Wy/hbs/Krakov

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Wy/hbs/Krakov

UNESCO World Heritage Site

Wawel Castle

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Kraków (IPA: [ˈkrakuf]) je glavni grad Malopoljskog vojvodstva na jugu Poljske. U svojoj jezgri je lijepo očuvan srednjovjekovni grad na obalama rijeke Visle i to je najveća turistička atrakcija Poljske. Moderni grad, sa 780.000 stanovnika, proteže se daleko dalje, uključujući "novi grad" Nowa Huta iz komunističkog doba.

Statua Adama Mickiewicza i Sukiennice na glavnom trgu
CCrkva sv. Marije s Glavne tržnice

Četvrti[edit | edit source]

Krakov se sastoji od 18 oblasti. Historijski Stari grad nalazi se u I četvrti Stare Miasto. Iako riječi Stare Miasto znače 'stari grad', ne treba ga brkati sa samim povijesnim starim gradom Krakovom, budući da je srednjovjekovni stari grad samo mali središnji dio Distrikta I Stare Miasto. Neke od zajednica na rubu Krakova mogu vam pokazati pravi poljski život daleko od ekonomskog središta usmjerenog na turiste.

Članak za Kraków podijeljen je na oblasti kako slijedi: Template:Wy/hbs/Mapshape

Upoznavanje[edit | edit source]

Historija[edit | edit source]

Krakov je jedan od najstarijih gradova u Poljskoj s ostacima naseljavanja od 20,000 BC. Legenda kaže da je izgra]en na pećini zmaja kojeg je ubio mitski kralj Krak. Međutim, prvi službeni spomen imena datira u 966. godinu i pominje se od strane jevrejskog trgovca iz Španjolske, koji ga je opisao kao važno središte trgovine u slavenskoj Europi.

Kroz trgovinu s raznim vladarima Evrope, razvio se je iz malog naselja 1000.godine nove ere u veliki bogati grad, koji je pripadao Vistulancima. Međutim, kroz 9. i 10. stoljeće pao je pod utjecaj Velikomoravaca, zatim Češke, prije nego što ga je osvojila poljska dinastija Piast. Godine 1038. Kazimierz Obnovitelj učinio je Krakov glavnim gradom Poljske.

Godine 1241. grad su gotovo u potpunosti razorili Tatari. Ponovno je izgrađen prema nacrtima koji su ostali uglavnom koji je ostao uglavnom nepromijenjeni do danas. Međutim, nakon uspješnijih napada Mongola krajem 13. stoljeća, Kazimierz Veliki krenuo je u odbranu grada, te su dodane zidine, utvrde i izvorni dvorac Wawel. Osnovan je i univerzitet. Kralj Kazimierz osnovao je okrug Kazimierz u kojem su Jevreji mogli živjeti bez progona. Ovo je područje stoljećima ostalo uglavnom jevrejsko, sve do nacističke okupacije.

Zlatno doba Krakova bilo je u 16. stoljeću. Pod utjecajem zajedničke poljsko-litavske dinastije Jagelona, Kraków postaje središte nauke i umjetnosti. Godine 1569. Poljska se službeno ujedinila s Litvom, i kao rezultat toga, aktivnosti vlade počele su se seliti u Varšavu. Kralj Zygmunt III službeno je premjestio prijestolnicu 1609. godine.

Međutim, 17. stoljeće donijelo je povratak u teška vremena za Krakov i Poljsku. Nakon invazije Rusa, Prusa, Austrijanaca, Transilvanaca, Šveđana i Francuza, Poljska je prošla kroz fazu smjenjivanja raznih oblika političke kontrole. To je uključivalo da bude dio Varšavskog vojvodstva, koje je osnovao Napoleon, i da postane "neovisni grad". Međutim, najvećim je dijelom potpala je pod utjecaj Austrijskog Habsburškog Carstva, u pokrajini Galiciji.

U Prvom svjetskom ratu Józef Piłsudski krenuo je u oslobađanje Poljske, a Versailleskim ugovorom (1919.) uspostavljena je nezavisna suverena poljska država po prvi put nakon više od 100 godina. To je trajalo do Drugog svjetskog rata, kada su Njemačka i SSSR podijelili zemlju, a njemačke snage ušle su u Krakov u septembru 1939. godine. Mnogi intelektualci su ubijeni, a historijske relikvije i spomenici su uništeni ili opljačkani. U blizini Krakova osnovani su koncentracijski logori, uključujući Plaszow i Auschwitz; vidi sjećanje na holokaust. Nakon njemačkog povlačenja, grad je izbjegao potpuno uništenje i mnoge su građevine sačuvane.

U komunističkom razdoblju u predgrađu Nowa Huta osnovana je velika tvornica čelika. To se smatralo pokušajem da se smanji utjecaj antikomunističke inteligencije i vjerskih zajednica u Krakovu; vidi hladnoratovska Europa. Godine 1978. UNESCO je Krakov uvrstio na popis mjesta svjetske baštine. Iste godine krakovski nadbiskup Karol Wojtyła proglašen je papom Ivanom Pavlom II.

Komunistička vlada pala je 1989. godine i Krakov je prošao kroz još jedno razdoblje obnove, s historijskim zgradama koje su obnovljene, ali mnoge sumorne zgrade iz socijalističkog perioda još uvijek postoje.

Klima[edit | edit source]

Template:Wy/hbs/Weather box U Krakovu se smjenjuju četiri godišnja doba - ljeto je vruće i vlažno (prosječne najniže temperature od 25°C); zima je s oštro hladnim danima (prosječne najniže temperature od -3/-4°C) u kojoj je Kraków uvijek pod snježnim pokrivačem. Zbog slabog vjetra Krakov pati od visoke razine zagađenosti zraka od automobila i peći na ugljen, što posebno pogađa djecu i osobe s respiratornim problemima.

