Wp/mos/Ramlila

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Ramlila
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CountryIndia Tekre
Intangible cultural heritage statusNational List for Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH), Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity Tekre
Described at URLhttps://ich.unesco.org/en/RL/ramlila-the-traditional-performance-of-the-ramayana-00110, https://ich.unesco.org/en/RL/00110, https://ich.unesco.org/fr/RL/00110, https://ich.unesco.org/es/RL/00110 Tekre
This image is taken during 2018 World Famous Ramnagar Ramlila

Ramlila (Sanskrit: रामलीला, Romanized: Rāmalīlā; gom-bil sẽn yaa 'Rama lila bɩ yɩɩl') yaa nin-buiidã sẽn naan maan a Rama vɩɩmã sẽn zems ne pĩnd wẽndẽ Hindã zab-gʋlsdã Ramayana wã bɩ b sẽn gʋlsd b sẽn get-a to-to wã. Wala makre, Ramcharitmanasã.[1] Sẽn yɩɩd fãa, b gomda b sẽn maand yɩɩl wʋsg ne Hindã wẽneg a Rama sẽn yaa yʋʋm tus a yiibu wã yelle. B sẽn wa n zabd ne wẽnga, b maanda a Ramlila kibsã n maand a Vijayadashami (Dussehra) yʋngo, tɩ b yõogd wẽnga bõn-naandsã sẽn yaa kãsenga, wala rakshasa (demõ) Ravana wã.[2] mos_Latnmos_Latnmos_Latn be be be A Rama yaa Hindus wẽnegd a Vishnu a yopoe soabã, la a Ramayana wã sẽn yaa Sanskritã kʋdemdã sẽn naag ne yel-bũnd sẽn yaa sõma wã. B gʋlsa seb-kãngã yʋʋmd 1000 sẽn deng a Zezi rogmã, la Ramlila yaa kibarã sẽn da pak-b to-to wã. B sẽn gʋlsd a Ramcharitmanas wã yaa kar a 16 soabã tʋʋm-no-kẽndr sẽn be Ramayana wã zugu. A Ramcharitmana wã yaa gom-bi-no-goam sẽn be tẽng zug buud-gomdã pʋgẽ (Hindĩ wã pʋgẽ, a Abadhi wã yaa gomd a yembr).[3][4][5] [6]Vɛrse-kãensã yaa sõsg sẽn be Biiblã pʋgẽ. B sẽn maand b sẽn tõe n maan n wilg b sẽn tõe tɩ b tõe n maan bũmb ninsã yaa Ramlila kom-dibli wã (Samitis) n maandẽ. La tẽn-tẽngã neb n sõngd-b zãng-zãnga.[7] Sẽn yaa sõma n yɩɩd yaa sẽn na n maan yɩɩlã. Yaa Hindã buud-goamã sẽn tar bõn-naands wʋsg la wẽn-naandb wʋsg n maand woto. La yaa a Rama, a Durga (b sẽn boond tɩ Durga Puja) la a Krishna (b sẽn bool tɩ Rasalila) la b sẽn maand yʋʋmd fãa wã n kɩtd tɩ b nong n maandẽ.[8] mos_Latnmos_Latnmos_Latn be be be Yʋʋmd 2008 wã, UNESCO wilgame tɩ Ramlila kibsã yaa "Bandã sẽn pa tar yõod ne ninsaalbã" sʋka. Ramlila yaa kãseng wʋsg ne Hindã tẽn-kãense sẽn yaa yõod wʋsg siglgã pʋgẽ: Ayooodya, Varanasi, Vrindavan, Almora, Satna la Madhubani. A Ramlila sẽn yaa a Ramayana wã n be Indonezi wã, la sẽn yɩɩd fãa a Hindã rãmbã sẽn be Bali, Myanmar, Kambodja la Thailandã. Yʋʋm kobs 19 soabã la 20 soabã pʋgẽ, Indi nebã sẽn da be tẽn-zẽmsẽ wã sẽn wa n kẽ Erop soolmẽ wã, b ra maanda tʋʋm-tʋmda. A leb n beẽ me Etazĩni, Kanada, Etazĩni la Ostrali la Nouvelle Zélande.

A We-Rums Kibare[edit | edit source]

A Ramayana-based Ramlila dance troupe in Bali, Indonesia.

