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ⵛⴰⵔⵍⵣ ⴷⴰⵔⵡⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⴰⵙ 1854

ⵛⴰⵔⵍⵣ ⴷⴰⵔⵡⵉⵏ ⵏⵖ ⵜⵛⴰⵔⵍⵣ ⵔⵓⴱⵉⵔⵜ ⴷⴰⵔⵡⵉⵏ (Charles Robert Darwin, 12 ⴱⵕⴰⵢⵔ 1809 – 19 ⵉⴱⵔⵉⵔ 1882) ⵉⴳⴰ ⵡⵉⵙⵙ ⵙⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵔⵡⴰ ⵏ ⵓⵎⵙⴰⵙⴼⴰⵔ ⵔⵓⴱⵉⵔⵜ ⴷⴰⵔⵡⵉⵏ (1766-1848), ⴷ ⴰⵢⴰⵡ ⵏ ⵉⵔⴰⵙⵎⵓⵙ ⴷⴰⵔⵡⵉⵏ (1731-1802), ⴰⵎⴷⵢⴰⵣ ⴷ ⵓⵎⵊⵊⴰⵢ ⴷ ⵓⵎⵙⵙⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵓⵙⵜ. ⵜⵛⴰⵔⵍⵣ ⴷⴰⵔⵙ 8 ⵉⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙⵏ ⴰⵍⵍⵉⴳ ⵜⵎⵎⵓⵜ ⵢⵎⵎⴰⵙ, ⵙⵓⵣⴰⵏⴰ (1765-1817). ⵜⵛⴰⵔⵍⵣ ⴷⴰⵔⵡⵉⵏ ⵉⵙⵙⵏⵜⵉ ⵜⵉⵖⵔⵉ ⵏⵙ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵙⴰⵙⴼⴰⵔⵜ ⴳ ⵜⵙⴷⴰⵡⵜ ⵏ ⵉⴷⵉⵏⴱⵓⵔⴳ, ⵉⵎⵉⴽ ⵉⴼⵍ ⵜⵜ ⵉⴹⴼⵓⵔ ⵜⵓⵙⵏⴰ ⵏ ⵓⵙⴳⴷ ⴳ ⴽⴰⵎⴱⵔⵉⴷⴳ. ⵎⴰⵛⴰ ⴰⵢⵍⵍⵉ ⵢⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⴰⵏⵍⵉ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵉⴳⴰ ⵜ ⵓⵎⵣⵔⵓⵢ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵓⵙⵜ. ⴳ ⴷⵓⵊⴰⵏⴱⵉⵔ 1831, ⵛⴰⵔⵍⵣ ⴷⴰⵔⵡⵉⵏ ⵢⴰⵥ ⵏⵏ ⵙ 23 ⵏ ⵉⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙⵏ, ⵎⴰⴷ ⵢⴰⴷ ⵉⴳⴰ ⴰⵎⵙⵙⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵓⵙⵜ, ⵉⴼⴼⴰⵖ ⴳ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵎⵎⵓⴷⴷⵓ ⵎⵇⵇⵓⵔⵏ ⵉⵙⵙⵓⵜⵍ ⴷ ⵉ ⵓⵎⴰⴹⴰⵍ ⴳ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵖⵔⵔⴰⴱⵓ ⵎⵇⵇⵓⵔⵏ ⵉⵜⵜⵓⵙⵙⴰⵏ ⵙ ⴱⵉⴳⵍ. ⴰⵙⵍⵎⴰⴷ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵊⵓⵏ ⵀⵉⵏⵙⵍⵓⵡ (1795-1861) ⴰⴷ ⵜ ⵉⵙⵎⵓⵏⵏ ⴷ ⵓⴽⴱⵉⵜⴰⵏ ⵔⵓⴱⵉⵔⵜ ⴼⵉⵜⵣⵔⵓⵢ (1805-1865). ⵜⵛⴰⵔⵍⵣ ⴷⴰⵔⵡⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵣⵎⵣ ⴰⵏⵏ ⵉⵖⵔⴰ ⴱⴰⵀⵔⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⵓⵙⵜ ⵉⵍⵉⵏⵜ ⴷⴰⵔⵙ ⵜⵓⴳⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵔⵎⵉⵜⵉⵏ. ⵙⵎⵎⵓⵙ ⵉⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙⵏ ⵏ ⵓⵎⵓⴷⴷⵓ, ⵉⴼⴼⴰⵖ ⴳⵉⵙⵏ ⵜⵛⴰⵔⵍⵣ ⵙ ⵜⵓⴳⵜ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵏⵏⴰⵢⵢⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵜⵊⵢⵍⵓⵊⵉⵜ, ⵉⵙⵎⵓⵏ ⴳⵉⵙ ⴰⵏⴰⵡⵏ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵓⴷⴰⵔ ⴷ ⵉⴼⵓⵙⵉⵍⵏ. ⵉⵙⵎⵓⵏ ⵜⵓⴳⵜ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵏⴰⵡⵏ ⴽⵔⴰⵢⴳⴰⵜ ⵢⴰⵏ ⴷ ⵎⴰ ⴰⴷ ⵜ ⵉⵣⴷⵉⵏ ⴷ ⵡⵉⵢⵢⴰⴹ ⵙ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵖⴰⵔⴰⵙⵜ ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵙⵙⴰⵏⵜ. ⵜⴳ ⵜⵉⴼⵉ ⵏⵙ ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵢⵏⵓⵜ ⴷⴰⵔ ⵎⴷⴷⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵙⵏⴰ. ⵜⵉⴼⵔⴽⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵓⴷⵔⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵎⵓⵏⴻⵏⵜ ⵖⴼ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵢⴰⴼⵓⵜ: ⴰⵎⵓⴷⴷⵓ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵍⵍⵉ ⴳ ⴷ ⵉⵙⵙⵓⵜⵍ ⵉ ⵓⵎⴰⴹⴰⵍ, ⴰⴱⴷⴷⴰⴷ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴳ ⵜⴳⵣⵉⵔⵉⵏ ⵏ ⴳⴰⵍⴰⴱⴰⴳⵓⵙ (ⵙⴳ 15 ⵛⵓⵜⴰⵏⴱⵉⵔ ⴰⵔ 20 ⴽⵜⵓⴱⵔ 1835) ⵉⴳⴰ ⴰⵣⵎⵣ ⴰⵏⴱⴷⴰⴷ ⴳ ⵜⵓⴷⵔⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ. ⵜⵉⴳⵣⵉⵔⵉⵏ ⴰⵏⵏ ⵏ ⴱⴰⵙⵉⴼⵉⴽ ⵏⵏⴰ ⵢⴰⴳⴰⵏ 1000 ⵏ ⴽⵎ ⴷ ⵉⴼⵜⴰⵙⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⵏ ⵓⵏⵥⵓⵍ ⵢⵓⴼⴰ ⵏⵏ ⴳⵉⵙⵏⵜ ⴰⵢ ⵍⵍⵉ ⵏⵏ ⵓⵔ ⵉⵜⴰⵎ, ⴽⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵏⴰⵡⵏ ⵉⴽⴽⴰⵏ ⵜⴰⵙⵓⵜⵉⵏ ⴼ ⵜⴰⵙⵓⵜⵉⵏ. ⵎⴰⵛⴰ ⴰⵢⵍⵍⵉ ⴱⴰⵀⵔⴰ ⵢⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵟⵟ ⵏⵙ ⵉⴳⴰⵜ ⴰⵍⵍⵉⴳ ⵓⵔ ⵉⵔⵡⴰⵙ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵡⴰⵏⴰⵡ ⴳⵯⵎⴰⵙ ⵏⴳⵔ ⵜⴳⵣⵉⵔⵜ ⴷ ⵜⴰⵢⵢⴰⴹ. ⴷⴰⵔ ⵉⴼⴽⵔⵉⵡⵏ (ⵉⴱⵓⵜⴳⵔⴰⵜⵏ), ⵜⴰⴷⴰⵡⵜ ⵉⵍⵍⴰ ⵎⴰ ⴳ ⵜⵇⵇⵓⵔ, ⵉⵍⵍⴰ ⵎⴰ ⴳ ⵜⴱⵣⴳ ⴳ ⵜⴰⵎⴰ ⵏ ⵓⵎⴳⴳⵔⴹ. ⴷⴰⵔ ⴽⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵢⵍⴰⵍⵏ, ⵉⴳⴳⵓⵜ ⵎⴰ ⴳ ⵏⴳⴰⵔⴰⵏ, ⵉⵖⵏⴱⴰⴱ ⵏⵏⵙⵏ ⵏⴰⵃⵢⴰⵜⵏ ⵙⴳ ⵜⴳⵣⵉⵔⵜ ⴰⵔ ⵜⴰⵢⵢⴰⴹ. ⴰⵍⵍⵉⴳ ⵢⵓⵔⵔⵉ ⵙ ⵉⵏⴳⵍⵉⵣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵙⵙⴰⵏ, ⵉⵎⵎⴰⵖ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵙⴳⴰⴷⴷⴰ ⵉⵙⵡⵉⵏⴳⵉⵎⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ. ⴽⵔⴰⵢⴳⴰⵜ ⵢⴰⵜ ⴳ ⵜⴰⵏⵏⴰⵢⵉⵏ ⵏⵙ ⴰⵔ ⵜ ⵜⴳⵍⵍⵢ ⵖⵔ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵙⵡⵉⵏⴳⵎⵜ : ⴰⵏⴰⵡⵏ ⴰⴽⵯ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵓⴷⴰⵔ ⴰⵔ ⴰⵀⴰ ⵜⵜⵏⵉⴼⵉⵍⵏ ⵉⵎⵉⴽ ⵙ ⵉⵎⵉⴽ, ⵜⴰⴼⵔⴽⴰ ⵙ ⵜⴼⵔⴽⴰ. ⴳ ⵓⵎⵏⴰⴷ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴰⵢⵍⵍⵉⴷ ⵢⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⴰⵙⵏⵉⴼⵍ ⴰⴷ ⵉⴳⴰⵜ ⵉⵣⴷⴰⵢⵏ ⵉⵍⵍⴰⵏ ⴳ ⵜⵎⵓⵙⵜ ⵏⴳⵔ ⵡⴰⵏⴰⵡⵏ, ⵎⴰⵎⵏⴽ ⵙ ⴰⵔ ⵉⵜⵜⵎⵓⵜⵜⵓⵢ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵡⴰⵏⴰⵡ ⵖⵔ ⵡⴰⵢⵢⴰⴹ ⵉⴳ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵢⴰⴹⵏⵉⵏ. ⴰⵡⴰⵍ ⵏ ⵓⴼⵍⵍⴰ, ⴰⵏⴰⵡⵏ ⴰⵔ ⴰⵀⴰ ⵜⵜⵏⵉⴼⵉⵍⵏ, ⴰⵛⴽⵓ ⵉⵎⵔⴰⵙⵏ ⴳ ⴷ ⵏⵜⵜⵏⵉⵏ ⴰⵔ ⵜⵏⵉⴼⵉⵍⵏ, ⵜⴰⵡⵉⵍⴰ ⵍⵍⵉ ⵣⵣⵉⴹⵔⵏ ⵉ ⵉⵣⵎⴰⵣ ⵉⵎⴰⵢⵏⵓⵜⵏ ⴽⴰⴷ ⴷ ⵉⵜⵖⴰⵎⴰⵏ, ⵎⴰⵢⴰⵏ ⴰ ⵖⴼ ⴰⵔ ⴷ ⴱⴷⴷⴰ ⵜⵜⴳⵓⵔⵓⵏ ⵡⴰⵏⴰⵡⵏ ⵢⴰⴹⵏⵉⵏ ⴰⴼⵓⴹⵏ ⵡⵉⵢⵢⴰⴹ. ⵎⴰⵛⴰ ⵜⴰⵙⵡⵉⵏⴳⵎⵜ ⵉⵙⵓⴳⵔⵏ ⴷⴰⵔ ⴷⴰⵔⵡⵉⵏ ⵜⴳⴰⵜ ⵎⴰⵙ ⵉⴼⵍⵙ ⵎⴰⵙ ⴷ ⴰⵏⴰⵡⵏ ⴰⴽⵯ ⴷⴰⵔⵙⵏ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵙⴰⵍⴰ, ⴷ ⴽⵔⴰ ⵉⴳⴰⵜ ⵢⴰⵏ ⴳⵉⵜⵙⵏ ⵉⴼⴼⴰⵖ ⴷ ⵙⴳ ⵡⴰⵢⵢⴰⴹ. ⴳ ⵡⵓⴳⴳⴰⵔ ⵏ 20 ⵏ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ ⴰ ⴳ ⵉⴹⴼⴰⵔ ⴷⴰⵔⵡⵉⵏ ⴰⵔ ⵉⵙⵎⵓⵏ ⵉⴳⵣⵎⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵙⵡⵉⵏⴳⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ, ⵓⵔ ⴷ ⵉⵙⵙⵓⴼⵖ ⴽⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵓⴷⵍⵉⵙ ⴰⵛⴽⵓ ⵉⴼⵔⴽ ⵉⵙ ⵔⴰⴷ ⴼⵍⵍⴰⵙ ⵢⵉⴳⵓⵜ ⵡⴰⵇⵇⵓⵔ, ⴷ ⵔⴰⴷ ⵉⴳⵓⵜⵏ ⵉⵙⵢⴰⴼⴰⵜⵏ ⵀⵔⵛⵏⵉⵏ ⵖⴼ ⵜⵙⵡⵉⵏⴳⵜ ⵏⵙ. ⴳ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⴰⵙ 1858, ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵄⵔⵔⵉⵎ ⴰⵎⴰⵙⵙⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵓⵙⵜ, ⴰⵍⴼⵔⵉⴷ ⵡⴰⵍⴰⵚ (1823-1913), ⵢⵓⵣⵏ ⵉ ⴷⴰⵔⵡⵉⵏ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⴹⵔⵉⵙ ⵎⵥⵥⵉⵢⵏ ⵢⴰⵥⵏ ⵉ ⵉⵙⵡⵉⵏⴳⵉⵎⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵖⴼ ⵓⵙⵏⵉⴼⵍ ⵏ ⵡⵏⴰⵏⵡⵏ. ⴷⴰⵔⵡⵉⵏ ⵉⴱⵀⴹ. ⴰⵔ ⵉⵙⵎⴽⵉⵍⵉⵍ ⵉⵙⵡⵉⵏⴳⵉⵎⵏ ⵏⵙ ⴰⵔ ⴰⵍⵍⵉⴳ ⵜⵏ ⵣⵔⵉⵏ ⵡⵉⵢⵢⴰⴹ. ⵉⴳ ⵉⵔⴰ ⴰⴷ ⵉⴳ ⴰⵎⵣⵡⴰⵔⵓ ⵙ ⵎⴰⵏ ⴰⵏⴰⵡ ⴰⵏ ⴳ ⵉⵙⵡⵉⵏⴳⵉⵎⵏ ⵉⵍⵍⴰ ⴼⵍⵍⴰⵙ ⴰⴷ ⴼⵍⵍⴰⵙⵏ ⵉⵙⵙⵓⴼⵖ ⴽⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵓⴷⵍⵉⵙ ⴳ ⵎⴰⴷ ⴷ ⵢⴰⵥⵏ. ⴳ 24 ⵏⵡⴰⵏⴱⵉⵔ 1859, "The Origin of specis" (ⴰⵙⴰⵍⴰ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵏⴰⵡ) ⵢⵓⴳⴳⴰ ⴷ ⵙⵓⵍ, ⵜⵓⵏⵖⵉⵍⵉⵏ ⵏⵏⴰ ⵜⵥⵔⵉⴳⵜ ⵜⴰⵎⵣⵡⴰⵔⵓⵜ ⵏⵣⴰⵏⵜ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⴳ ⵡⴰⵙⵙ ⴰⵎⵣⵡⴰⵔⵓ, ⵎⵇⵇⴰⵔ ⴳⴳⵓⵜⵏ ⵡⵉⵍⵍⵉ ⵉⵔⴰⵏ ⴰⴷ ⵜ ⵉⵔⵥ. ⵉⵙⵡⵉⵏⴳⵉⵎⵏ ⵏ ⴷⴰⵔⵡⵉⵏ ⵖⴼ ⵓⵙⵏⵉⴼ ⵙⴱⵣⵣⵉⵣⵏ ⵉⵅⴼⴰⵡⵏ ⵏⵏⵙⵏ. ⵜⴰⵙⵡⵉⵏⴳⵜ ⵎⴰⵙ ⵏⵙⵙⴰⵔ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵥⵓⵔ ⴷ ⵉⴱⵓⵖⴰⵙ ⵎⵇⵇⵓⵔⵏⵉⵏ ⵜⵍⵍⵓⵣⵣⴰ ⴱⴰⵀⵔⴰ ⵎⴰⴷ ⵉⴼⴼⴰⵖ ⵓⵙⴰⵍⴰ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵏⴰⵡⵏ. ⵙⴳ ⵡⴰⵙⵙ ⴰⵏⵏ ⵜⴰⵙⵡⵉⵏⴳⵎⵜ ⵏ ⵓⵙⵏⵉⴼⵍ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵏⴰⵡ ⵏ ⵓⴼⴳⴰⵏ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵣⵣⵉⵡⵉⵣⵏ ⴰⵏⵍⵉⵡⵏ. ⵎⴰⵎⵏⴽ ⴰⵙ ⵏⴳⴰ ⴰⵢⵍⵍⵉ ⵏⴳⴰ, ⴰⵙⵙ ⴰⴷ ? ⵛⴰⵔⵍⵣ ⴷⴰⵔⵡⵉⵏ, ⵜⵉⵙ ⵙⵏⴰⵜ ⵜⵉⴽⴽⴰⵍ ⴰⵔ ⵉⵙⵎⵉⵏⴳⵉⵎ ⴰⴼⴰⴷ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵍⵓⵃ ⵉⵙⵡⵉⵏⴳⵉⵎⵏ ⵏⵙ. ⴳ ⵜⴳⵉⵔⴰ, "The Descent of man" (ⴰⵙⴰⵍⴰ ⵏ ⵓⴼⴳⴰⵏ) ⵢⵓⴳⴳⴰ ⴷ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⴰⵙ 1871. ⴰⵔ ⵏⵏ ⴳⵉⵙ ⵏⵜⵜⴰⴼⴰ ⵙ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵖⴰⵔⴰⵙⵜ ⵉⴼⵔⵓⵔⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⴼⵔⴽⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵎⵇⵇⵓⵔⵏⵉⵏ ⵍⵍⵉ ⴼⴽⴰⵏⵉⵏ ⴰⴼⴳⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵙⵙ ⴰⴷ ⵍⵍⵉ ⵉⵜⵜⵉⵙⵙⴰⵏ ⵙ “ⵀⵓⵎⵓ ⵙⴰⴱⵉⵏⵙ”. ⵉⵎⴽ ⵍⵍⵉ ⵙ ⵉⵜⵜⵉⵎⵖⵓⵔ ⵉⵅⴼ ⴷ ⵓⵏⵍⵉ, ⵉⵎⴽ ⵍⵍⵉ ⵙ ⴰ ⵉⵜⵜⴰⵖⴷ ⵉⵥⴹⵉ ⴷ ⵜⴰⵡⴰⴷⴰ ⵉⴳⴰⴷⴷⴰⵏ ⵙ ⵙⵉⵏ ⵉⴹⴰⵔⵏ ⴳⴰⵏ ⴷⴰⵔⵙ ⵉⵎⵔⵏⵓⵜⵏ ⵓⵏⵚⵉⴱⵏ.