Wp/mos/Candombe

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candombe
music genre, type of dance
Subclass ofLatin American folk music, music of Uruguay, South American folk dance, Rioplatense music Tekre
Intangible cultural heritage statusRepresentative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity Tekre
Described at URLhttps://ich.unesco.org/en/RL/00182, https://ich.unesco.org/fr/RL/00182, https://ich.unesco.org/es/RL/00182 Tekre

A Candombe yaa mizik la dans buud sẽn yi Urugwaj n zĩnd Afirik yembs sẽn paam lohorem sʋka. Yʋʋmd 2009 wã, b sẽn boond tɩ UNESCO wã, b kɩtame tɩ b gʋls gom-biis nins sẽn be UNESCO wã sẽn yaa b sẽn get b sẽn get bũmb nins sẽn pa tar yõodã.[1]

Sẽn yɩɩd fãa, Arjantɛn, Paragwaj la Brezilã neb wʋsg pa nong tɩ b yũ kandombe wã ye. Arzɛntɛn tẽnga, b tõe n yãa-a-la Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, Paraná, la Corrientes. Paraguay, b ket n maanda woto Camba Cuá la Fernando de la Mora sẽn be Asunción tẽngẽ wã. B sẽn yet tɩ b yaa tũudum rãmb n be Brezilã, b tõe n yãa candombe wã Minas Gerais soolmẽ.

Uruguay nebã sẽn wa n nong yɩɩlã yaa tãabo: chico, repique la piyano. Naoor wʋsgo, b yɩɩla karnevalã pʋgẽ, n boond tɩ lamada wã, la karneval ning b sẽn sɩngã.

Sɩngr sẽn yit[edit | edit source]

D sẽn paam n paam n paam d meng[edit | edit source]

A George Reid Andrews sẽn yaa Latin America nin-buiidã yel-bũndã bãngdb yeelame tɩ yʋʋm 19nd yʋʋm kob-gĩndẽ pʋga, nin-bũndb kẽer sɩngame n bas n bas kandombe wã n dɩk b sẽn kẽed ne Europe wã yɩɩl wala valse, schottische la mazurka.[2] Rẽ poore, Uruguay neb a taabã sɩngame n dɩkd a sẽn maandã togs-n-taare. B sẽn boond b mens tɩ Los Negros wã, yʋʋm 1860-rãmbã la 1870-rãmbã pʋgẽ, burkĩna rãmb nins sẽn be sorã maana yɩɩr ne b mens n maand karneval sõor yʋʋmd fãa.

Africa-Uruguay nebã ra maandda kandombe wãnd daar fãa Zĩndg la kibs nins sẽn yaa toor-toorã wa yʋʋm-paal daar, kiris-ned, Saint Baltasar, Rosary Virgin la Saint Benito wã. B ra yõogda bugum n na n wa gũbg b bobã la b sak n yɩɩnd-b-la noore, sẽn yɩɩd fãa yʋngo, zĩis kẽer sẽn beẽ wa Barrio Sur la Palermo sẽn be Montevideo.

B sẽn maand tɩ b maand maandẽ wã makda nin-sabls sẽn da yaa zu-soben-dãmbã sẽn da yaa yembdẽ wã. B ra maanda b vɩɩmã yaalgo, n baood tɩ b paam sor n maan b sẽn dat n maan to-to wã, la b tẽegd b sẽn yi Afirik to-to.[2]

Yʋʋmd 1913 wã, ned sẽn yaa yɩɩl gʋlsdb sẽn pa mi b sẽn boond-a tɩ "Viejo Tanguero" ("Tangoer kʋdemdã") gʋlsa yʋʋmd 1877 wã yɩɩl sẽn boond tɩ tango wã sẽn tall yam sẽn yit candombe wã yelle. Yɩɩr kãnga, sẽn wa n lebg "tango sẽn yaa sũ-m-mengã" n yaool n lebg b sẽn boond tɩ "tango" wã, yaa Afirik Arzɛntɛn nebã n naanã.[3][4]