Ramlila yaa Sanskrit gom-biis sẽn yaa "Rama" (Vishnu avatar) la "Lila" (dũniyã, game, sport). A James Lochtefeld yeelame tɩ gom-biigã yaa "Rama yell b sẽn maand yɩɩr ne-a wã", tɩ yaa sũ-noog la "tẽeb sẽn yaa kãseng wʋsg tũudum tʋʋmde" sẽn tar yõod ne nin-kɛglemdã la nin-kẽemdã fãa.[9]

The Ramayana relief artwork in 8th century Cave 16 of Ellora suggests its importance to Indian society by then.[10]

Ram Lila võor wʋmb yaa "Rama wã yɩɩr" tɩ b wʋmd gom-biig ning sẽn yaa "dãmbã" võor sõma n yɩɩd tũudum yɛl pʋgẽ. Sã n yaa ne a Vaishnava tagsg, yaa tɩlae tɩ Wẽnnaam sẽn yaa kãseng n yɩɩd fãa (Vishnu) ra naan naan naan naan maan dũniyã, a yaa wa avatar n wa maand a meng ne a sẽn tõe n maan bũmb ning sẽn yaa "a sẽn na n maan to-to, a sẽn na n yɩ sũ-noog soaba, a sẽn pa tar a toor ye". [11]

Neb nins sẽn maandã sẽn zãmsd taab n maand Ramlila wã b boond-b lame tɩ Mandalis.[12]

Kudemde[edit | edit source]

A Ramayana-based Ramlila dance troupe in Bali, Indonesia.

Sɩngr-n-taarã yaa pĩnd wẽndẽ Indi nebã sẽn da maandẽ. Sãnskrɛt-hindu sebr ning sẽn boond tɩ Natya Shastra wã wilgda sɩngr-no-taarã yõod.[13]

Bɩ Nātya (solemdã la reemã) yɩ a nu-n-soabã.

Ne kibar sẽn tar pãng wʋsgo,

n baood sõmblem, arzɛk, sũ-noogo, la tẽeb lohorem,

A segd n tara sebr fãa võore,

la b kẽngd taoor ne b minim fãa.

- Nātyaśāstra 1.14 -15[14][15]

Ramlila yaa bũmb a taab sẽn be Hinduism[16] pʋgẽ sẽn gomd tʋʋm-no-kãsems nins sẽn wilgd tɩ b maandẽ. Ramaanã epopã yaa yʋʋmd 2000 sẽn deng a Zezi rogmã, la yaa Indi sɛbã buud-goam a ye sẽn yaa pĩnd n tar a Itihasa wã. La pa vẽenega wakat ning a Ramlila sẽn maan pipi yɩɩrã ye. Sẽn deng yʋʋm kob-gĩnd 16 soabã, a Tulsiidã ra pa yãt a Ramcharitmanasã pipi n yiis ye, la b sẽn yet tɩ yaa a karen-biig a Megha Bhagat n sɩng Ramcharitmanaas-dãmb Ramlila yʋʋmd 1625 wã. A Norvin Hein sẽn yaa Wẽnnaam la tũudum zãmsg karen-saamb sẽn yaa Indolog bãngd yeelame tɩ Ramlila ra yaa sõma n tãag yʋʋmd 1625[17] soabã, sẽn yɩɩd fãa yʋʋmd 1200 n tãag yʋʋm 1500 soabã sẽn be Indi tʋʋr-tẽngã, la tɩ yaa a Valmiki Ramayana wã n kɩt tɩ b gʋls-a. A Richard Schechner yeelame tɩ b sẽn boond tɩ Ramlila wã yaa bũmb sẽn tar pãng n yɩɩd pĩnda. A yeelame tɩ yaa kareng sẽn tar kareng la kareng sẽn yaa to-to wã la kareng ning sẽn tar karenga.

Ramlila yaa a ye n be nin-buiid wʋsg sẽn maand kibs sẽn kẽed ne tʋʋm-noy nins sẽn kẽed ne nin-buiid nins sẽn yaa Hindo rãmbã sʋka.[18] Ramayana epikã yaa yʋʋm tusr a 1 soabã sẽn deng a Zezi rogmã, la a yaa Itihasa buud ning sẽn yaa kʋdemdã sẽn be Ẽnd sɛbã pʋsẽ wã a ye. La b pa mi wakat ning b sẽn deng n wilg a Ramlila wã ye. A Tulsidas sẽn yɩ pipi soab n wilg a Ramcharitmanas wã yʋʋm kob-gĩnd piig la a yoob soabã pʋgẽ wã pa be seb-vãoog ye, la sã n yaa ne kibayã, a karen-bi-taag a Megha Bhagat n sɩng Ramlila sẽn tik a Ramcharitmanas zug yʋʋmd 1625.[19] Sã n yaa ne a Norvin Hein, sẽn yaa Wẽnnaam la tũudmã karẽng karen-saamb sẽn zãms Indologii wã, a Ramlila ra yaa wʋsg sẽn deng yʋʋmd 1625, sẽn yɩɩd fãa, Ẽnd soolmã rɩtg babgẽ, yʋʋmd 1200 la 1500 wã sʋka, la a ra tika Valmiki a Ramayana wã zugu.[20][21] A Richard Schechner yeelame tɩ Ramlila sẽn be rũndã-rũndã wã yẽg yaa sõma n yɩɩd bala, a tũuda ne kʋdemd kʋdemd Sanskrit goamã la rũndã-rũndã reemã tʋʋm-teedo.[22]

The Ramayana relief artwork in 8th century Cave 16 of Ellora suggests its importance to Indian society by then.[10]

Sã n yaa ne a John Brockington, sẽn yaa Sanskrit karen-saamb ning sẽn geta Ẽnd epes rãmbã yelle, Ramlila tõe n yaa Ɛnd tẽnga kʋdemd kʋdemde, bala bãngdb wʋsg sakame tɩ gʋls-noodã sẽn gʋls n yaool n wa be Ẽnd tẽnsã pʋsẽ, la kʋdemd sɛbã sẽn da yaa kʋdemd kʋdemd kʋdemdã.[23] Woto, pa a Ramalila bal ye, la yaa vẽeneg tɩ yaa pĩnd wẽndẽ ãngilind rãmbã fãa sẽn da gʋlsã la karen-biis nins sẽn da karemd ãngilindã yɩɩl-dãmb la b karen-biis sẽn da karemd ãngilindã n taasd b taabã. Sẽn paase, a Brockington yeelame tɩ hind rãmbã sɛb wʋsg sẽn yaa sõma wã yaa wʋsgo. Wala makre, Ramayana sẽn tar verse rãmb 20,000 la Mahabharata sẽn tar verse rãmb 100,000, tɩ b pa tõe n kell n tall-b yʋʋm tus a yiib pʋgẽ tɩ b pa gʋls-b la b pa togs-b la b pa maan-b wa b sẽn da maandã ye. Woto yĩnga, yaa bũmb sẽn pa tõe n yɩ tɩ Ramlila rog-n-migsã wa ne rũndã-rũndã.[24]

A Brockington paasame tɩ Indolog rãmb kẽer sẽn zĩnd koloni wã wakat wilgame tɩ Ramayana yaa seb-bil sẽn yaa rũndã-rũndã sebre, la b basa tags-kãngã, bala b wilgame tɩ Hindu Ramayana wã beeme, la tɩ b wilgame t'a bee Zaynism sɛbã pʋsẽ, Ramayana wã sẽn be tãens roog wẽnd-doogẽ wã wala Ellora tãens roogã pʋgẽ, la tẽn-sʋk Azi wẽnd-doogã gʋlsg la a rog-n-migsã pʋgẽ yʋʋmd 1000 soabã pʋgẽ.[25][26][27]

Sã n yaa ne a Norvin Hein, a Ramlila sẽn be rũndã-rũndã wã sɩnga yʋʋmd 1500 soabã pʋgẽ, a Tulsidas sẽn gʋls Manas sebrã poore. Baasg zãnga, a Hein yeelame tɩ yɩɩll-n-tũudlem sẽn yaa wa Ramayana wã yɩɩl n wa Mathura soolmẽ wã hal sẽn deng rẽ wʋsgo, tõe tɩ yaa sẽn zems yʋʋm kob-gĩnd a yiib-n-soab sẽn deng a Zezi rogmã. A wilgame tɩ rẽ yaa kaset sẽn yit Kathakali, Yaksagana, Kathak la Ẽnd klasã we-bɛd a taab pʋsẽ, sẽn naag ne a Ramlila.[28]

James Prinsep gʋlsa a sẽn yã bũmb ning Varanasi Ramlila kibsã pʋgẽ yʋʋmd 1825 wã. A Niehus gʋlsa sebr a to sẽn yit Ghazipur, yʋʋmd 1905.[29] A Norvin Hein bilga Ramlila sẽn zĩnd yʋʋm 1949 la 1950, sẽn yaa tẽng-n-biis la politik rãmb sẽn da be Indi wã, a sẽn wa n na n welg tẽn-kɩremsã tɩ b lebg Indi la Pakistã poore. A Hein wilga a sẽn yã bũmb ningã a sẽn wa n be Ramilila Mathura wã.[30]

A Bilgre[edit | edit source]

Ramlila revolves around the epic of Rama (blue figure), depicted here with his wife Sita and brother Lakshmana

A Ramlila yaa Hindu wẽnde a Rama rogem kibar sẽn sɩng ne a rogmã. Sebrã gomda a yãadmẽ wã yelle, n paas neb a taab sẽn yaa nin-kãsems a pʋgẽ, wala a Sita, a Lakshmana, a Ravana la neb a taab yelle. A tara babs sẽn gomd Sita ne a Rama kãadmã yelle, a Rama sẽn yi yembd tɩ Dharma baood t'a bas a naam geerã, a Sita ne a Lakshmana sẽn naag-a yembd pʋgẽ wã, b so-toakã sẽn kẽed ne Ẽnd la b sẽn segd Hindoismã Rishis nins b sẽn waoogdã, Sita sẽn tall zĩn a Ravana, a Rama ne a Lakshmana sũ-sãoongã, b sẽn pa tar saagr to-to wã, b sẽn maan to-to n naan sodaag ne bõn-vɩɩs a taab weoogẽ wã wala bõnsã, b sẽn kẽng Lanka n na n tɩ zab ne a Ravana, nin-sõama ne nin-wẽngã zabrã, a Ravana sãoongã, a Rama sẽn lebg n wa Ayodhya la a sẽn lebg rĩmã, la vɩɩmã sẽn pʋgl rẽ.[31][32][33]

A rural Ramlila stage setup in progress in India. The large effigy is of Ravana who is destroyed at the end.