Ekonomija[edit | edit source]

Krakov je najpopularnije turističko odredište u Poljskoj i to podtiče razvoj lokalne ekonomije. Međutim, univerzitet i brojni lokalni fakulteti znače da je i obrazovanje važan poslodavac.

Uslužna i tehnološka industrija u Krakovu je prilično razvijena, s brojnim bankama i IT kompanijama kao što su IBM, Cisco, Oracle, koje su smještene ovdje. Postoji i veliki proizvodni sektor, posebno u oblasti proizvodnje čelika (u vlasništvu Mittala), farmaceutskih proizvoda i duhana, uglavnom kao naslijeđe komunističkog doba.

Nezaposlenost je niža od prosjeka (5%) u odnosu na ostatak zemlje (9%) i smatra se atraktivnom investicijskom prilikom, posebno za one koji kupuju nekretnine. Nova financijska i poslovna četvrt planirana je zajedno s novim sportskim kompleksom u četvrti Nowa Huta na rijeci Visli. Ovo će podstaći regeneraciju područja Nowa Huta, najsiromašnije četvrti Krakova.

U Krakov[edit | edit source]

Avionom[edit | edit source]

Ryanair je ovdje glavni operater s popisom evropskih odredišta koji se stalno mijenja; tu su i Easyjet, Lufthansa, Wizz i Norwegian među ostalima. Ukrajina je dobro opslužena, ali postoji samo sezonska usluga iz Rusije, Turske i Sjeverne Amerike. Izvan Europe postoje letovi iz Dubaija, Tel Aviva, Eilata i Ammana. LOT domaći letovi povezuju Varšavu, Gdansk i Olsztyn, dok Ryanair leti iz Szczecina. Zračna luka često pati od magle zimi, i postoji rizik od otkazivanja i preusmjeravanja. Postoji jedan terminal, s dolaskom i prijavom u istoj dvorani na razini ulice. Ponuditelj valute je ICE, s tečajevima za glavne valute 15-20% s obje strane bankovnog tečaja - loša vrijednost, ali prosjek za zračnu luku. Postoji kafić u prizemlju, ali puno su bolji sadržaji gore na aerodromu, nakon osiguranja. Litra poljske votke za putnika iz EU mogla bi biti 60 zl. Za odlaske koji nisu u Schengenu, ne prolazite kroz kontrolu putovnica prije otprilike sat vremena prije leta, jer nema mnogo toga u salonu iza njega. Izlazi 17 / 18 uvijek nisu schengenski, dok se izlazi 9-16 i njihova čekaonica mijenjaju naprijed-natrag. Desetak kioska za iznajmljivanje automobila nalazi se u Dolascima, potrebni su samo ako obilazite regiju, ne možete uzeti automobil u Stari grad.

Kraków Balice Airport

Do grada i od grada:

  • Trains run between the airport (Kraków Lotnisko) upstairs hall and the main railway station (Kraków Główny). They run daily every 30 mins between 04:00 and 23:40, taking 20 mins. A single ticket costs 12 zł (return 20 zł), concessions half-price. It's simplest to pay cash on board. No staffed ticket kiosk, so if you care to wrestle with the ticket machines: first pick your language, say English. Next pick the train operator, which to go downtown is "Koleje Małopolskie". (The other operators, PKP Intercity and Przewozy Regionalne (PolRegio), are only relevant if you're travelling beyond the city.) It should offer you Kraków Główny as a destination: choose the next train even if it's just about to depart, as your ticket will be okay on the subsequent one. These trains also call at the western suburban stations of Kraków Olszanica, Zakliki, Młynówka and Łobzów; change at Główny for all other destinations. Trains are sometimes replaced by buses (badged "SKA" and taking 30-40 mins), which are in addition to the regular city buses. Pay as for the trains, cash on board is simplest else you have to go upstairs to the railway ticket machines then come down again.
  • City Bus #208 runs between airport and the central bus & rail stations, daily and mostly hourly but with some gaps, between 04:20 and 22:30. It takes about 40 mins and is the better service for the north end of Old Town. Bus #252 runs from Osiedle Podwawelskie and the Grunwald Roundabout across the river south of Wawel, so it may be more convenient for south end of Old Town and Kazimierz. It runs daily every 30 mins 04:30-22:30 taking 40 mins. Night Bus #902 runs a similar route to the 208 hourly from midnight to 04:00.
The airport bus stop is just outside Arrivals. The downtown terminus for 208, 902 and train replacement SKA buses is the forecourt that lies between the railway and bus stations outside the big Galeria Krakowska shopping mall - not the bus station itself. A single ride (day or night) costs 4.60 zł (2.30 zł for concessions eg ISIC/EURO 26 holders or age over 60). You need an "agglomeration ticket" valid for Zones I + II to cover the airport; city buses are cashless so you can't buy on boarding. Buy from a newsagent or from a ticket machine at the bus stop, and validate it immediately on boarding. For other types of tickets, see the ticket information of the operator MPK, and "Get around" below.
  • Kraków Airport Taxi is the official taxi service, tel +48 12 258 0 258 or + 48 668 307 307 (open 06:00-22:00) or just rock up. There's a fixed fare per distance, posted on the airport website, reckon 90 zł to city centre. They're decent cars with decent drivers, and their big advantage is they can drop off and pick up within Old Town, which private cars can't.
  • Prebooked transfer: several internet platforms offer pre-booked cars from Kraków Airport. You know the price when you book, and often get a better vehicle.
  • Blacklane offer limousine transfers to town from about €40 / 180 zł one-way.
  • E-hailing: Free Now (formerly MyTaxi) and Uber operate in Krakow, but not Yandex.

