᨳᩮᩥ᩠ᨦ 23 December 2013. ᩈᩨ᩠ᨷᨪᩰᩬᩡ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᩋ 9 May 2016.
  20. Wood, Alan (15 November 2015). "Unicode and multilingual support in HTML, fonts, Web browsers and other applications: Caution and apology". Alan Wood’s Unicode resources. ᩈᩨ᩠ᨷᨪᩰᩬᩡ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᩋ 9 May 2016. I regret that I no longer have the time to keep this website up-to-date. The test pages include the Unicode 6.3 characters, and some of the Unicode 7.0 characters, but nothing more recent. The pages of fonts and utilities have not been updated for several years.
  21. 21.0 21.1 Silpachai, Alif. "SIMs Heart". Tai Tham (Lanna) Unicode Font. ᩃᩮ᩠᩶ᨾ​ᨡᩬᩴ᩶ᨾᩪᩃ᩼​ᨠᩮᩢ᩵ᩣ​ᨠᩮᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩃᩩᨠ ᨨᨷᩢ᩠ᨷᨯᩮᩥ᩠ᨾ ᨳᩮᩥ᩠ᨦ 3 March 2016. ᩈᩨ᩠ᨷᨪᩰᩬᩡ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᩋ 9 May 2016.
  22. "Download: Tai Tham Fonts (Lanna)". Octra Bond's World. ᩃᩮ᩠᩶ᨾ​ᨡᩬᩴ᩶ᨾᩪᩃ᩼​ᨠᩮᩢ᩵ᩣ​ᨠᩮᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩃᩩᨠ ᨨᨷᩢ᩠ᨷᨯᩮᩥ᩠ᨾ ᨳᩮᩥ᩠ᨦ 2010-11-22. ᩈᩨ᩠ᨷᨪᩰᩬᩡ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᩋ 9 May 2016.
  23. Wood, Alan. "Test for Unicode support in Web browsers: Tai Tham". Alan Wood’s Unicode Resources. ᩃᩮ᩠᩶ᨾ​ᨡᩬᩴ᩶ᨾᩪᩃ᩼​ᨠᩮᩢ᩵ᩣ​ᨠᩮᩢ᩠ᨷ​ᩃᩩᨠ ᨨᨷᩢ᩠ᨷᨯᩮᩥ᩠ᨾ ᨳᩮᩥ᩠ᨦ 16 December 2013. ᩈᩨ᩠ᨷᨪᩰᩬᩡ​ᨾᩮᩬᩥ᩵ᩋ 9 May 2016.

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