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Wp/vmw/Ehantisi ya Esineema omosampiiki

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Maphatthuwelo a esineema omosampiiki.

Ni artiiku ola, ninrowela othonyerya mukhalelo a hehantidi tá esinema Omosampiiki, manamuna osenfwa, ampakha otaphuwa mwa ohukhymwa naakunya mwaakha da 1975[1]. Mutthaka ola tolokiheriwa a muteko omaliha a kuursu omalihiwe mwaakha wa 2018, no nthoonyeryo soopakiwa ni mukhalelo musya anamucene: esinema ni malepelo omosampiiki okhuma mwaaka wa 1962 mpakha 1975, voowi siiso, sintthonyeriwa muliistani mwa sopakiwa s amitthaka iya[2]. Sowanyiheriwa sinceene mwaihantisi sa Waafirika, sowetthiheriwa ni sohaveriha sa othanyana anamwaalela a ihantisi, ti mwaha mmosa onikhuwaalihe nrima wi nikupaleeleke mpakha va, siiso tho paahi iye mitakiheryo saakina, nivukulelaka okhala awaafirika a opucetiivo ohivara etthumwa sowiraneya[3].

Vaavo, ntoko onitthunyerya awe  Ki-Zerbo (1999), Mithinto soopwanya mwa soopaka satthu a waafirika mookatthini sinivaha mukhaliheryo wi ihantisi Sa ikontineente, maana makhalelo aya anithoonyerya manamuna ovirikana iya sintthonyeryaya, ehinatthi ni noovira mwaakha 1935[4].

Ehantisi ya esineema Omosampiiki Vokupaleeliwa nihiku niyariwe esinema okhuma yopaceryani woniheriwa vaatthuni anceene wa irmãos Lumière, eyaakha ya 1893, oParis ntthonyeryo ti (Collomb&Patry, 1995)okhanle namahimwa othonyiwee[5].

Eyaakha ya 1898, Waafirika o Suuli, Edgar Hyman, opaka etokumentaariyu ta ekhutto anglo-boer, vaavo, tho,  muholeli owoniherya  wa elatarato Élisa yopaceriha ta waafirika yowatthamela Milano ni elapo ya omosampiiko ohimwa ti(Convents, 2011) ositariwe mwaartikuni[6].

Ophiya wa esima ekontinenti ya waafirika, yokweherya okhumela isaala sopacerya moyonirerya yopaceryani ta eseekulu XX, okapitaali yomosampiiki, Lourenço Marques. Vomalani, “Esinema yopacerihiwa Waafirika naattho okela nsuwa okatthi wakolono a manamuna omwatthanle wi omwaramwarye ivalore sakolono, miruweryo soolya, opwaneliwa ni sowaarya sa Mumu,wi womalelani Waya nnakhala paahi wavariha ale ari aninvistiri mottetthe sovikana iphareya,ni tho wi yapwanye atoropa. (Diawara e Diakhaté, 2011:88)ositariwe mwartiikuni[7]. Ti voo, mipantte sinceene sommmpakiwa soonihiwa omosampiikhi iyaakha ya 1920 ,safari isineema sa ofarensa, walemanya, Itaaliya, hollywoodianos ni sa oportukaale, mwa isaala vakhaani sookhala[8].

Eyaaka ya  1920, nlamulo na etekereetu 1054, ya  7  mweeri wa cuunyu, owehawehiwa mavolowelo sakhala ikontewuutu ikina mwa soopakiwa mfiilmi ni sahiruhela owanawanohana variyari wanamunceene okhopela wewuroopa ni maafirikaano, mawano wano ala yaarya  yiiraneyak okhuma 1914;wala etekereetu  1554, mahiku yeethaka  6 a mweery anetthanuya 1927, mutthinto a ipuliitika yamikettelo,yahikhanyereriha otthuneleya yaxitokweene si soniheriweke ifiilime, vaavo amahooleli yahana yikasoopaka mwa nttava wi kikhaleke  ekunya yoratteleya ni yohivonyiwa ntoko ohinyaawe (Convents, 2011)ositariwe mwaartikuni[9].