Other airports - where you might end up if you're diverted - include Katowice, Warsaw and Rzeszów. Closest is Katowice (Template:Wy/hbs/IATA), 100 km west of Kraków. It's a base for Wizzair and has flights all over Europe, including Kutaisi and Tblisi in Georgia. KTW airport is 30 km north of Katowice town, but there are connecting minibuses to town and direct to Kraków. You can easily day-trip from Katowice to Kraków and to Auschwitz, and the accommodation is a fraction of the price, but it's a drab place that you'd be unwise to pick for a romantic weekend.

Vozom[edit | edit source]

Kraków ima dobre željezničke veze. Dva direktna voza voze iz Berlina preko Wrocław: 7 h 30 min danju, 10 sati noću i nastavljaju do Rzeszów i Przemyśl na ukrajinskoj granici. Iz Londona, Pariza ili Amsterdama presjedanje je u Berlinu.

Iz Praga postoji jedan direktni voz čija vožnja traje 7 sati i 30 minuta preko Olomouc, Ostrava i Katowice i nastavlja iz Krakowa za Rzeszów i Przemyśl.

Iz Beča jedan dnevni i jedan noćni voz koji voze 6 sati preko Ostrave, s drugim vezama u Katowice.

Iz Budimpešte jedan dnevni i jedan noćni voz i vožnja traje 9-10 sati preko Bratislave, Ostrave i Katowice, gdje se dio odvaja za Varšavu. Dio nastavlja na Rzeszów i Przemyśl. Vlakovi iz Kijeva i Lviva u Ukrajini uključuju presjedanje, imigraciju i carinu u Przemyślu, jer je to granica EU-a i promjenu kolosijeka. Vlakovi voze svakih sat ili dva iz Przemyśla i traju 3 sata preko Rzeszów i Tarnow.

Vozovi voze bez prestanka svaka dva sata za Kraków iz Varšave (sva tri glavne željezničke stanice) i vožnja trjae 2 sata i 40 minuta: polaze iz Gdynia i Gdansk. Vozovi iz Poznan voze preko Wrocław i Czestochowa za Kraków, nastavljajući preko Rzeszów za Przemyśl.

Vozovi iz Poznań voze svakih sat ili dva, vožnja traje 5 sati i 30 minuta preko Katowice. Dva direktna voza iz Łódź voze 3 sata.

Vožnje vozovima iz Oswiecima, poznatijeg kao Auschwitz, traju nešto manje od 2 sata; neki su direktni, ali većina uključuje promjenu u Trzebini.

Autobusom[edit | edit source]

Flixbus (koji je preuzet od Eurolinesa) vozi do Krakova direktno iz Beča (7 sati), Budimpešte (8 sati), Praga (8 sati), Berlina (8 sati), [[Hamburga] ] (12 sati), München (13 sati), Köln (14 sati), Venecija (15 sati preko Zagreba) i Amsterdam (20 sati).

Ecolines vozi svakodnevno do Kyiv (15 sati) i Odessa (15 sati), a povremeno do Kaunas, Riga, [ [Tallinn]], Moskva, St Petersburg i Atena.

Međugradske autobuse unutar Poljske danas uglavnom vozi Flixbus, koji je također preuzeo Polskibus. Iz Varšave postoji desetak autobusa dnevno. Također postoje izravni autobusi iz Gdańsk (9 sati), Szczecin (9 sati), Poznań (7 sati), Wrocław (3 sata), [[Łódź] ] (4 h), Katowice (svaki sat, 75 min), Przemyśl (4 h) i Zakopane (svaki sat, 2 h 20 min).

Glavna autobuska stanica nalazi se na istočnoj strani željezničke stanice. Mučit ćete se pronaći informacije na bilo kojem jeziku o tome gdje pronaći svoj autobus. Autobusi za aerodrom ne polaze odavde, već s malog dvorišta na ulazu u trgovački centar.

Autom[edit | edit source]

Glavna autocesta za Kraków sa zapada je autocesta A4 koja vodi od njemačke granice, gdje se susreće s autocestama A4 iz Dresdena i A13 iz Berlina. Na dionici između Katowica i Krakowa cestarina je 20 zł i možete je platiti karticom ili gotovinom.

Iz Varšave (300 km) koristite E77, prolazeći Radom i Kielce i planirajte 5 sati. To je moderna cesta, ali tek treba biti nadograđena ili zamijenjena autoputem.

Kroz Krakov[edit | edit source]

Template:Wy/hbs/Mapframe

Wawel katedrala i kraljevski dvorac

Pješke[edit | edit source]

Ovisno o vašoj kondiciji, možete razgledati cijeli centar grada bez potrebe za prijevozom. Postoji nekoliko prekrasnih pješačkih ruta, isprobajte Royal Way ili park Planty koji okružuje stari grad sve od Florijanskih vrata do dvorca Wawel. Vrlo je opuštajuće. Tu je i dobro uređena riječna obala pored dvorca samo za šetnju.

Međutim, imajte na umu da se zimi snijeg ponekad ne uklanja s pločnika, što rezultira mješavinom snijega i blata. Obavezno ponesite vodootporne cipele ako planirate šetati zimi.

Autobusom i tramvajem[edit | edit source]

U gradu postoji vrlo dobar sitem javnog prevoza koji se sastoji od autobusa i tramvaja, kojim upravlja MPK (Miejskie Przedsiębiorstwo Komunikacyjne). Na njihovom sajtu mogu se pogledati linije i stanice i pronaći najbolje putanje koje ih povezuju. Guže u saobraćaju se uglavnom dešavaju između 7 i 9 i potom između 15 i 17 časova i može se dogoditi da se zadržite u saobraćaju.