A Ramlila kibsã wilgda yel-kãngã. B maanda tigr kãnga tẽn-bõoneg wʋsgo, tẽn-bõoneg la tẽn-bõoneg wʋsg pʋgẽ, Navaratri kibsã wakat sẽn wat ne sigr kiuug bɩ tʋʋlg kiuugã. Tẽebã yaa reem sẽn kẽed ne tẽebo, la reem sẽn kẽed ne rog-n-migs wɛɛngẽ, sẽn na n kɩt tɩ nin-buiidã lagem taaba, UNESCO yetame, "n pa welgd sullã, tũudmã bɩ yʋʋmã ye".[34] Yaa nin-buiid wala tẽnga neb n kẽesd b toog ne b toorẽ, n tʋmd wala b sẽn tõe n maan bɩ n sõngd n segend la b manegd zĩigã, n maand futã, la b get Ramlila wã yell sõma.[35]

B sẽn da maand-a wakat fãa ne yʋngo, b ra maand-a-la zĩig sẽn pa zãre, la yaa neb sẽn da yit zĩis toor-toore n da maand-a.[36][37] Yɩɩn-yendbã la yɩɩn-yendbã, rapã la pagbã, nin-kẽembã la kom-bɩɩsã yɩɩla zĩis toor-toore, n yɩɩl vɛrse-rãmbã ne mizikã, la b karemd sõssã. B sã n na n wilg ned sẽn na n wilg-a bũmb ning a sẽn na n yeelã, b nong n tikda a Ramacharitamanasã zugu. B sẽn gomd bũmb ning yell to-to wã yaa b sẽn pa wʋmd a võor sõma, la naoor wʋsgo, yaa kɛlgdbã sẽn yet bũmb ningã n wilgd b sẽn tagsd to-to. Dhol tãb-biis la yɩɩn-yɩɩndb a taab me naaga be. Naoor wʋsgo, nebã nong n maanda kibs-kãngã ne sũ-noogo, tɩ kɛlgdbã sẽn kelgd n wiisdẽ la b gomd yɛl nins b sẽn wʋmdã, b ket n kelgdame. Rɩk-y n ges-y-yã: B sẽn na n maan tigis-kãnga wã, yaa tɩlɛ tɩ y ges b sẽn na n maan tigis-kãnga to-to.

Zĩis nins sẽn gũbg-a wã lebga soay wakat bilf yĩnga, sẽn na yɩl n ges kɛlgdbã yelle. Yaa sull (samiti) n lʋɩt taoor tɩ b segend tigsgã.[38] Tẽns wʋsg pʋsẽ, yaa yʋʋm kobs la b sɩng n maand Ramlila, la neb kobs n kẽnd be yʋng fãa n wat n na n kẽng reema wã, n kẽnd n yɩɩd kɩlometr dãmb wʋsgo, wa b sẽn da maand wẽnd-do-kãsems pĩnd wẽndẽ wã. B pa yaood nin-sablsã, wall b yaood-b-la bilf b modgrã yĩnga, la yaa tẽn-bilã neb bɩ sullã n kõt-b rɩɩb la gãag zaalem. B sẽn nong n maandã ligd yaa sẽn tũ ne b sẽn tigsd ligd n kõt b nin-buiidã, la yaa Ramlila Komite rãmb sẽn sigl b mensã n nong n maand rẽ.[39][40][41] A Pandit Radheshym Kathavachak sẽn gʋls yʋʋm kob-gĩnd 20 soabã sɩngrẽ wã yɩɩla Radheshyam Ramayan yaa bũmb b sẽn nong n tũnugd ne Ramlila teyatr pʋgẽ, a sẽn gom politikã yell wakat kãnga wã yĩnga, sẽn paas a sẽn tũnug ne goam sẽn yaa nana la b makrã. Sõssã sẽn be yɩɩlã pʋgẽ wã zemsa ne a Ramlila sẽn da maandã "bõn-kãsems la a sẽn da maand to-to wã".

