Wp/mos/Chan Chan

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Chan Chan[edit | edit source]

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Chan Chan
archaeological site, capital city
Inception850 Tekre
Native labelChan Chan Tekre
CultureChimú culture Tekre
CountryPeru Tekre
Capital ofChimor, Chimú culture Tekre
Located in the administrative territorial entityTrujillo, La Libertad department, Trujillo province Tekre
LocationHuanchaco Tekre
Coordinate location8°6′38″S 79°4′30″W Tekre
Significant eventlist of World Heritage in Danger Tekre
Heritage designationUNESCO World Heritage Site, cultural heritage of Peru Tekre
Official websitehttp://www.chanchan.gob.pe Tekre
World Heritage criteriaWorld Heritage selection criterion (i), World Heritage selection criterion (iii) Tekre

Chan Chan ra ya tẽn-bedre Colombia wakato, Mɛrk-tẽng soolmẽ. A lebga tẽn-kʋdemd-wẽndẽ zĩiga La Libertad baobgo, zĩig sẽn zems kilo a 5 neTruzillo, Peru soolem.[1]

Chan Chan bee Moche tãng sɛɛgẽ. A yɩ Chimor na-tẽnga tẽn-kɩdemd wẽndẽ wakata yʋʋm 900 n na te tãag 1470, Inka Rĩunga n wa n zab n tõob-ba. Chimor zab-zabd tẽnga, tɩlg-b mense ne Simu rog-n-miki Peru mog-noore.

MuseoChanChan

Chan Chan ya tẽn-koɛɛnga sẽn be Peru zamaanẽ. Saas kaalem yĩnga, Chan Chan koom sẽn ka tar yamsem yita kɩʋlsẽ n talld Andes tẽn-tom n wat ne. Woto sõngdame tɩ b kogend tẽnga la kooma n tũud ne kẽes koom zĩig pʋgẽ.[2]

Chan Chan tẽnga ya zĩ-yaolenga n kãge galen-tẽng pʋg la a tar ciudadela ramba. ciudadela ya mɛɛb-minim zĩisi, bitgse la yaad zĩise n kõ nanambsa buudu. ciudadelas kãensa neerema buud wilgda b tõkgre ne nanambsa nagda. Chan Chan talsã zaksa zamaan neb sẽn yɩɩd taab tʋʋl n ya baoonse, n ka tũud taab roto. Bala talsa rãmb tʋʋl n ya nug tʋmtʋmdba tɩ b tʋʋm rĩunga pʋga rag n ya nug-tʋʋmd teredo, SIAR wʋsga rag n ya tʋʋm zĩisio.

Mam yɛɛsame mam sẽn tẽege Tɩ Zezi kii mam yĩnga. Yaa wana t B nong maam a woto, Sɩda mam ka tõe n bãng ye.

Belem-tɩɩse

  1. Sɩngdga
  2. Kʋdemde
  • Koglg gãnegre


- UNESCO World Heritage Site

  1. Kʋdemd zĩisi
  • Walled compound Nik An (Ex Tschudi)
  1. Roto
  2. Tʋʋm la neba
  3. Tũudum la rog-mik
  4. Mebo na yɩ neer bãngr minim
  • Kẽes koom zĩig pʋgẽ
  • Lɩɩs sabaabo
  1. Yaoolem kʋdem zĩis koglg gẽesgo
  2. Ges-n-paasga
  3. Goam-teesdem
  4. Tõkdse
  5. Kɛɛng

Sɩngdga[edit | edit source]

Yuurã tõe n yiita a Quingnam "Jiang" bɩ "Chang sẽn dat n yeel tɩ Sun, ya rẽ yĩnga tɩ Chan-Chan tõe ra teesa a: Sun-Sun. Neb sãnda me yetame tɩ yʋʋr hakɩɩka tõe n dat n yeelame tɩ: wĩnto Bedre, wĩnto sẽn yãgda, wĩnto neere bɩ n tõdgd menengo (bala Quingnam buudã goama bũmba a yembr sẽn vẽnegda meng n te yɩɩda a taaba ya tɩ b sẽn yeel gom-bil noor a yiibu a rat-n-yɛɛlga teemdame). Tagsg-n-yeela a to yetame tɩ yʋʋrã yita gom-bil: Shian bɩ Sian. "Shi" koɛɛga lebda-lame n bilgd Kiuugu tɩ "Shi" bilgd zaka, sẽn dat n yeel tɩ Kiuug Zaka, sẽn wilgd tɩ Kiuugã ya wẽnd-bil sẽn yɩɩda a taaba.

Kʋdemde[edit | edit source]

Neba tẽedame tɩ Chimú rãmb me Chan Chan AD yʋʋm 850 bãobgo. Rag n ya Chimor rĩung bedra galʋ tẽnga t'a nin-buiida kolg neb 40,000-60,000.