Yʋʋmd 1883 wã, yɩɩl karen-saamb la folklorist Ventura Lynch wilgame tɩ Afro-Argentine wã yɩɩlbã sẽn da maand yɩɩlã kɩtame tɩ b lebg komadritos ("tõnd dãmb") sẽn da yaa vẽeneg tɩ b ra kẽnd Afro-Agentine wã wã yɩɩl zĩisẽ. A Lynch gʋlsa woto: "Bãmb bal n yɩɩl milonga wã, la yaa tẽnga kom-bi-rãmba bal n yɩɩla. B maana-a-la wa b sẽn getẽ tɩ b yaa burkĩna wã sẽn maand yɩɩl b sẽn maand b toorẽ wã".A Robert Farris Thompson sẽn gʋls a Lynch kibarã a Tango: The Art of Love wã pʋgẽ, a maana woto tɩ tẽngã kom-pugli wã ra yɩɩda milonga, la pa tẽn-tẽngã gauchos ye. A Thompson yeelame tɩ tẽngã nebã sẽn da wa n yɩɩl milonga wã ra na n yɩɩla zũnd dãmba la mulatõ rãmb me, la tɩ ra pa na n yɩɩ yɩɩl wa sẽn yaa yaal ne ra-bãndbã fãa ye.

Argentina[edit | edit source]

Afro-Argentines playing Candombe Porteño near a bonfire in St. John's night (noche de San Juan), 1938.

A Candombe bõn-buudã yita Angola, sẽn yaa rũndã-rũndã wã, la b tall-a lame n kẽng Amerik sẽn-Tõogã pʋgẽ yʋʋm kob-gĩnd 17 soabã la 18 soabã pʋgẽ, neb sẽn da koos-a wa yembd Kongo, Anziqua, Nyong, Quang la neb a taab soolmẽ wã, sẽn yɩɩd fãa yaa Portugal yembd raabdb n da tʋmdẽ. Yaa buud toor-toorã n da zãad b sẽn boond tɩ candombe wã n wa rɩt n tɩ rɩt Brazil (sẽn yɩɩd fãa Salvador de Bahia soolmẽ), Kuba, la Rio de la Plata ne b tẽn-tẽngã Buenos Aires la Montevideo. B sẽn da maand bũmb nins fãa wã, b sẽn da maand b toor-toorã, b sẽn maan bũmb ninsã kɩtame tɩ b pa tõe n bãng b sẽn maan to-to wã ye.

Afrika nebã sẽn da tar pãng wʋsg Arjantɛnã, tɩ b ra maandẽ kandom-rãmbã me ne b sẽn tar b toor-toorã. Sẽn sɩng ne yʋʋmd 1580 wã, Afirik yembs sẽn yaa zũnd n da be Buenos Aires. La sẽn yaa to-to wã, neb nins sẽn yaa nin-sabls wʋsg sẽn be be wã sẽn da pa beẽ wã (a Zeova sẽn da wa n deeg Arjantɛn wã neb milyõ 6 wã) la rasism sẽn yaa to wã (b sẽn boond tɩ blanqueamiento politikã) kɩtame tɩ Afro-Argentɛn nebã pa yã ye.

Buenos Aires, a Juan Manuel de Rosas sẽn wa n yaa goosneema a yiibã wakate, yaa bũmb sẽn da wae n maand tɩ "afroporteños" (Buenos Aires neb sẽn yaa zũndã) maand kandombe nebã sʋk, hal tɩ a Rosas ne a bi-pugl a Manuela meng keng-a lame, la b wa n kẽnga a nengẽ. A Rosas paama tõogr Caseros zabrẽ yʋʋmd 1852 wã, la a Buenos Aires sɩngame ne buud-goam wʋsg sẽn pa kaoos n paas n paas n get Europe buud-goama yelle. Rẽ pʋgẽ, Afroporteños wã ra rɩkda b yaab-rãmbã buud-goamã n paas b vɩɩmã pʋgẽ. Rẽ n so t'a yʋʋmd 1862 wã tɛka, zʋrnallã, bãngdbã la politikã sɩngame n wilg tɩ b pa tagsd tɩ Afro-Argentini nebã sẽn yi wã yaa b sẽn pa mi ye.