A Ramlila pa reem bal b sẽn maand reema zĩigẽ ye, la b sẽn maan-a to-to wã yaa sẽn na yɩl n keng kɛlgdbã raoodo, la b kɩt tɩ b kẽes b toog reema pʋgẽ. Sẽn kẽed ne filim-dãmb nins sẽn yaa kãsemsã, kɛlgdbã kẽndda ne filim-dãmb nins sẽn be zĩig a yembr n kẽng zĩig a to pʋgẽ wã, b yɩɩla yɩɩl bɩ b naag taab n togs yɩɩl-bɛdã, b kẽesda b mens reemã pʋgẽ wala nin-bõoneg bɩ nin-kãsemse, tɩ neb sull sẽn yaa reem-dãmb n tʋmd tʋʋm-kãsemsã. Neb nins sẽn be be wã sũur nooma b sã n yã tɩ nin-sõama tõogame, la b sũy sãamda b sã n yã tɩ wẽng n maan wa zĩn a Ravana sẽn yõg a Sita n kẽes bãens roogẽ. B kẽesda b toog n yõogd b nin-vɩɩsã, la b reegda nin-buiidã sõma a Rama sẽn lebg n wat Ayodhya wã sasa. Yaa bãngr-goam sẽn kẽed ne tũudum wɛɛngẽ.[42][43]

A Kadeng n wilg taab bilgre[edit | edit source]

Lead performers of a Ramlila troupe mandali, with the director, called vyasa

Rũndã-rũndã, tẽns wʋsg n dog b Ramlila wã, la Uttar Pradesh meng tara no-rãmb wʋsg sẽn wilgd b sẽn maand to-to. Yaa Ramnagar la b sẽn maand rasem 31 n maand to-toa wã.[44][45]

La b sẽn maand woto wã, b getame tɩ b na n maana yɩɩr ne b sẽn maandã.[46] Yʋʋmd 2008 UNESCO sɛb pʋgẽ, b wilgame tɩ b sẽn maand Ramlila wã yaa b sẽn maand a Zeova Kaset rãmbã sẽn maand a Zezi tũudmã pʋgẽ wã.[47]

Sẽn le paasde, opera wã sẽn yaa to-to wã pʋgẽ, b rɩka teyatr buud toor-toore, tɩ b yaool n ket n tʋmd ne teyatr buud toor-toore. A Ramacharitmanas yɩɩl-yendã sẽn yaa to-to wã pa gom-yend bal ye, yaa yɩɩl-yend me. Sẽn na n baase, yɩɩl-yend a to n boond tɩ "mandalis" n maand Ramlila.[48] Ramliyas wʋsg sẽn be tẽn-bõonegẽ wã tara gom-biis sẽn gʋls ne khadi boli bɩ tẽn-bõoneg goam, la b sẽn maandã ket n yaa melodramatiki wala wakat fãa sẽn na yɩl n tõog n tall pãn-tusdg sẽn yaa kãsenga kɛlgdb sẽn mi kɩbarã ne b sũy fãa wã sʋka, la sẽn nan ket n get b sẽn maand-a wã ne tũudmã nonglem la a sẽn yaa bõn-kãsemsã yĩnga. Woto kɩtame t'a Ramlila lebg bũmb sẽn tar yõod wʋsg tũudmã la nebã vɩɩm pʋgẽ, pa tẽn-bõoneg la tẽn-bõoneg bal ye, la tẽns wʋsg pʋsẽ me. Yaa wa b sẽn maand Ẽnd nebã reemã to-to wã, wala Bẽngallã Jatra wã, b nong n kẽesa gom-zutã b sẽn gʋlsã pʋgẽ sẽn na yɩl tɩ b zems ne yɛlã, la wakat ninga, b tũnugda ne sũ-sãang n na n gom yɛl nins sẽn maand rũndã-rũndã wã zug bɩ n wilg b sẽn tagsd to-to.

Ramnagar n be Ramila[edit | edit source]

B sẽn sɩng a Ramlila wã n maand a Ramnagar, Varanasi, sẽn be Ganga kʋɩlgã rʋʋnde, sẽn be Hindã wã sẽn maand so-pakrã Varanasi wã, yʋʋmd 1830 wã, yaa Maharãja Udit Narayan Singh, Kashi Naresh sẽn sõng Pandit Laxmi Narayan Pandey zakã rãmb (Ramnagar Ramlila wã sẽn be rũndã-rũndã wã) sõngrã. A ra tara nebã wʋsg a sẽn wa n yaa a pʋ-taag a Maharaj Ishwari Prasad Narayan Singh naamã sasa, la a ra paamda a Benares Royale House wã rĩm-dãmb sẽn da wa n wa n wa wa n na n naan naan naan naan maan-kɛglem tʋʋm wʋsgo, tɩ nebã sẽn wa n wa be wã sɩng ne tus a wãn n ta neb a 100,000 n yaool n wa be.[49]

Ram Leela Mela, before the Raja of Benares, the culmination of Ramlila with burning of Ravana effigies, at Ramnagar Fort, 1834

