Wp/mww/Hmoob

From Wikimedia Incubator
< Wp‎ | mwwWp > mww > Hmoob
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Hmoob Paub tias "Miao" mas nyob rau Suav teb yog lub suab hais lus pab cov ceg West Hmongic txog cov cov lus "Miao" mas, tej zaum kuj paub tias raws li tus Chuanqiandian sawv, hais cov uas lus los ntawm cov neeg Hmoob ntawm Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, qaum teb Nyab Laj teb, Thaib teb thiab los tsuas teb. Muaj ib co 2.7 vam tham txog yam uas tau muaj kev lom zem ntau nrog intelligible, nrog rau cov 260,000 Hmoob Americans. Tshaj ib nrab ntawm tag nrho cov Hmoob tham hais lus ntau lub dialects ntawm pawg Chuanqiandian rau hauv Suav teb, thiab lub suab hais lus Dalnanxshanb (大南山) ntawm Chuanqiandian lub hauv paus uas txheem lus nyob rau hauv Suav teb, tab sis Hmoob Daw "Miao" (dawb mas) thiab Mong ntsuab tsim "Miao" (ntsuab mas) ntau lug paub txawv tebchaw vim emigration. Hmongs nyob hauv California tau tsim ib tug Hmoob-Hmong online (computer) txhais (as of 2012). Tseem muaj neeg tsiv teb Hmoob uas nyob rau hauv Canada, tab sis yog tsis li muaj ntau nyob rau hauv lub tebchaws United States.

Hom[edit]

Mong ntsuab tsim thiab Hmoob Daw yog ib feem ntawm ib pawg hu nyob Tuam Tshoj ua "Miao" mas Chuanqiandian, ntawd ces yog "Miao" Sichuan–Guizhou–Yunnan mas", hu ua tus "Chuanqiandian pawg" English, li Western Hmongic is also called Chuanqiandian (cov distinguished li Chuanqiandian "subdialect" txog Chuanqiandian lus "sis" nyob rau hauv Suav) hom lus hais. Mong ntsuab tsim thiab Hmoob Daw no xwb cov hom pawg uas migrated teb chaws Nplog; Western cov npe Mong ntsuab tsim, Mong leej, Hmoob Dleu/ua dawb thiab Hmoob Daw siv nyob rau hauv Suav teb rau ntau lub dialects ntawm tus Chuanqiandian pawg.

Thaum cov Ethnologue distinguished tsuas chaw poob qab hom (Hmoob Daw, Mong ntsuab tsim), "Miao" Sinicized mas (Hmoob Shua) thiab nyab laj hom (Hmoob li, Hmoob tsis txhob). Nyab laj hom heev tsis paub tias; pejxeem kwv no tsis muaj nyob txawm. Hauv 2007, Horned cov "Miao" mas, "Miao" me Flowery mas, thiab pawg Chuanqiandian suav ntawd ncau Mong ntsuab tsim [blu]. Cov hom muaj raws li nram no, nrog rau ib co cov npe ua lwm ('Ch.' = Suav lub npe, 'auto.' = autonym Court npe):

  • Hmoob Daw (dawb "Miao" mas, Ch. "Miao" kev tsiam Bai mas , auto. Hmoob tiab ; "Miao" tom hav zoov mas, Hmoob Rongd; Hmoob Dleu / Hmongb Dleub)
  • Hmoob ntsuab tsim "Miao" (xiav mas, ntsuab "Miao" mas, Ch. "Miao" Qing mas ; Hmoob Ntsuab / Hmongb Nzhuab; nyob rau hauv Teb Chaws Asmeskas, kuj Mong leej / Len, nws pib. Moob Leeg; Hmongb Shib)
  • Hmoob Shua (Sinicized "Miao" mas, nws pib. Hmongb Shuat)
  • "Miao" horned mas (Ch. ""Miao Jiao mas , nws pib. Hmo los yog A-Hmo)
  • Hmoob yuav
  • Hmoob ua ntsuas (assumed)
  • tus ib feem ntawm qhov Chuanqiandian sawv nyob hauv Suav teb.