Inca rãmb sẽn wẽ Chimú rãmb loog poore AD yʋʋm 1470, Chan Chan leba poorẽ. Incas rãmb ra tʋʋmda ne yam-tũnugd sẽn boond tɩ "Mitma system of ethnic dispersion" sẽn ya bũmb sẽn rag n welg chimú civilions n te ning-b zĩis nins Inca rãmb sẽn da n zoe n wẽ n dɩka. Yʋʋm 60 loogr poor bifu yʋʋm 1535 AD wakato, Francisco Pizarro lugla Spanish city of Trujillo sẽn tus Chan Chan b lʋɩɩsa pʋgẽ n paase. A sẽn dag n ka le ya natẽng galʋ tẽng sẽn le pid yɛsa, neb ra ketẽ n mii Chan Chan wa arzɛk tẽnga rẽe n so tɩ Spaniards wa kẽe n zu-ba. Bũmb sẽn dag n wilgd great Chimú arzɛka rag n tõe yãndame yʋʋm koabgẽ pii la yoob n soab sõdg-sebr zug ning b sẽn da zu teed ninsa Chan Chan yaooga a yemb pʋga, laog sẽn tõe n ta sãnem 80,000 pesos (ya bũmb sẽn kolg $5,000,000 US dollars sãnem)

Yʋʋm 1969 wakato, Michael Moseley ne a Carol J. Mackey rag n gaagra Chan Chan, rũnda-rũnda gaagr bãmba ketẽ n maandame Peruvian Instituto Nacional de Cultura nifẽ.

Koglg gãnegre

Yʋʋm 1998 wakato, Freedom National Culture Institute of Peru gãnega "Master Plan for Conservation and Management of the Chan Chan Archeological Complex" ne World Heritage Foundation – WHR, ICCROM, and GCI sõngre. Peruvian Government saka gãnegra. Koglgã yam tũudum naagame ne meeb bɛda zĩis na tilg neere la Tschudi Palace gilim-gilima, n talld masĩn zamaan sẽn loog la rũnda-rũnda nug-bãngr teedo. Chan Chan tara marsa zĩis 46 sẽn sãam wvsgo, ba ne zĩigã yalma fãa sẽn sãame yɩɩda wot zĩig sẽn zãre. The regional government of La Libertad kõta ligdi zĩ bãmba koglg maoob pʋgẽ.

UNESCO World Heritage Site

A rope barrier is in place to protect the buildings of Chan Chan from damage by visitors.

Sɩpaolg kiuug rasem 28 yʋʋm 1986 wakato, UNESCO rãmb yãka Chan Chan wa World Heritage Site, la b ninga-la List of World Heritage in Danger pʋgẽ. The World Heritage Committee's pipi raab wilgri naaga nao-rɩkdse sẽn na kolglge, remse, la manege; yalsd gaagr buud fãa sẽn rag n ka koglg nao-rɩkds yãagre, ne zaeebã na paam boogre. Karem-b-bɛd zĩis ka tɛkse wa ICCROM, the Getty Conservation Institute, and the Government of Peru naaga taaba n lulg Pan-American Course on the Conservation and Management of Earthen Architectural and Archaeological Heritage. Archeologists ra mamsdame n naan saag fu-gobse meebã zutu n koglg-b ne saasa la b zã n kaoose adobe rota sẽn be sãamg zuga. B ra le mamsdame n naan tũnug tɩ loog yam n na tus saasã kooma tɩ loogd tʋʋl-tʋʋle. Chan Chan rag n bee world heritage danger sõdg-sebrã zuga n na sɩng ne 1986 yʋʋmda. N na sɩng ne yʋʋm 2000 b rag n maana koglg-n-meng nao-rɩkdse bũmb fãa gʋlsgo, zãma wã fãa zãabo, la yãgb ne sãang gãnegr naagame.

Archaeology tʋʋm zĩisi[edit | edit source]

Walled compounds pictured above are made out of adobe brick and finished off with mud. Often the chimú would draw animals or other things into the mud before it dried.

Chan Chan archaeology tuum ziiga monma neng-yalem wala 20 kilimetr men-yilende, ti b yet t re la anduni puge adobe na-teng bedre sen be duni saka sen boond ti Americasla a lebg n yaa yiib-n-leta anduni faa puge. Zagse ninsi b sen me lalsa n gilga ti b be teng-bedra puge la:

Old name Current name Meaning
Chayhuac Chayhuac An or Quixmic An Chayhuac Yiri bii Singre Yiri
Uhle Xllangchic An Nyaang' Yiri bii Wintoog' Yiri
Laberinto Fechech An West win-taore Yiri bii Zaabre Yiri
Gran Chimú Utzh An Yi-bedre
Squier Fochic An ritg-baobgo Yiri
Velarde Ñing An Ko-kaseng' Yiri
Bandelier Ñain An Luiili Yiri
Tschudi Nik An Suka Yiri
Rivero Chol An Yi-paalga bii Yaoolem Yiri
Tello Tsuts An Yi-bila

Ges-n-paasga[edit | edit source]

  • Moche Valley
  • Chimú Culture
  • Inka empire
  • Andes mountains
  • Irrigation
  • Erosion
  • World Heritage Sites in Danger
  • Spondylus
  • Peru

Goam-teesdem[edit | edit source]