Ramlila sẽn maan tɩ b yõog Ravana bõn-naandsã, Ramnagar Fort, 1834 wã. Ramlila yaa yɩɩl sẽn gomd a Rama kibarã yelle, wa b sẽn togs a Ramcharitmanas pʋgẽ, Tulsidas sẽn gʋls a Ramayana wã pʋgẽ. Yaa a Maaraja n na n wilg b sẽn maandã, la b na n maana-b-la a Ramnagarẽ wĩnto-sʋk fãa rasem 31 yĩnga. B maanda rasem 31 Ramnagar Ramlila wã, tɩ b karemd a Ramacharitmanasã fãa, tɩ pa rasem 10 sẽn yaa wakat sẽn yaa to-to wã ye. A yaa tẽn-kãng sẽn yaa tẽn-kãseng sẽn yaa sõma n yɩɩd tẽn-kãens fãa. Ramnagarã pʋgẽ, tẽnga luglg n meega zĩis wʋsgo, tɩ b fãa boond b yʋʋre tɩ b rɩk b sẽn maan bũmb wʋsg a Ramayana wã pʋga. B sẽn da yaa wakat fãa la b sẽn yaa wakat bilfã me yaa b sẽn maandẽ, tɩ b tõe n wilg zĩ-kãens wa a Ashoka Vatika, Janakpuri, Panchavati, Lanka wã, la b sẽn maand to-to wã. Rẽ n so tɩ tẽngã fãa lebg zĩig sẽn yaa kãsenga, la nebã fãa sẽn maand yɩɩlã, b kẽnd n kẽng zĩig ning sẽn pʋgdã. Sẽn wa n ket n yaa yɩɩl-kãnga, yɩɩl-bãmba la nin-buiidã kẽndame n kẽng zĩis a taab n naag yɩɩl-gãongã, n kõt nebã tagsg tɩ b bee yɩɩl-kãng pʋgẽ.[50][51]

A Ramlila actor in the traditional attire of Ravana

Ravana seglma sẽn sɩng ne b sẽn maand to-to wã, rasem a wãn sẽn deng a sɩngrã, a Ramlila filimã pʋgẽ, a Maharaja wã sɩngda a raabã, tɩ b yãkd a Svarupas sẽn yaa Wẽnnaam sẽn kɩt tɩ b lebg Wẽnnaam, sẽn yaa Ramayana wã nin-buiidã. Rɩk-rãmbã sẽn yaa sõma wã yaa zak rãmb n pʋɩt-b-la. Wala makre, yaa zak a yembr n zĩnd n zĩnd n na n maan a Ravana wã n tãag yʋʋmd 1835 n tãag 1990 wã. La zak a Vyasa wã n yãkd a Hanuman, a Jatayu la a Janaka wã.

Ravana effigy during a Ramlila event.

[52] Desehra wã kibsã sã n wa sɩng ne rig-goam sẽn tar sãnemã, Kashi Naresh rɩtda wũudu n lʋɩ taoor. Rẽ poore, a sẽn yãgd ne silk la brocade wã, a sɩngame n na n maan kiuugã pʋgẽ Ramlila nebã kibsã Ramnagar. Wakat kãnga, sãd-dãmb sẽn boond tɩ Ramayanis n wa be tẽngã pʋgẽ n na n ges la b gom Ramcharitmanasã. Neb wʋsg sẽn be wã zãada Ramcharit Manas wã kopi, b sẽn boond tɩ Manas wã, n tũ sẽn be-b to-to wã, b sẽn wa n wa n gom ne-b to wã poore.[53] B sẽn da maand kibsã la kibsã yaa b tẽebã minimã pʋga. B pa kẽng Ramlila ye, b kẽeda a pʋgẽ.[54]

Tʋʋmdã sasa, tẽnga zĩiga toeema naoor a yiibu, sẽn sɩng ne tẽnga sẽn lebg teyatr la sẽn na n yɩll n lebg tẽn-kɩremsgo. Tʋʋmdã pãng paasdame tɩ lebg tẽn-kɩremsgo, n yaool n wa baas ne a Rama sẽn lebg n wat a yiri. Yaa wakat kãng la Raja mengã lebg teyatrã pʋga, sẽn na n yɩlẽ n tõog n kẽes tẽn-kɩremsã yɛla. Sẽn na n baase, b sã n wa yi, b na n yiisa b yĩn-wɩsgrã n kõ rĩm-dãmbã la b kõ kɛlgdbã darshanã.[55] Episode fãa baasgẽ, b maanda lila, aarti, n yɩɩl 'Har Har Mahadev' bɩ 'Bolo! Raja Ramchandra ki Jai!' ye dil ne kaha. Neb nins sẽn be be wã na n naagame n kelge. Rẽ poore, b na n maana jhanki, sẽn dat n yeel tɩ yãab bɩ yãab sẽn kẽed ne 'Manasã' wakat sẽn be wã, sẽn na yɩl tɩ kɛlgdbã wʋm kibarã võor sõma, la b leb n tall mi-beoog ne a sẽn tall pãn-tusdg ningã.[56]