Ni otutuxa wa ekhotho yolumwenku yaneeli, mwa mikuttha kutho a manamuna opakiwa sa aarte ,ntoko ohimwaawe Jorge Seabra (2016:40),asitariwe “ variyari tá iyaakha 1946 no 1948 sootthokihiwa manamuno nntoko yaawo yaarowa ankhapelela no okhaliherya opakiwa isinemasolathiwa,mikettelo sikhanle siirowa wetteliwa mpakha amala okatthi wa [Salazar], silipiheriwe eyaakha ya 1971″ omwaramwanre mukhalelo a papakelo makina a isineema[10].

Okatempe (Manuel Guilherme Faria de Almeida, 1965, mikhari khari 47 , esinema -yiraneyakai ni yowipakelela) yokupaliwa efiilime yotepexa oratteliwa muhantisini mwa eseneema,mulatthu wa oreerewa otthikiliwa waya wiranenye[11]. Sa mwaha yoola, okhuma iyaakha 1950/60 muruweryo a isoneema. Mapakeliwo a isinematokarafiya omosampiiki onikhala sa khuta okatthi, Wiiyo sopwanyaneya areviista mwa sookhumelela isya,sinexornaale,itokumentaariyu, Sotepihiwa ni otumihiwa ikaruma Mumu, ohiyatho, mikhaliheryo molupale si siiriweke miteko sa nakoso anamahukhum, (Convents, 2011)[12]. SMwaakha 1920 ifiilime soosivela saari sa itthonyeryo sa emusi , iyaakha sa 50 siniphatthuwa idoine- kulupe, ntoko isiine kulipi ya Opeeira eyakha ya 1953, yakumiherya iye sohikhala sowootthereriwa samasiniaasta osivelaxiwa, ntoko ntthoonyeryo José Cardoso ni Sérgio Guerra[13]. Vantthitthimiho Sá isiinekulupi, muruku no nsina nikhuma eyaakha ya 1920, no farancees Louis Delluc, ni “ ahimexa otthikhela mutthukumano itthanowe Le Journal du CinéClub wala Ciné-Club; masi, votepexa, nipuro nokumaana variyari mwaale yaapaka ifiilime ni alesa saasivelasa “wi emwaramwarye <<soopaka sa thannapiili >>, ntoko itthaneliwaawe nvanyihi a italiyaano Riccioto Canudo”, ni “ yoopowa ikuru soraala sahoolela esinema ntoko ontthonyerya axe ”(Douchet,1999:130)olaleriwe mwartiikuni[14].

Okatthyeene yoola, sookhaka mikhalelo sa kuveeruni Ovikhana iphareya, Miteko Sowalaleerya Anamunceene a ikuru sakapwitthi wiitthaniwa (SIPFA) no Miteko sa ekartolarafiya, isinematokarafiya ni Ilataratosiiriwa neekunya (SCE), sipacerya opala isinematokarafiya wi iwelihe nntteeliho erooho ya namawana ni ajustifikari,ephooma yolupale, ekhutho , ni soopaka sa Fernando Morgado, ntoko otthonyeryo[15].

Vekekhayi ti wi okhuma  eyaakha 1955  saniphwanyaneya iye sopakiwa mumu,ikupaleeliwaka,tho,si ilataratho wi tesoopakiwa natale okhopela Omosampiiki otthonyerya ti  (Convents,2011)ositariwe mwartikuni[16].

