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Wq/syl/ꠀꠞ꠆ꠛꠤ ꠝꠣꠔ

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Wq > syl > ꠀꠞ꠆ꠛꠤ ꠝꠣꠔ

ꠀꠞ꠆ꠛꠤ ꠝꠣꠔ (اَلْعَرَبِيَّةُ / عَرَبِيّ‎) ꠅꠁꠟ ꠄꠈꠎꠣꠔꠞ ꠍꠦꠝꠤꠐꠤꠇ ꠝꠣꠔ ꠨ ꠎꠦꠈꠐꠣ ꠚꠄꠟꠣ ꠝꠣꠔꠣ ꠅꠁꠍꠦ ꠚꠄꠟꠣ ꠡꠔꠇ ꠕꠣꠇꠤ ꠘꠝ꠆ꠛꠞ ꠡꠔꠇ ꠁꠡꠣꠁꠔ ⁕

ꠛꠄꠀꠘ[edit | edit source]

ꠀꠉꠞꠀꠝꠟꠤ ꠀꠞ꠆ꠛꠤ ꠀꠞ ꠁꠍ꠆ꠟꠣꠝꠞ ꠀꠞ ꠀꠞ ꠀꠉꠞꠀꠝꠟꠤ ꠜꠣꠡꠣꠔ ꠡꠣꠗꠣꠞꠘ ꠀꠞ ꠗꠞ꠆ꠝꠤꠅ ꠨ ꠀꠗ꠆ꠗꠣꠔꠤ ꠀꠞ ꠅꠘꠦꠇꠥꠞ ꠨ ꠀꠘꠣꠗꠞ꠆ꠝꠦ ꠀꠞ ꠗꠞ꠆ꠝꠦ ꠡꠛ꠆ꠖꠣꠁꠘ꠆ꠔꠞ ꠇꠥꠘꠥ ꠢꠦꠡ ꠘꠣꠁ ꠨ ꠇꠣꠞꠘ ꠁ ꠎꠥꠠꠣ ꠡꠛ꠆ꠖꠣꠁꠘ ꠄꠉꠥ ꠁꠍꠣꠁ ꠖꠥꠘꠍ꠆ꠟꠣ ꠙꠇꠣꠡ ꠇꠞꠦ ꠎꠦꠔꠣ ꠁꠍ꠆ꠟꠣꠝꠞ ꠖꠥꠘꠤꠀꠁꠔ ꠁꠟꠣꠘ ꠇꠥꠘ꠆ꠔꠣ ꠘꠣꠁ ⁕

    • Bernard Lewis, "The Return of Islam" ( ), Commentary

Medieval Islam was technologically advanced and open to innovation. It achieved far higher literacy rates than in contemporary Europe; it assimilated the legacy of classical Greek civilization to such a degree that many classical books are now known to us only through Arabic copies. It invented windmills, trigonometry, lateen sails and made major advances in metallurgy, mechanical and chemical engineering and irrigation methods. In the middle-ages, the flow of technology was overwhelmingly from Islam to Europe rather from Europe to Islam. Only after the 1500s did the net direction of flow begin to reverse.