The official phone application Jakdojade is available to route you around Krakow and other Polish cities. You can buy tickets directly on the app. You can also buy tickets online but you need to register in advance in Mobilet or Skycash mobile services and download appropriate mobile application.

It's best to buy tickets before you get on board in a kiosk or ticket machine on the tram/bus stop (these are present mostly in the city centre and provide help in few languages). Those trams and buses that are equipped with ticket machines are marked with large "A" sign above the entrance. If there is no ticket machine on board you can buy the 5 zł ticket from the driver but you have to pay him with exact change (the driver will not accept a higher amount than the ticket price). If buying a ticket after mounting the vehicle try to be fast. Ticket controllers are fairly common and fines are quite high (250 zł) and a hassle.

As soon as you get on, punch the ticket in the validation machine. Tickets need to be punched only the first time you get on, don't do it again after changing a tram/bus. You can use a single ticket for multiple rides as long as its time period hasn't expired.

Ticket prices: single-fare/50-minute 4.60 zł, 20-minute 3.40 zł, 90-minute 6.00 zł, 24-hour (15 zł within city limits, 20 zł with agglomeration), 48-hour 28 zł, 72-hour 42 zł, 7-day (56 zł within city limits, 68 zł with agglomeration), family ticket (Sat-Sun only, unlimited daytime traveling) 16 zł.

ISIC and Euro26 student holders that study outside Poland can use 50% discounted tickets which means: 20-minute 1.70 zł, single-fare/50-minute 2.30 zł, 90-minute 3.00 zł, 24-hour 7.50 zł/10 zł, 48-hour 14 zł, 72-hour 21 zł, 7-day 28 zł/34 zł.

When travelling to neighbouring villages or to the airport you need an agglomeration (zone) ticket. All buses that go outside the city limits have 2 or 3 at the beginning of their line number. Keep in mind that not all time passes mentioned above are valid outside the city, and you will need to purchase a zone ticket separately. Zone tickets are slightly more expensive than city ones and follow similar time system.

Night bus and tram lines start with 6 (or 9 when zone) at the beginning of their line number. Ticket prices during the night are the same. 24-, 48- and 72-hour, as well as 7-day tickets are valid on night buses.

Tram and bus stops show routes and most kiosks will be able to advise you on route numbers. Modern trams and most of the modern buses also display the route inside on the screens and announce each stop.

Autom[edit | edit source]

Nemojte se zamarati vožnjom u centru grada. Često ima puno prometa, mjesta za parkiranje su rijetka i mogu biti skupa, a poljska vožnja zahtijeva puno navikavanja. Postoje i pravila oko lokalnih 'vozačkih zona', koja zabranjuju ulazak vozilima nerezidenata u njih. Pogotovo u centru grada lako je nenamjerno ući u takvu zonu - postoje pravokutni plavi znakovi koji označavaju ulaz u zone. Taksiji su jeftini i ima smisla koristiti ih.

Taxi'- pouzdane i fair play taksiste od aerodroma ili za duži transfer potrebno je rezervirati unaprijed putem interneta. Na primjer, prijevoz iz zračne luke Kraków do Krakowa košta oko 70 zl. Tokom dana većina će cijena karata biti oko 20 zl. Svi taksiji trebaju imati natpis 'Taxi' na krovu i naljepnicu na stražnjem staklu suvozača s cijenama. Postoji početna naknada od oko 5-7 zl, plus 2-3 zl po kilometru. Cjenovnik bi trebao biti prikazan na suvozačevim vratima.

iCar jedna je od najjeftinijih taksi tvrtki i unaprijed će vam dati cijene (na temelju stvarne udaljenosti između vas i vašeg odredišta). Vožnja od 8 km koštat će vas oko 22 zl. Uber je također odlična opcija jer može biti jeftiniji od lokalnih taksi službi. Postoje slučajevi u kojima će vozači previsoko naplatiti turistima, posebno onima koji ne govore poljski. Provjerite na karti unaprijed koliko bi trebala biti i ako ide puno iznad toga, raspravljajte o cijeni.

Ako stvarno želite putovati automobilom, možete koristiti Traficar uslugu dijeljenja automobila, iako ako niste poljski državljanin, možda ćete se morati lično registrirati za uslugu na Rzemieślnicza 26 prije prve upotrebe.

Biciklom[edit | edit source]

Lako se kretati gradom na biciklu, jer postoji nekoliko biciklističkih staza, uključujući i 'Planty' koje okružuju Stari grad. Neki iznajmljivači bicikala također nude obilaske grada i zemlje.

  • Wawelo, široka mreža gradskih bicikala dostupna u Krakovu. Za početnu naknadu od 19 zl možete koristiti bicikl 60 minuta tokom jednog mjeseca.