Baa ne b sẽn tar kibay wʋsg sẽn gomd Ramlila sɩngr yelle, a yembr wilgame tɩ b reng n maana a soabã tẽn-bil a ye sẽn pẽ be, sẽn boond tɩ Chota Mirzapur, tɩ sẽn da be Varanasi wã wa sãam Gãnga koomã sẽn wa n sa wã yĩnga. Rẽ n kɩt tɩ b lebg n maan a soabã, sẽn yaa a Ramlila, sẽn yaa a Ramayana wã sẽn yaa to-to wã, la sẽn sɩng ne yʋʋm pi-gĩn wʋsg masã, bãngdb sẽn yit dũniyã gill zugã zãms-a lame.[57]

Yaoolem daarã, a Rama sẽn tõog zĩn-dãmbã rĩmã, a Ravana, yɩɩ sũ-no-kãsenga. Sẽn yɩɩd neb milyõ a ye n wat yʋʋmd fãa n na n ges tigr-kãsemsã sẽn maand Kashi Naresh wã.[58]

Shri Sitaram Dharmmandal, Saraiharkhu Jaunpur[edit | edit source]

Saraiharkhu yaa tẽn-bil sẽn be Jaunpur, Uttar Pradesh sẽn be India tẽnga, Janpur-Lucknow sorã zugu, sẽn zems 18km (11 mi) ne Jaunpur tẽnga. A Ramleela sɩngame yʋʋmd 1932 ne Biritayn dãmba wakat tɩ rẽ tɛka, b maand-a-la yʋʋmd fãa, ne Wẽnnaam bark Dussera sasa, la b maand Silver, Golden la Diamond jubilee wã.

Sull kãngã bõn-datl sẽn yaa kãseng n yɩɩd yaa tɩ b pʋɩ tɩɩm la b zãms Wẽnnaam a Ram Chandra noy la noy n sigl a Ramleela Dussehra sasa. Sigl-kãngã yaa kʋdemd la a tar yʋʋr wʋsgo, neb wʋsg wat n wat be yʋʋmd fãa kibsã sasa. Yaa rasem a nu la b maand Ramleela wã, la rasem a yoob-n-soabã, b maanda kibs-kãseng tẽn-kãng pʋgẽ sẽn boond tɩ "Vijyadashmi". Sẽn tar yõod ne sull kãnga yaa t'a sɩnga ne Kayastha zak rãmb sẽn yit tẽn-bilã pʋgẽ bala, n lebg a nin-buiidã, la masã sull kãnga tara nin-buiidã sẽn yɩɩd 100 sẽn tʋmd tẽns toɛy-toɛyã pʋsẽ la tẽn-zẽmsã pʋsẽ, la zĩis sẽn tar yõod wʋsgo. Yʋʋmd fãa, pa tigingã neb bal n wat rasem a yoob n basd b tʋʋm-kãsemsã ye, yaa neb nins sẽn be be ne b zagsã me n watẽ. Woto wilgdame tɩ nin-buiidã zems-n-taar la b nonglmã yaa mak-sõng b sẽn segd n tũ. Neb wʋsg sẽn yaa nin-kãsems me kẽnga a Ramleela nengẽ.

Zĩiga fãa[edit | edit source]

A modern Ramayana production.

Yʋʋm koabg zugẽ wã, a Ramlila lebgame tɩ b waoogd-a wʋsgo, la a kẽnga dũniyã zĩ-zãrsẽ wã, ne Ẽnd nebã sẽn be tẽn-zãrsẽ wã, la a ra pa "tẽebã lebgr" tʋʋmde, la a ra yaa tẽeb sẽn pa tek yam wilgri. Rũndã-rũndã, b maanda a Ramlila tẽns wʋsg sẽn tar nin-hindu rãmb sẽn yit Ɛnd soolmẽ wã, n paas Ɛnd soolmẽ wã, Nepall la Pakistã. Sã n pa ne Ẽnd tẽn-bilã, rẽ naaga Fiji, Mauritius, South Africa, Canada, Guyana, Surinam, Trinidad la Tobago, United Kingdom, Netherland, United States, Australia, la New Zealand. Azi tẽns kẽer me tara drãm sẽn yaa wa a Ramayana, wala makre, Phra Lak Phra Lam (Lak la Lam yaa Laos gom-biis sẽn yaa Lakshman la Ram) sẽn be Laos la Thai rɩtg-goabga. [ citation nécessaire ]

A Rama kibarã leb n yaa bũmb a to b sẽn maand hal wʋsgo, wa bugum sẽn be yʋngo, wall b sẽn maand yãadma. B boond-a lame t'a Tolapavakuthu Kerala, a Ravana chaya Odisha, a Nang sbek thom Kambodža, a Nang yai Thailande la a Wayang purwa Indonezi.[59]