Zãmsdb wʋsg sakda woto: a Candombe wã sẽn wa n lebg a Milonga wã, yaa bũmb sẽn tar yõod wʋsg Arjantɛn tango wã rogem pʋgẽ. Yɩɩll kãngã sẽn yaa sõma wã kɩtame tɩ b lebg n wa yɩɩl "Sureña Milonga". Sɩda, tango, milonga la candombe yaa mizik a tãabo sẽn yit African buud toor-toorã pʋgẽ, la b bɩɩs-a-la ne taab.

Pipi, b ra maanda Candombe ne zũndb bal. A sɩngame yʋʋm kob-gĩnd 19 soabã pʋgẽ, la a pa tol n tar võor rũndã-rũndã ye. Rũndã-rũndã, Argentine la neb nins sẽn pa nin-zõonegã me ket n maanda candombe. A Corrientes tẽngẽ wã, a candombe yaa a San Baltasar sẽn yaa Argentina neb sẽn yaa nin-buiidã sẽn yaa nin - sõngo wã tũudum kibsã pʋga.

Uruguay[edit | edit source]

Candombe Montevideo Uruguay

Gomd ning sẽn boond tɩ candombe wã yita Kikongo gom-bil sẽn dat n yeel tɩ " sẽn kẽed ne nin-sablsã, " la b sɩng n tũnugda ne-a Buenos Aires n na n gom reem sull nins sẽn be African tẽn-kɩremsã neb la b yagensã sẽn luglã yelle. B wa n boonda weefã sẽn yaa bũmb ning fãa, la b reega gom-bilã Uruguay me. Uruguay, candombe wã lagemda African reem buud toor-toore n lebg reem sẽn yaa toore. Tʋʋmdã yaa pãng sẽn kẽed ne tʋʋma, la b paasda b nao-kẽndre.

Sẽn be masã[edit | edit source]

Argentina[edit | edit source]

Afro-Argentine Candombe drummers at a party of the Association Misibamba -Afro-Argentines Community of Buenos Aires.

Sẽn nan pa kaoose, yɩɩl-gʋlsdb kẽer kẽesa yɩɩl-kãngã b sẽn gʋlsã pʋgẽ, la b lugla sul la sigls sẽn pa tũud ne sodaasã sẽn yaa Afro-rãmbã, wala Misibamba Association, Afro-Argentines of Buenos Aires Community. Baasg zãnga, yaa sõma tɩ d bãng tɩ Uruguay Candombe wã la b sẽn maand n yɩɩd Arzantinã, sẽn tɩ loe ne sẽn yit Uruguay n wa n kẽ be wã, la sẽn tɩ loe ne yɩɩlã sẽn tar yamleoog wʋsg sẽn kẽed ne Argentina nebã. Rẽ n so tɩ b zãmsd yɩɩlã, reemã la neb nins sẽn be be wã, la b leb n maand bũmb sẽn wõnd woto. Uruguayan Candombe wã bũuda wʋsg San Telmo, Montserrat la La Boca tẽn-kɩremsẽ.

Sã n yaa ne Argentine buudã, a ra pa tar zĩig wʋsg ye (sẽn yɩɩd fãa, nin-sabls tẽnsa sẽn da yaa Afirik rãmba sõor sẽn da paoodã, a sẽn da lagem ne nin-peelsã la a sẽn da gɩdgd zallã wakat tɩ b ra pa tõe n maan zallã ye. Afro-Argentine Candombe wã yaa Afro-Argentine rãmb bal n tãood b zagsã pʋsẽ, sẽn yɩɩd fãa sẽn be Buenos Aires tẽn-kɩremsẽ wã.[5]

Sẽn nan pa kaoose, sẽn tũ ne Afro-Argentine rãmb sẽn toeem b tʋʋma, sẽn na yɩl n bas b sẽn solg b mens n kẽng n tɩ yã wã, modgr n paasdame n na n maan-a zãma wã zĩisẽ, reemẽ la soayã pʋsẽ. Sull ning sẽn get Afroargentine Candombe wã yaa: "Tambores del Litoral"  (sull ning sẽn get "Balikumba"  sẽn yit Santa Fe wã, la "Candombes del Litoral"  sẽn yit Parana, Entre Ríos), "Bakongo"  (bãmb fãa tara b mens ẽtɛrnetã sebre), "Comparsa Negros Argentinos"  la "Grupo Bum Ke Bum (b fãa sẽn yit Asociación Misibamba). Yaoolem b yiibã bee Gran Buenos Aires (Buenos Aires tẽnga la a tẽn-kɩremsã).