Šta vidjeti[edit | edit source]

Church of St. Mary seen from Plac Mariacki
Inner courtyard of the Royal Castle
  • Script error: No such module "Marker". at the south tip of Old Town is a citadel perched on a crag. Within are the cathedral, and the Royal Castle which has several museum galleries and collections.
  • Script error: No such module "Marker". (Rynek Główny) is the grand centre of Old Town, with St Mary's Basilica and the Cloth Hall. The town walls have gone except for the bastions on its north flank.
  • Script error: No such module "Marker". was the Jewish quarter. The best of it is around Szeroka, with the Remuh synagogue and atmospheric old cemetery.
  • Museums are run by either the National or the City museum.
- The Script error: No such module "Marker". main building is at the foot of Aleja 3 Maja in west Kraków, ten mins walk from Old Town. Other branches, all within Old Town, are Sukiennice Gallery, Czapski Museum and Pavilion, Matejko House, Szolayski House, Czartoryski Museum, Czartoryski Library, Menhoffer House, Erazm Ciolek Palace, and the Europeum Centre.
- The Museum of Krakow or City Museum runs Krzysztofory Palace, Old Synagogue, Oscar Schindler's Enamel Factory, Eagle Pharmacy, Pomorska Street, Hipolit House, Town Hall Tower, the walls (including Barbican, Florian Gate and Celestat), Nowa Huta, Nowa Huta underground, Zwierzyniec House, Rynek Underground, Theatre Museum, Thesaurus Crocovensis, Podgorze, KL Plaszow and Rydlowka.
- These are all rich, fascinating collections. To pick one highlight from so many: the Lady with an Ermine is an authentic Leonardo da Vinci portrait (in Polish Dama z gronostajem). She's been shunted hither and yon across Europe but nowadays resides in the Princes Czartoryski Museum just inside the Old Town walls.
  • Nowa Huta was built in Communist times for the workforce of the colossal steelworks there. It's a monument to their crass central planning, with huge buildings surrounding green parks. The Polish Aviation Museum is in this area, 5 km northeast of the centre.
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau is a simple day-trip from Kraków - lots of tours go there, but you can easily do it independently. It had offshoots all over the region, including a concentration camp in Podgórze district.

Šta raditi[edit | edit source]

Kraków Barbican
Leonardo da Vinci's The Lady with an Ermine is in the Princes Czartoryski Museum
  • Walk the Royal Way from St Florian's Gate down Floriańska, across the Main Market Square, then down Grodzka to Wawel.
  • Listen to the Hejnał Mariacki while sipping a coffee in the Rynek Główny. This five-note trumpet signal is played on the hour from the tower of St Mary Church, and it's said to be an alert cut short in homage to a trumpeter slain in mid-toot by a Tatar arrow in 1241. The Tatars would have needed a high-velocity rifle to get him at that range, and the legend only developed in the 20th C. "Hajnal" is Hungarian for "dawn", and more likely it was just the signal to re-open the city gates in the morning, sounded towards each of the four gates, and never part of a longer tune.
  • Walk around the Planty, the park that encircles Old Town.
  • Lounge and take in the sun on the banks of the Vistula river; at the foot of Wawel, a dragon breathes fire. Cross the footbridge Kładka Bernatka between Kazimierz and Podgórze.
  • Cruise down the river to admire Tyniec Abbey and Bielany Priory. In summer boats sail from the wharf below Wawel, and there's also a city-owned water tram Template:Wy/hbs/Dead link.
  • Early on Sunday, go shopping at the open air flea markets at Plac Nowy and Hala Targowa.
  • Participate in a Mass in St. Mary's Church. The church is impressive and the devotion of the believers will bring you inside of the real religious spirit.
  • Learn about life in Kraków under Nazi German occupation in the original Schindler's Factory building in Podgórze district.
  • Take part in a city game which combines sightseeing of the city with adventure, integration and fun. You'll find them advertised in hostels.
  • Foreign visitors can find locals eager to practice speaking English and other languages at the English Language Club on the second floor at ul. Sienna 5, Wednesdays 18:00-20:00.

Događaji[edit | edit source]

  • Dan nezavisnosti je 11. novembra i obilježava se širom Poljske, ali je posebno veliki događaj u Krakovu. Održavaju se velike parade, a Wawel je zatvoren za rutinske posjete.
  • Božični market: ovo je najstariji takav market u Poljskoj i održava se od kraja studenog do kraja prosinca na glavnom trgu.

Sports[edit | edit source]

Kupovina[edit | edit source]

  • Old Town is geared to tourists, selling clothes, jewellery and art, rather than staples though these can be found in small independent stores. The centre of it all is Rynek Główny which means "main market": the ground floor of Sukiennice (Cloth Hall) is a bazaar for art, amber, sheepskin and other craft souvenirs. Lots more on adjacent streets such as Floriańska and Grodzka.
  • Kazimierz is less touristy, though there's a similar collection of places in the streets around Plac Nowy. The big shopping mall here is Galeria Kazimierz at ul. Podgórska 34 on the riverbank, with a gourmet supermarket.
  • Galeria Krakowska at ul. Pawia 5 is next to the main railway and bus stations, 5 mins walk north of the Old Town walls.
  • Other big supermarkets are quite far from the centre, eg Carrefour, Real, Tesco, Lidl, and Bonarka at ul. Kamieńskiego 11.

Kraków's cuisine has been influenced by the cultures that have inhabited central Europe, as well as the Austro-Hungarian empire.

The most popular dish from Kraków is obwarzanek (bagel). You can buy it at many stalls on the streets. Typical for Kraków is also maczanka, long-roasted pork. A local speciality from the voivodeship is oscypek - cheese from the Tatra Mountains.

If you want to try Polish simple cuisine for outstandingly good value prices (a big lunch for one person for about 8 zł) then find a 'Bar Mleczny' (a milk bar - a kind of cafeteria very prevalent in Communist times so called because it serves no alcohol). You can find one on the right side of ul. Grodzka (if you are going from Rynek Główny). They're not very posh and decorations are rather humble, but they offer classic Polish home food such as 'krokiety' at its best. An English-Polish dictionary is recommended when ordering.