Sebtiise[edit | edit source]

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  12. https://doi.org/10.2307%2F538562
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  14. http://sanskritdocuments.org/all_pdf/natya01.pdf
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  16. https://archive.org/details/illustratedencyc0000loch
  17. https://books.google.com/books?id=au_Vk2VYyrkC&pg=PA507
  18. https://archive.org/details/illustratedencyc0000loch
  19. https://books.google.com/books?id=au_Vk2VYyrkC&pg=PA507
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  21. https://archive.org/details/traditionalindia0000unse/page/73
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  25. https://books.google.com/books?id=HR-_LK5kl18C
  26. https://books.google.com/books?id=ph4xAQAAIAAJ
  27. https://books.google.com/books?id=2Ar2Qfr-UeQC&pg=PA339
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  29. https://doi.org/10.2307%2F538562
  30. https://doi.org/10.2307%2F538562
  31. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1145152
  32. https://doi.org/10.2307%2F538562
  33. https://books.google.com/books?id=b0jmXOPBXkwC
  34. http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/en/RL/ramlila-the-traditional-performance-of-the-ramayana-00110
  35. http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/en/RL/ramlila-the-traditional-performance-of-the-ramayana-00110
  36. https://doi.org/10.2307%2F1145152
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  46. https://web.archive.org/web/20080704112935/http://www.up-tourism.com/fair_festival/ramlila.htm
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  49. https://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/26/arts/26SCHE.html?pagewanted=1&ei=5070&en=eb222a8aebe766e2&ex=1232514000
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  51. http://www.comm.unt.edu/histofperf/CGordon/The%20Performance.htm
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  53. https://www.varanasiguru.com/ramnagar-ramleela/
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  57. https://web.archive.org/web/20160303191021/http://www.stthomasu.ca/~parkhill/lila.htm
  58. https://archive.org/details/cambridgeguideto0000banh/page/1247
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Sɛb sõor[edit | edit source]

  • A Cynthia Bradley (2012). A Denise Cush; a Catherine Robinson; a Michael York (sẽn gʋls-a). Hindouizmã Ensiklopedi. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-18979-2. A sẽn da yaa ninsabls tẽnsa taoor soaba.
  • A Alain Daniélou (1991). The Myths and Gods of India: The Classic Work on Hindu Polytheism sẽn yi Princeton Bollingen Series pʋgẽ wã. A Inner Traditions / Bear & Co. ISBN 978-0-89281-354-4. B sẽn boond-a t'a "dũniyã bõn-vɩɩsã"
  • A Constance Jones ne a James D. A Ryan (2006). Hindouizmã Ensiklopedi. Infobase sẽn yiisd sɛbã. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5. A sẽn da yaa ninsabls tẽnsa taoor soaba.
  • A David Kinsley (1988). Hindoo wẽn-poak rãmba: B sẽn get wẽn-poak sẽn yaa pag to-to Hindoo tũudmã pʋgẽ. California Inivɛrsite Kibayã. ISBN 978-0-520-90883-3. A sẽn da yaa ninsabls tẽnsa taoor soaba.
  • A David R. A Kinsley (1989). Wẽnnaam-poakã nin-gɛtgã: Wẽnnaam sẽn yit yaang la rɩtgã. State University of New York Pressã ISBN 978-0-88706-835-5. A sẽn da yaa ninsabls tẽnsa taoor soaba.
  • A James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z. A Rosen sẽn yaa seb-paalgã. ISBN 0-8239-2287-1.
  • Rocher, Ludo (1986). Puranã-rãmbã. Yaa Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3447025225. B sẽn boond-a t'a "São Zé" wã
  • "Navratri  ⁇  Hindoo rãmbã kibsã". Encyclopaedia Britannica wã pʋgẽ. Yʋʋmd 2017 yʋʋm-vẽkr kiuug rasem 21. B paama seb-kãngã yʋʋmd 2017 yʋʋm-vẽkr kiuug rasem 21.
  • Actors, Pilgrims, Kings And Gods: The Ramlila of Ramnagar, by Anuradha Kapur, Seagull, 2006. ISBN 1-905422-20-2. A sẽn da yaa ninsabls tẽnsa taoor soaba.
  • "Tẽn-bi-bɛd sẽn be Pasifikã: Zãmsg sẽn tɩ loe ne Fidji Inis rãmbã tẽn-kɩremsã neba", a Adrian C. Mayer, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1973.
  • "Cambridge Guide to Asian Theatre", a James R. Brandon, Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Zems-n-taase[edit | edit source]

  • Ramlila sẽn be Ramnagar Fort Varanasi wã - bao-y kibay fãa
  • Shri Sitaram DharmMandal, Saraiharkhu Jaunpur Ramleela sẽn sɩng ne yʋʋmd 1932
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