Wp/tsg/Pandu sin Pagpapanjari Artikel

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This is a guide for creating an article in this Wikipedia. This guide will be translated into three languages, English, Tausug and Tagalog.

Disclaimer: this is not an official guide from the Regulators of the Tausug Language, as it has no official guidelines whatsoever nor any Regulator Organization. Most of this rules are referred from the Malay and Indonesia Language Regulators at this site. Any new improvements are acceptable as long it follows Tausug language phonologically, morphologically and any other language aspects.

Any newly derived/ newly taken loan words shall be listed in this article.

English[edit | edit source]

Tausug is a regional language, native to the Sulu Archipelago. Due to its current situation, the official dictionary of the language is still not sufficient enough to interpret the main idea of words, such as the word "Kawman" has 3 and more similar meaning in English. Hence, an alternative way must be used to deliver the main meaning of a word. Therefore, it is advisable to use loanwords from English, Spanish and Malay languages (Bahasa Malaysia and Bahasa Indonesia). But, do not take the whole words literally as it will violate the phonological rule of this language. Hence, this page will provide a main (but not official) guide to take some loanwords from other languages.

List of Language that is acceptable to take its words as loan words of Tausug[edit | edit source]

  • English
  • Spanish
  • Arabic (for Islamic terms)
  • Malay

Use comparative method to compare the newly created loan words with the 4 listed language above.

Phonology[edit | edit source]

Tausug language has 18 consonants and 3 vowels (or 5, include E and O). Some of the loanwords might have a consonant which is not available in Tausug. Follow this rule to preserve the originality of Tausug Phonology.

List of Tausug Letters

Letter A B CH D E G H I J K L M
IPA /a/ /b/,

/β/

/t͡ʃ/ /d/ /e/ /g/,

/ɣ/

/h/, /ɦ/ /i/ /dʒ/ /k/ /l/ /m/
Letter N NG NY O P R S T U W Y '
IPA /n/ /ŋ/ /ɲ/ /o/ /p/` /r/, /ɹ/ /s/ /t/ /u/ /w/ /j/ /ʔ/

Vowels[edit | edit source]

it is advised to use the main 3 vowel "/a/, /i/ and /u/" when taking loanwords from other languages. If the newly created words sounds 'not harmony' then use the vowel /e/ and /o/`` Not only that, try to compare the words with it surrounding languages such as Malay, Indonesian and Filipino. For example,

  • President (English) or Presidente (Spanish)

Became "Prisidinti" (sounds weird) hence became "Presidente" or "Presiden'.

The 'Schwa' Sounds. (Harmonic soundings is applied)

The 'schwa' sound is not available in Tausug Language, and it can be interpreted with the letter /e/ or /a/ depends on its harmony.

Original Word Loan Words in Tausug
ergative (English) ergatip vs ergatip
executive (English) eksekutip vs eksakutip
manager (English) manajer vs manajar

or magpaparagan (tsg)

Any words end with E (silent) turns into A (Like Malay language). (Hormanic soundings is applied)

For one syllable words, make it as two syllables.

with exception like suffixes -ve becomes -p, not -pa. (example: derivative → deribatip, not deribatipa).

Original Word Loan Words in Tausug
phase (eng) pasa

(like Malay, 'fasa')

race (ethnic) (eng) ras vs rasa

(rasa is rejected because Malay words used 'ras' not 'rasa')

dance (eng) dansa
garage (eng) or garaje (esp) garaj or garahe vs garahi or garaja (weird soundings)
zone (eng) sona
province probinsa or probinsi
informative inpormatip but not inpormatipa

Diphthongs

If the word is spelled with two combined vowels but it pronounced as 1 vowel, then it simplified into 1 vowel in Tausug.

Original Word Loan Words in Tausug
haemoglobin (eng) hemoglobin
haemophillia hemopiliya
haemostasis hemostasis

If the word is spelled with two combined vowels and it pronounced like a diphthongs, then it copied directly to Tausug, suit with Tausug spelling rules.

Original Word Loan Words in Tausug
dialysis diyalisis
homeostasis homewstasis
cornea korneya

Consonants[edit | edit source]

C (pronounced like C in 'Charity') turns into Ch; but

C (pronounced like C in 'Car') turns into K, but

C (pronounced like C in 'Century') turns into S.