Casual dishes:

  • Żurek is a soup based on fermented rye - it's sour and creamy and often has slices of kielbasa sausage or a hard-boiled egg added.
  • Barszcz is a soup made with beetroot—very savoury.
  • Kwaśnica is a soup made from pickled cabbage with a large proportion of sauerkraut and meat, usually eaten with potatoes or bread - while it's a less popular choice than barszcz and żurek, many visitors find it to be their favourite.
  • Chłodnik is another beetroot soup, served cold as a refreshing summer dish. It makes use of the beetroot greens as well as the roots and is flavoured with gherkins, dill and sour cream.
  • Pierogi are dumplings that are most often filled with "ruskie" ("ruskie" meaning "Ruthenian" - with curd cheese and potato), meat, cabbage, mushroom, bilberries, apples, and strawberries. The fruit Pierogi are usually served with cream and sugar.

You won't see this in most guides, but one of the true joys of a trip to Kraków is a visit to the kiełbasa van. Basically, it's these two gruff Polish men who, every night from 8PM-3AM (Mon-Sat), set up a fire grill outside of their van (parked in front of the market east of the Old Town near the train bridge) and grill kielbasa. For 8 zł, you get your sausage, roll and a squirt of mustard, stand at the perch nearby and chow down with the locals in-the-know. It is delicious, especially after a night of exploring Kraków's bars. A fun experience free of the usual tourist crush and off the main path (ul. Grzegórzecka, opposite ul. Blich)

By far the oldest street food in Kraków is zapiekanka which is a large open-faced baguette with baked toppings (traditionally cheese, mushrooms, and a lot of condiments like ketchup or garlic sauce). The most popular, location for zapiekanki is on the Plac Nowy market in Kazimierz. It is busiest at night on the weekends where you can purchase them until the early hours of the morning.

In Kraków you can also buy one of the best Polish sausages - Lisiecka.

Piće[edit | edit source]

Barovi, pubovi i kafići u Krakovu jedna su od njegovih najvećih atrakcija. Ne samo njihov broj ili kvaliteta, već i neposredna blizina. Rečeno je da postoji više od 300 restorana za jelo i piće samo u Stari grad.

Lokalna pića[edit | edit source]

  • A tatanka is a unique (and delicious) Polish beverage made with apple juice and a special kind of vodka called żubrówka, which is flavoured with bison grass. It is also often referred to as a szarlotka, or apple cake. Tatanka is a Native American term for bison.
  • Wódka miodowa is a honey vodka, often served chilled in shots. Some of the better Polish-themed restaurants will have house brands.
  • Śliwowica, a plum brandy, is worth watching out for. There are two main variants: an 80-proof (40%) yellow tinged one and a 140-proof (70%) clear variety. While the 80-proof variety is often smooth and flavorful, some have compared the 140-proof to drinking gasoline. A good way to drink it is to deal with it like with an absinthe. Take a small spoon with sugar, put some Sliwowica on it and fire it. Let the sugar melt down for a while (10–30 seconds). Then, mix the flaming sugar with the rest of the drink. Let it burn for 5–10 seconds, then blow it and drink it. Watch out and don't burn your lips! You can also let it burn longer, but then use a straw to drink it to avoid burning your fingers or lips.
  • Grzaniec, a sort of heated wine with cloves and other spices, very popular around Christmas when sold on Market Square.
  • Wściekły pies, a shot of plain vodka with tabasco and raspberry sauces in the bottom. Must be drunk in one gulp. The name can be translated as rabid dog. Definitely worth trying.
  • Kamikaze, a set of several shots of vodka-based alcohol sold usually in clubs. It usually contains equal parts of vodka, blue curacao and lime juice. Should be drunk in one gulp, one shot after another.

Warning: If you party with Poles you should be aware that some of them consume bigger dosage of alcohol than you're used to. Don't try to keep up with your Polish friends and make sure you have plenty of breaks when drinking.

Barovi[edit | edit source]

Thanks to their proximity to each other, Kraków's watering holes are ideal for bar hopping. Many locals and tourists have spent nights partying from the Old Town all the way to Vistula River at the end of Kazimierz. Walk down ul. Szeroka or head over to Plac Nowy for streets full of bars.

The newly-opened Tytano district offers a loft-style, London-like selection of cocktail-bars, restaurants and clubs. It's based in the proximity of the city centre on the corner of Dolnych Młynów and Czarnowiejska streets. If you're looking for a place to relax, there is plenty of bars to choose from there.

In the warmer months, Kraków's nightlife moves outdoors into hundreds of sidewalk cafes and beer gardens. When winter comes around, it moves underground into cellars all around the city.

Kafei[edit | edit source]

Kraków nije samo pun ugodnih kafića, već se također kaže da je mjesto prvog kafića osnovanog u Europi. Većina kafića nudi dobar espresso i nešto za grickanje po vrlo razumnoj cijeni. U pravilu su mjesta međunarodnog izgleda mnogo skuplja.

Noćenje[edit | edit source]

Kako se broj turista u Krakovu brzo povećava, cijene smještaja rastu. Pokušajte izbjegavati hotele i hostele koji se nalaze u četvrti Nowa Huta; većina njih su bivša skloništa za honorarne radnike u industriji, a četvrt je dosta udaljena od centra grada.

Kampovi[edit | edit source]

U Krakovu postoji nekoliko kampova, većina ih je zatvorena u hladnijim mjesecima. Svi imaju nešto prostora i za šatore i kamp prikolice.

Hosteli[edit | edit source]

U Starom gradu i Kazimierzu ima mnogo pristojnih čistih hostela za turiste. Očekujte da ćete platiti 40-60 zł za krevet u spavaonici, uključujući doručak (hljeb, džem i sir), pranje rublja, posteljinu, ormariće i pristup internetu.