  1. Carter, Benjamin (2008-01-01). Technology, Society and Change: Shell Artifact Production Among the Manteno (A.D. 800--1532) of Coastal Ecuador. ISBN 9780549646341.
  2. The Smithsonian Staff (March 2010), "10 Must-See Endangered Cultural Treasures", Smithsonian, 39 (12): 35, archived from the original on 2020-04-22, retrieved 2020-07-17 - Chan Chan, Peru, End of an Empire by Bruce Hathaway
  3. Moseley, Michael (24 January 1975). "Chan Chan: Andean Alternative of the Preindustrial City". Science. 187 (4173): 219–225. Bibcode:1975Sci...187..219M. doi:10.1126/science.187.4173.219. JSTOR 1739056. PMID 17838775. S2CID 20314792.
  4. Smailes, Richard (March 2011). "Building Chan Chan: A Project Management Perspective". Latin American Antiquity. 22 (1): 37–63. doi:10.7183/1045-6635.22.1.37. JSTOR 23072515. S2CID 164117955.
  5. Rowe, John (1948). "The Kingdom of Chimor". Acta Americana.
  6. D'Altroy, Terence (2002). The Incas. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 41. ISBN 978-0-631-17677-0.
  7. Holstein, Otto (1927). "Chan-Chan: Capital of the Great Chimu". Geographical Review. 17 (1): 36–61. doi:10.2307/208132. JSTOR 208132. (subscription required)
  8. Moore, Jerry (2002). Encyclopedia of Prehistory. Human Relations Area Files, Inc.
  9. West, Michael (January 1970). "Community Settlement Patterns at Chan Chan, Peru". American Antiquity. 35 (1): 74–86. doi:10.2307/278179. JSTOR 278179. S2CID 163958191.
  10. Murray, T (2001). "Chan Chan". Encyclopedia of Archaeology: History and Discoveries. Archived from the original on 2018-09-12.
  11. "Legal Documentation of the Peruvian Government taking care of Chan Chan" (.PDF).
  12. Correia, M (2012-05-31), "Which course of action for earthen architectural heritage preservation?", Rammed Earth Conservation, CRC Press, doi:10.1201/b15164-4, ISBN 978-0415621250
  13. "Chan Chan la Ciudadela de Barro que resiste al paso del tiempo". 23 November 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
  14. "a quick guide to chan chan's climate crisis". arts and culture. arts and culture.
  15. "UNESCO". Chan Chan Archaeological Zone. UNESCO.
  16. Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Chan Chan Archaeological Zone". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 2022-12-08.
  17. Orbegozo, Manuel (2017-04-03). "Welcome to Chan Chan, Peru's Abandoned Mud-Brick City". Culture Trip. Retrieved 2022-12-08.
  18. "What Was It Like to Live During the Peak of the Chimu Empire". Google Arts & Culture. Retrieved 2022-12-08.
  19. "Tucuna | people | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2022-12-08.
  20. "What Do We Know About Khipus?". Google Arts & Culture. Retrieved 2022-12-08.
  21. Keatinge, Richard; Day, Kent (Winter 1973). "Socio-Economic Organization of the Moche Valley, Peru, during the Chimu Occupation of Chan Chan". Journal of Anthropological Research. 29 (4): 275–295. doi:10.1086/jar.29.4.3629879. JSTOR 3629879. S2CID 163416043.
  22. The Inca World: The development of pre-Columbian Peru, A.D. 1000-1534 by Laura Laurencich Minelli, Cecilia Bákula, Mireille Vautier – Google Books
  23. "Chan Chan Tours". Archived from the original on 2016-01-19. Retrieved 2011-03-27.
  24. "Endangered Site: Chan Chan, Peru". Archived from the original on 2010-02-06. Retrieved 2009-03-20.
  25. "Climate Change: Sites in Peril".
  26. S., Blauw, T. Nitrogen fixation (Acetylene reduction) in the sediments of the pluss-see : with special attention to the role of sedimentation. OCLC 1016759279.
  27. Pierdicca, Roberto (May 2018). "Mapping Chimu's Settlements for Conservation Purposes Using UAV and Close Range Photogrammetry. The Virtual Reconstruction of Palacio Tschudi, Chan Chan, Peru". Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage. 8 (1): 27–34. doi:10.1016/j.daach.2017.11.004. ISSN 2212-0548.
  28. Colosi, Francesca; Malinverni, Eva Savina; Trujillo, Francisco James Leon; Pierdicca, Roberto; Orazi, Roberto; Di Stefano, Francesco (August 2022). "Exploiting HBIM for Historical Mud Architecture: The Huaca Arco Iris in Chan Chan (Peru)". Digital Heritage. 5 (3). doi:10.3390/heritage5030108. ISSN 2062-2082.

Sebtiise[edit | edit source]

Kɛɛng tõkre[edit | edit source]

  1. Carter, Benjamin (2008-01-01). Technology, Society and Change: Shell Artifact Production Among the Manteno (A.D. 800--1532) of Coastal Ecuador. ISBN 9780549646341.
  2. https://web.archive.org/web/20200422225254/https://www.smithsonian.com/