Original Word Loan Words in Tausug
chandelier chandeliyer
chocolate chokolat
chancellor chanselor
congress kongres
cornea korneya
corridor koridor
cell sel
centrifugal force kaya sentripugal
cerebellum serebelum

F (or any F sounding letter combinations) turns into P

Original Word Loan Words in Tausug
fanatic (eng) panatik
phase (eng) pasa (like Malay, 'fasa')
flamingo (esp) plaminggo
pharaoh (eng) or firaun (arb) paroh or pirawn

V (or any V sounding letter combinations) turns into B except ending with v, turns into P

Original Word Loan Words in Tausug
vandalisme (eng) bandalisma
validity (eng) or baliditi or balididad (or kabunnalan, katunayan)
volcano (eng) bulkan or bulkano
elective (eng) elektip
successive (eng) suksesip

Z (or any Z sounding letter combinations) turns into J or S depends on its harmony

For example,

  • for letter a, o and u (central and back vowels) they become ja, jo and ju.
  • for letter e, i and y (front vowels), they become se and si.
Original Word Loan Words in Tausug
zone (eng) sona or jona

(sona is preferred because same with Tagalog)

zalim (arb) jalim not salim
zaman (arb) jaman not saman
zealot (eng) selot
zygote (eng) sigot
zebra (eng) sebra

Summary[edit | edit source]

Phoneme Adjustment

Noo Adjustment

  1. a
  2. b
  3. d
  4. e (as e in Eggplant)
  5. ea
  6. g
  7. h
  8. i
  9. ie (not pronounced like e)
  10. j
  11. k
  12. l
  13. m
  14. n
  15. ng
  16. ny
  17. o
  18. oo (long vowel)
  19. p
  20. ps
  21. pt
  22. ua
  23. r
  24. s
  25. t
  26. u
  27. x (if in front of word)
  28. w
  29. y (pronounced like y in yoyo)

Adjustment

  1. ae (not a variation of e) → ay
  2. ae (variation of e) → e
  3. ai → ay
  4. au → aw
  5. c → k, if in front of a, u, o or consonant
  6. c → s, if in front of e, i, oe and y
  7. cck, if in front of o, u, and consonant
  8. ccks, if in front of e and i
  9. ch and cchk, if in front of a, o, and consonant
  10. chs, if pronounced as s or sy
  11. chc, if pronounced c
  12. e (schwa) → e or a (depends on its harmony)
  13. ea → eya
  14. ei → ey
  15. eo, eu → ew
  16. f → p
  17. gh (arab) → g
  18. gue → ge
  19. ie → e
  20. kh (arab) → h
  21. oe, oi → oy
  22. oo → u
  23. ph → f
  24. q → k
  25. rh → r
  26. scsk, if in front of a, o, u, and consonant
  27. scs, if in front of e, i, and y
  28. schsk,if in front of vocal
  29. ts, in in front of i
  30. tht
  31. ue, ui → uy
  32. uuu
  33. v → b
  34. v → p (at ending of words)
  35. x → ks
  36. xcksk, if in front of a, o, u, and consonant
  37. yi, if pronounced as i

Affixes[edit | edit source]

Before creating a loan words, try to compare the new derivative words between English and Spanish. Remove the 'gender' of the words, like Spanish with their -o, -e, and -a suffixes. This is because, Tausug nouns do not have gender specifications. Such as:

If the derivative words come from Spanish language, remove the gender suffixes and apply the adjustment.

  • territorio → territori (remove the o) → teritori (combine the rr into r) → teritori (Tausug)
  • provincia → probincia (v into b) → probinci (removal of -a) → probinsi (c into s) → probinsi (Tausug)
  • gramatika → gramatik (removal of -a) → gramatik (Tausug)
  • presidente → president (removal of e) → presiden (removal of silent consonant) → presiden (Tausug) or Panguha

Overlapping Derivative

English and Spanish is a two different languages, and some suffixes with same usage are in different form in those two languages. As example:

-ity vs -dad

mentality (Englsh) vs mentalidad (Spanish) → mentaliti? or mentalidad? (Tausug)

probability (English) vs probabilidad → probabiliti? vs probabilidad? (Tausug)

Thus, to settle this dispute, the Spanish derivative is used because it may help the Tausug people to understand more with Filipino language and might increased their intelligibility.

No Adjustment[edit | edit source]

  1. -anda, -andum, -endum
  2. -ar
  3. -ase, -ose
  4. -eyn
  5. -et
  6. -or
  7. -ot

With Adjustment[edit | edit source]

  1. -a → -ø
  2. -(a)tion, -(a)cion (Spanish) → -(a)si
  3. -able, -ble-bel
  4. -ac-ak
  5. -acy, -cy-asi, -si
  6. -age-as
  7. -air-er
  8. -al-al
  9. -ance, -ence-ans, -ens
  10. -ancy, -ency-ansi, -ensi
  11. -ant-an
  12. -archy,-arki
  13. -ary-er
  14. -asm-asma
  15. -ate-at
  16. -e → -ø
  17. -end-en
  18. -ete, -ette-et
  19. -ic, -ique-ik
  20. -icle-ikel
  21. -ics, -ica-ik, -ika
  22. -id, -ide-ida
  23. -ief, -ive-ip
  24. -iel, -ile, -le-il
  25. -ific-ifik
  26. -isch, -ic-ik
  27. -isch, -ical-is
  28. -ism-isma
  29. -ist-is
  30. -ite-it
  31. -ity-iti
  32. -logue-log
  33. -logy, -logie-logi
  34. -o → -ø
  35. -oid-oyd
  36. -ous → -os
  37. -sion, -tion-si
  38. -sy-si
  39. -ter, -tre-ter
  40. -ty, -teit-ti
  41. -ure, -uur-ur