Hoteli[edit | edit source]

Kraków ima mnogo hotela koji se nalaze po cijelom gradu. Velike korporacije (Sheraton, Qubus itd.) su u blizini centra, najčešće na obalama Visle. U Starom gradu postoje neki po razumnim cijenama, a neki prilično luksuzni i skupi. Dobra alternativa može biti rezerviranje hotela u udaljenim krajevima okruga Kazimierz ili u Podgórzeu, uz rijeku Vistulu.

Privatni smještaj[edit | edit source]

Dobar način za boravak u Krakovu je iznajmljivanje privatnog smještaja. Obično možete dobiti jednu spavaću sobu za €60-€90 po noći, koja se nalazi u Starom gradu. Nasuprot Glavnog željezničkog kolodvora nalaze se dvije agencije koje nude sobe. Ako se malo motate po ulici izvan agencija, prići će vam neki iznajmljivač i dati ponudu. Ovo vam štedi proviziju, ali može biti malo nesigurno.

Edukacija[edit | edit source]

Većina škola jezika sada nudi kurseve'poljskog za strance. Npr. Accent, Prolog, www.polishcourse.org/ Međunarodna škola, Lingualand... ima još toga.

Prestižno je 'Škola poljskog jezika i kulture Jagielonskog univerziteta jer je Jagielonski univerzitet, najstariji poljski univerzitet koji je osnovan 1364.

Posao[edit | edit source]

Bezbednost[edit | edit source]

Like the rest of Poland, Kraków is generally a very safe city with strong police presence. Violent behaviour is rare and if it occurs it is most likely alcohol-related. While pubs and clubs are generally very safe, the nearby streets may be scenes of brawls, especially late at night. Try to avoid confrontations. Women and girls are generally less likely to be confronted or harassed since the Polish code of conduct strictly prohibits any type of violence (physical or verbal) against women.

Follow standard city travel rules: don't leave valuables in the car in plain sight; don't display money or expensive things needlessly; know where you're going; be suspicious of strangers asking for money or trying to sell you something.

Pickpockets operate, pay attention to your belongings in crowds, at stations, in crowded trains/buses (especially to/from the airport), and clubs.

In any case, do not be afraid to seek help or advice from the Police (Policja) or the Municipal Guard (Straż Miejska). They are generally helpful, polite and in most cases speak at least basic English.

Rasizam[edit | edit source]

Kao rezultat nacističko-njemačkog i sovjetskog terora, moderna Poljska je vrlo homogeno društvo. Iako se dosta azijskih i afričkih migranata naselilo u većim gradovima (uključujući Kraków) u posljednjih nekoliko godina, još uvijek je prilično rijetko vidjeti ne-bijelce na poljskim ulicama. Ako ste putnik koji nije bijelac, nemojte se iznenaditi (ili uznemiriti) ako neki ljudi (osobito mala djeca) bulje u vas sa znatiželjom. Velika većina Poljaka sastoji se od toplih, gostoljubivih ljudi koji su često znatiželjni naučiti više o drugim kulturama. Rasistički incidenti iznimno su rijetki, ali kao i bilo gdje drugdje u Europi, događaju se. Ako ste dovoljno nesretni da doživite rasizam ili previše znatiželje, važno je da se ne upustite u sukob. Umjesto toga odšetajte.

Prevare[edit | edit source]

Kao i u svakom većem turističkom gradu, postoje ljudi koji pokušavaju iskoristiti putnike. Općenito, koristite zdrav razum i slijedite jednostavne mjere opreza. Dolje je popis najčešćih prijevara:

Prevare u barovima[edit | edit source]

U skladu sa svojom reputacijom jeftinog odredišta za muška putovanja, Kraków je nažalost poznat po prijevarama u barovima tipičnim za mnoga popularna turistička odredišta. Prijevara, ukratko, uključuje razgovor s atraktivnim ženama i poziv da im se pridružite u klubu na piću. Tada se ispostavi da je račun za piće višestruko veći od onoga što se moglo očekivati. Dva kluba su poznata po tome da su ovo činil, Saxon Club i Hard Candy, no od vas će se možda tražiti da pratite svoje novo društvo do neuglednih prostorija koje se također ne doimaju kao javni otvoreni klub.

Prevare u hotelima[edit | edit source]

Nekoliko posjetitelja Krakova bili su žrtve hotelske prijevare. Nakon dugog dana putovanja, žrtva se budi kada u njegovoj hotelskoj sobi zazvoni telefon. To je recepcioner koji se izvinjava zbog kasnog sata, ali traži da potvrdi podatke o kreditnoj kartici. Žrtva ih pročita i ponovno utone u san. Kao što krakovski vodiči znaju, postoji rastuće crno tržište za ukradene brojeve kreditnih kartica, a šanse su da će čak i prije nego što se žrtva sjeti ovog kasnonoćnog razgovora postojati visoki troškovi, a možda čak i raniji prekid odmora.

Taxi scam[edit | edit source]

When using a taxi always ask for a price for your journey before you leave. Scam taxis have been found to operate near to the main railway station. They are legally registered as "transportation services" and charge €20/km. The prices of regular taxis are limited by law, and the price list is easily visible. It should be around 2.30 zł per kilometre, with an initial fee of 7 zł (first kilometre included in price). Reliable licensed taxi companies include Taxi Barbakan, Taxi Dwójki, Lajkonik Taxi and Taxi 19191. While it is legal for "transportation services" to charge people as much as they like, their prices must be clearly displayed and must be clearly stated when you ask the driver. If you do not agree with the price, do not use the service. The best way to get a reliable taxi is to call them by phone (you can do it by yourself or ask hotel staff to do it for you).

A common scam at Krakow airport (and most Polish airports for that matter) is for taxi or Uber drivers to accost travellers before they leave the airport and offer them a ride. These usually charge abhorrently high fares compared to actual taxi drivers. If you see someone approach you when leaving the airport, simply say no.