Limpopo (Jorge de Sousa, Lourenço Marques, 1970, 90 mikhari khari sene, Sootthunku) Okhuma iyaakha miloko mithannamos sinobaneya olipiheriwa otthokihiwa esinematokarafiya nasionaale, weiwo Siri sowattha sowehereriwa si athioeliwe ale ampaka, ntoko ale yaapaka otepexa osuwelexiwa: SomarFilmes, a Courinha Ramos; Cináfrica; SIM-Telecine-Moro; BejaFilmes; FilmLab, yapatthanib Eurico Ferreira ni Fernando Ramos. Mukhalelo eene yoola olipiheriwa sopakiwa ipuruvinsiya envikaniwa ephareya, sinipakiwa, ixornaale sa isinematokarafiya, Nweheryo oMosampiiki, ihapari Somosampiiki ni maweherya a Mphira (Convents, 2011)[17]. Amakhuluoale ovikaniwa iphareya yaari mukweheryo a iteela isya mopakiwani yovikana iphareya, ekupaleeliwaka opwanela woniherya olumwenku iresultaatu saúde sohoverihiwa “soovara soosilimwa ” sa oPortukaale, ntoko nikhanlyaahu owehaweha malumo anttharelana:

“Anooripe anirya yoniheryaka musineemani ni okwattakwaaya oteene, atthunaka opwanelela. Matthakalelo ato ahaana alalaka, nnakhala vakhaani weewo ahipwanelela aya ni ohirinaaya mulatthu wookumela[18] . Moniheriya aya ,masi ohikhaleke khuta okatthi, anooriipe okhala toohisilimu niamutakwani, khanafayita ni Amalia nokhootha, okatthi sa olumwenku, mmapakeloni mwahu mothawali.” (Luís de Pina, <<O Cinema no Ultramar>>, p.7, efiilime, mweeri a neeraru a 1961, ositariwe no Convents, 2011:300) mwartiikuni[19].

Eyaakha ya 1964 ohoraneya muxintthano opacerya elapo yoteene a sineema yanamasivelexiwa a Opérez,yeteteriwe ni mukhaliheryo a ekaamara ta munisiipiyu ntoko Convents (2011) elaleryaka mwa okhala “esinemaya mu televisão mukhottoni mwakolono ” variyari ywa mwaakha 1964-1974, eniwexexiwa mapakeliwo oruwerya mwa sootumiha, sa emerkaatu sa ilapo sooteene,ni miruweryo anale anikukumiherya a ilapo soteene, solikanana owehiha

ekweeli ya ekhotto yolumwenku[20].

The Struggle Continues (ntaphulelo nawa: Ekhotto Khemannle, Robert F. Van Lierop, EUA, 1971, 32 mikhari khari sene, etukumentaariyu). Eyaakha ya 1970, António de Melo Pereira omaliha mwiwananelo mmosa sa muupuwelelo ni ekapineeti ya mupuwelo Ozampeze,si opale ifiilime sovirikana, sa ikoore, saanamapaka oteka eparaaxi ya Cahora-Bassa. “Reviista Okatthi oweha wi ti emosa yotepexa otthuneya soopakiwa soorumihiwa mpakha okathi ola siiriwe ni nntthenkeso a sinomatokarafiya” (Convents, 2011: 294)[21]. Mwanamapaka yaari hootthe ni mukhaliheryo a erexiime wala mukhalelo, ompwanyaneya,eyaakha ya 1972, Nkerekhere mwa Zambeze, muruweryo mimosa a axensiya xeraale ovikana ipahari ehaareere osivela nihiku neetthaka 20 a mweeri opacerya wa 1973 o Lisboa, yakawa ni Lusomundo; Mwaakha wa 1972, a FilmLab ahilaleya exornaale emosa ya ihapari, ilatarato sa Omosampiiki; Eurico e Eugénio Ferreira yahiruwerya sa exornaale yopacerya tá ihapari yoomalelene ya ikoore sine exornaale ya ihapari yomosampiiki ntoko osuweliha awe (Convents, 2011: 310)[22]. Eyaakha 1972, eTelecine-Moçambique yotthokiha camisa ni eTelecine-Moro ni Productions Pierre Levie (Bruxelas) a seeriye Safrique Safari, yottjatanyeriwa ni ifiilime xexe sa ikoore. (Convents, 2011:308)[23]. Ethoonyeryo https://arteculturaeciencia.wordpress.com/2020/09/20/historia-do-cinema-em-mocambique-colonial/

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