Ntau lub npe saum toj no uas siv sab nraum (dawb "Miao" mas, xiav/ntsuab "Miao" mas, Flowery ua "Miao" mas, Mong leej, lwm yam) kuj siv nyob rau hauv Suav teb. Suav ntau hom yuav tsum tshaj lub hom teev saum toj no:

  • "Miao" Dananshan mas (Hmoob Dou, nws pib. Hmoob Drout Raol, Hmoob Hout (lab) ), lub hauv paus ntawm tus suav cov txheej txheem ntawm txoj kev sawv Chuanqiandian
  • Dub "Miao" mas (Ch. "Miao" Hei mas , auto. of sub-groups: Hmoob Dlob, Hmoob Buak / Hmoob Puas) [1]
  • Teb Hmoob (auto. txog sub-groups: Hmongb Shib, Hmongb Nzhuab, Hmongb Lens, Hmongb Dlex Nchab, Hmongb Sad; xws li ib co Mong ntsuab tsim saum toj no)
  • Qaum teb Hmoob (auto. txog sub-groups: Hmongb Soud, Hmoob yuav / Hmongb Bes, Hmongb Ndrous)
  • "Miao" thaj Sichuan mas (Ch. ""Miao Chuan mas )

Nyob rau xyoo 2007 thov mus nrhiav kom tau ib qho ISO code rau lub Chuanqiandian pawg, corresponding rau hom lus tus "thawj lub zos hais" (第一土語) ntawm tus Chuanqiandian sawv hauv Suav, cov proposer ua tau cov nqe lus nram qab no rau ntawm kev sib nrig sib intelligibility: [2]

Ib colleague yeej tham tau nrog tham ntawm tus xov tooj no Template:Sic ntsig txog cov lects hauv Teb Chaws Asmeskas, nyob Thaib teb thiab Suav teb, thiab yuav tsum muaj kev sib tham ntau yam nrog suav linguists thiab cov soj ntsuam ntawm teb chaws los yog cov neeg zej zog txoj kev loj hlob ua uas tau uas nws kim heev tiv tauj nrog tham ntawm no lects. Ntseeg hais los no sib no colleague tias tias muaj ntau cov lects no feem ntau yuav muaj siab xam qhovkev kev sib nrig sib intelligibility li cov pawg. Kawm, txawm muaj kev txhua sub-group qhuas txog nws tus kheej distinctives, lawv kuj pom tias lwm sub-groups ntawm pawg no muaj kev kawm zoo rau lawv tus kheej li thiab yuav tsum ua rau lwm tus tias yog nyob huav rau tib qho haiv neeg pawg. Tiam sis, pawg lects no yog ntxiv hauv lawv varied thiab ib thaj nyuag ua li khiav ri thiab xyaw nyob ib sab teb chaw, thiab tej intelligibility los soj ntsuam yuav tsum kom paub meej tias cov ntaub ntawv txog kev sib nrig sib intelligibility thoob rau sawv.

Phonology[edit]

Ntawv niam[edit]

Lub tshuab ua cov Hmoob Daw and Hmoob Njua yog li cov kab kos nram qab no. Xyov yuav muaj ib lub suab hais lus lub suab yog xim coded feem:

Hmoob Daw thiab Hmoob Njua ua
Tus ua ntej Hab txhawb ua Rov qab ua
kaj ntswg kaj ntswg kaj ntswg
Kaw ua i ɨ u
Mid ua e ẽ~ʌŋ ɔ ɔ̃~oŋ
Qhib ua a ã~aŋ
Diphthong
Kaw Chaw
Kaw tivthaiv yog pem hauv ntej ai
Kaw tivthaiv yog central  
Kaw tivthaiv no rov qab au

Tus txheej txheem Dalnanxshanb suav yog ua tau zoo. Paub dhos suab sib txawv ntawm cov Hmoob Daw thiab Mong ntsuab tsim muaj xim coded .

Dananshan Miao ua
Tus ua ntej Hab txhawb ua Rov qab ua
kaj ntswg kaj ntswg kaj ntswg
Kaw ua i (ɨ) u
Mid ua e en o
Qhib ua a
Diphthong
Kaw Chaw
Kaw tivthaiv yog pem hauv ntej aj ⟨ai⟩
Kaw tivthaiv no rov qab aw ⟨au⟩ ɒ ⟨ua⟩
əw ⟨ou⟩
eβ ⟨eu⟩

Dananshan ɨ tshwm sim xwb tom qab tsis-palatal affricate, thiab tim ⟨i⟩, zoo npaum li Mandarin suav. /u/ yog pronounced [y] tom qab palatal consonant. Yog tseem muaj triphthong /jeβ / ⟨ieu⟩, thiab raws li lwm i - thiab u-thaum sequences nyob borrowings suav, xws li /je, waj, lub puab tsaig, wen, waŋ/.

Consonant[edit]

Hmoob ua ib tug xov tooj ntawm cov contrasts paub dhos suab txawv txawv rau cov kawm lus Askiv tham. Tag nrho cov-glottal nres thiab affricates paub qhov txawv aspirated thiab unaspirated tuaj, feem ntau kuj prenasalization independently of no. Hmoob consonant cov lus nug no yog muaj nyob rau ntawm daim ntawv nram qab no. (Consonants xyov yuav Hmoob Daw thiab Hmoob Ntsuab are color-coded feem.)