Currency exchange scam[edit | edit source]

Look very closely what the buy rate is when you exchange your currency into PLN, and ask for the exact rate in writing. Do not let the clerk point on the chart with rates; insist on their quoting the rate for you beforehand on a piece of paper. Very often the rate is displayed not on an electronic board, but with digits on small tiles; it may happen that a small tile with a zero is partially slid right under the comma in the "buy" rate, so e.g. instead of 3.45 zł the actual rate is 3.045 zł. This is difficult to notice and the clerks do not accept any complaints after you receive your money. Victims may lose up to 20% of the exchanged amount. This practice is definitely unfair and on the verge of legality. It has been described and condemned in the local press. However, if the tile with 0 is visible at least in half, the booth owner may escape responsibility, as your acceptance of the rates is assumed. Remember the rule of thumb - spread between the "buy" and "sell"rates should not exceed 2-3% of the "buy" rate on the main currencies (EUR, USD, GBP) and 5% on secondary currencies (CHF, JPY, SEK, NOK). Stick to banks (even if the rate is slightly worse, it is still perfectly acceptable) or large currency exchange points.

The currency exchange point at the railway station usually operates at rip-off spreads. Avoid at all costs, unless you are in a big hurry or selling złoty. Also avoid the exchange points at the airport, or exchange only the amount for the ticket to the city centre.

Best rates are available on Sławkowska Street, extending from the north-west corner of the Main Market Square.

Jaywalking enforcement[edit | edit source]

Jaywalking is enforced in Kraków. If you're jaywalking (crossing at a red light for pedestrian, outside of a zebra-crossing), even if it was perfectly safe (you looked on both sides, there was no car coming, etc.), there are chances that a police officer will wait for you on the other side of the street, and give you a 100 zł ticket for doing so: tourist or not, you will have to pay for it.

Poteškoće[edit | edit source]

Consulates[edit | edit source]

As of Nov 2019, the following had consular services in Krakow:

Kuda dalje[edit | edit source]

Auschwitz II-Birkenau
  • Auschwitz-Birkenau — Former German Nazi camp 2 km outside city of Oświęcim, 65 km from Kraków.
    • Getting there: Leave a whole day for this if you want to go. The Auschwitz camp and the much bigger Birkenau camp are a few kilometres apart. Frequent and inexpensive buses leave from the main bus station in Kraków, and trains leave approximately every two hours from the adjacent railway station. Most will let you out at the main Oświęcim station, a short walk from the camp (follow the signs to "Muzeum"). Alternately, a frequent PKS bus drops off and picks up directly in front of the visitor center—just check for destination "Oświęcim Muzeum." (You can buy a ticket from the bus driver.) You can find bus schedules at MDA and trains from rozklad-pkp. From Auschwitz, there is a free shuttle to Birkenau.
    • Tours and guides: There are many organised tours of the Auschwitz camp from Kraków, and they are heavily advertised. They can cost anywhere from 60 zl to 160 zł per person. Many hotels and travel agents in Kraków, as well as the Galicja Museum in Kazimierz, can direct you to reputable companies. Though the price tag might seem hefty for those on a budget, those tours include a bus, a guide, and lunch breaks. Otherwise, traveling to Auschwitz can be done using local trains or buses easily. The only thing you need to pay for when you get there is a guide (which is optional - English language tours cost 75 zł and run every hour between 09:30 and 15:30 Tours may be joined at the site without prior reservation. Auschwitz II-Birkenau is open to unguided visitors all day) -- they have official tours available in many languages for a modest fee. .
  • Wieliczka — 17 km from Kraków, is the location of ancient salt mines, one of the original 12 UNESCO World Heritage Sites and a definite must-see. Entrance to the mines (100 zł) is rather expensive compared to other tourist attractions in Poland. Bus 304 or 274 (4.60 zł, blue-and-white buses operated by Kraków city, the first stop of 304 is in front of Galeria Krakowska) makes frequent trips to and from the mines. There are 5 Wieliczka stops in total; get off at Wieliczka Kopalnia Soli (look for a giant "SALT MINES" sign). The ride takes ~40 minutes. There is also a train to Wieliczka that lets off a short (and well-marked) walk from the mine (last stop of the train).
  • Beautiful Renaissance castle in Niepołomice (25 km). Can be accessed by public transport - from Galeria Krakowska, take the 304 bus or the 3 tram, and get off at Bieżanowska stop, from where the 301 bus will take you all the way to Niepołomice Rynek stop (a zone ticket is required).
  • Kalwaria Zebrzydowska monastery (35 km southwest)
  • Bochnia — Historic salt mine, older than Wieliczka. 40 km from Kraków. Must see. SK-BUS minibuses from Kraków Main Railway Station (Dworzec Główny), or train (direction: Tarnów, Rzeszów, Stróże, Nowy Sącz/Krynica).
  • Wadowice — 45 km southwest is the birthplace of Karol Wojtyła, John Paul II.
  • Tarnów (80 km east) — The second largest city in region with a beautiful main market.
  • Bielsko-Biała — 85 km southwest city with cosy old town and many beautiful buildings from Austro-Hunagrian times. Many buses from Kraków Bus Station (RDA).
  • Zakopane — 105 km south in the Tatra Mountains is considered to be the Polish winter sport capital. Other winter sport centres near Kraków in the Beskids are Rabka-Zdrój (65 km) and Żywiec (90 km)
  • Częstochowa — 135 km northwest is the most important pilgrim's place in Central Europe. In the Pauline Monastery on Jasna Góra (literally: bright hill) you can pray in front of one of the most known icon of Our Lady of Częstochowa.
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