Hmoob Daw thiab Hmoob Ntsuab consonant
Bilabial Labiohniav Kev kho hniav Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Tiaj Lateral Tiaj Lateral
Ntswg tso tseg Voiceless (m̥ˡ) |ɲ̥
Voiced m (mˡ) n ɲ
Plosive Tenuis p (pˡ) t (tˡ) ʈ c k q ʔ
Aspirated (pˡʰ) (tˡʰ) ʈʰ
Voiced d
Uantej-ntswg ᵐb (ᵐbˡ) ⁿd (ⁿdˡ) ᶯɖ ᶮɟ ᵑɡ ᶰɢ
ᵐpʰ (ᵐpˡʰ) ⁿtʰ (ⁿtˡʰ) ᶯʈʰ ᶮcʰ ᵑkʰ ᶰqʰ
Affricate Tenuis ts
Aspirated tsʰ} tʂʰ
Uantej-ntswg ⁿdz ⁿdʐ
ⁿtsʰ ⁿtʂʰ
Fricative consonant Voiceless f s ɬ ʂ ç h
Voiced v ʐ ʝ
Approximant l

Tus txheej txheem Danashan suav yog ua tau zoo. (Yog paub dhos suab sib txawv ntawm cov Hmoob Daw thiab Mong ntsuab tsim color-coded. Me txawv, xws li cov voicing uas nres prenasalized, los sis seb /c/ yog ib tug affricate los yog /h/, velar, tej zaum yuav muaj teeb meem ntawm cov transcription.) Aspirates, voiceless fricatives, voiceless nasals, thiab glottal tso nws tseg xwb kuj nrog yin tones (1, 3, 5, 7). Txheem orthography ntxiv nyob rau ⟨brackets⟩. Glottal nres yog tsis sau; yog tsis cov hauv pes tsawg ib thaum. Kuj muaj ib tug /w/, uas tshwm hauv lus xwb.

Dananshan Miao consonant
Bilabial Labiohniav Kev kho hniav Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Tiaj Lateral Tiaj Lateral
Ntswg tso tseg Voiceless m̥ ⟨hm⟩ n̥ ⟨hn⟩ ɲ̥ ⟨hni⟩
Voiced m ⟨m⟩ n ⟨n⟩ ɲ ⟨ni⟩ ŋ ⟨ngg⟩
Plosive Tenuis p ⟨b⟩ (pˡ) ⟨bl⟩ t ⟨d⟩ (tˡ) ⟨dl⟩ ʈ ⟨dr⟩ k ⟨g⟩ q ⟨gh⟩ (ʔ)
Aspirated pʰ ⟨p⟩ (pˡʰ) ⟨pl⟩ tʰ ⟨t⟩ (tˡʰ) ⟨tl⟩ ʈʰ ⟨tr⟩ kʰ ⟨k⟩ qʰ ⟨kh⟩
Voiced
Uantej-ntswg ᵐp ⟨nb⟩ (ᵐpˡ) ⟨nbl⟩ ⁿt ⟨nd⟩ ᶯʈ ⟨ndr⟩ ᵑk ⟨ng⟩ ᶰq ⟨ngh⟩
ᵐpʰ ⟨np⟩ (ᵐpˡʰ) ⟨npl⟩ ⁿtʰ ⟨nt⟩ ᶯʈʰ ⟨ntr⟩ ᵑkʰ ⟨nk⟩ ᶰqʰ ⟨nkh⟩
Affricative Tenuis ts ⟨z⟩ tʂ ⟨zh⟩ tɕ ⟨j⟩
Aspirated tsʰ ⟨c⟩ tʂʰ ⟨ch⟩ tɕʰ ⟨q⟩
Uantej-ntswg ⁿts ⟨nz⟩ ⁿtʂ ⟨nzh⟩ ⁿtɕ ⟨nj⟩
ⁿtsʰ ⟨nc⟩ ⁿtʂʰ ⟨nch⟩ ⁿtɕʰ ⟨nq⟩
Fricative Voiceless f ⟨f⟩ s ⟨s⟩ ɬ ⟨hl⟩ ʂ ⟨sh⟩ ɕ ⟨x⟩ x ⟨h⟩
Voiced v ⟨v⟩ ʐ ⟨r⟩ ʑ ⟨y⟩
Approximant l ⟨l⟩ (w)

References[edit]

  1. ntawv tiam sis "Miao"tias "dub mas" muaj ntau feem siv Hmu.
  2. [1]