Uruguay[edit | edit source]

Yʋʋmd 1960 wã saab la 1970 wã sɩngrẽ, b naaga candombe wã ne 60 wã yʋʋm kob-gĩndẽ popã la bossa nova wã n naan yɩɩl buud a to sẽn boond tɩ candombe beat. B ra yetame tɩ yaa Eduardo Mateo, sẽn yaa Urugway yɩɩl-gʋlsd la yɩɩl-gʋlsd la yɩɩl-gʋlsd a taab wala a Jorge Galemire, n naan yɩɩll-kãngã.[6] A Jaime Roos me reega nin-kãnga, la a Jorge Drexler me reega nin-kãnga. Zĩ-kãnga, yɩɩl-yɩɩndb wala Diego Janssen la Miguel del Aguila makdame n na n lagem candombe ne klasã, jazzã, bluesã la milonga.[7]

Zʋg-bɛdã la yɩɩlã yɛl[edit | edit source]

Uruguayan candombe[edit | edit source]

Candombe drums in Uruguay
Colonia del Sacramento art representing candombe characters in Uruguay
Painting of a crowd participating in a candombe

Sẽn kẽed ne yʋʋm 2009 UNESCO sẽn boond t'a " intangible cultural heritage list" wã, candombe wã yaa zu-zẽkr zĩiga la nin-sabls tẽnsa sẽn yit Afirik sẽn be Montevideo wã nin-vɩʋʋgo, tɩ kom-bɩɩba reegd-a, la a kɩtdẽ tɩ sullã lagem taab n paasdẽ, la a wilgd ninsabls tẽnsa ratem la b tagsg sẽn kẽed ne b yaab rãmba.

B boond-a lame tɩ cuerda. B boond-b-la woto, tɩ zems ne b pãng la b tʋʋmd sẽn yaa to-to wã:

  • Chico, sẽn yaa koɛɛg-koɛɛga, la sẽn tar pãng wʋsgo, n kɩt tɩ nebã tõe n wʋm yɩɩlã
  • repique, medium, paasda candombe wã reemã ne gom-biis sẽn yaa zall
  • piano, sẽn yaa kãseng n yɩɩd fãa, t'a tʋʋm-noor wõnda bas-rãmb nins sẽn be yĩngri wã, bɩ bas-rãmb nins sẽn tʋmd ne elektrikã

Daar a yembre, b ra nong n wẽeda tãmpug sẽn yaa kãseng n yɩɩd rẽ menga, b sẽn boond tɩ bajo bɩ bombo. Sẽn yɩɩd fãa, corde wã baoodame tɩ tãmpĩn-dãmb a tãabo, sẽn yaa ned a yembr sull fãa pʋgẽ. A cuerda zãng na n tara tãb-biis 50-  100, sẽn nong n yaa tãb-biis a yopoe bɩ a nu, sẽn naag taab n maand tãb-biis a tãabã. Rɩt-rɩt sẽn tar neb a nu tõe n yɩɩ piano-chico-repique-chico-piano, tɩ rɩt ning sẽn be poorẽ wã tar repique-chico-piano-chico-repique la woto n ta rɩt-n-soabã.

B maanda tamboril-dãmb ne tɩɩse, n paas rũms gãndo, n na n ning-b gãndo, wall b ning-b bugum sẽn nan pa ta minit a wãn tɩ b yaool n na n maan b sẽn datã. B rɩkda b sẽkã n gãd-a n gãd-a b sẽkã, tɩ b boond-a tɩ talig bɩ talí, la b rɩkd-a n tãood ne ra-yende, la ne nug a ye.

B sẽn boond tɩ clave wã (sẽn yaa 3-2 wã) yaa b sẽn boond tɩ candombe wã pʋgẽ tɩ b sẽn boond tɩ clave wã. B wẽeda rambã babg a ye, tɩ b boond-a tɩ "hacer madera" (sẽn dat n yeel tɩ "pĩnd maanego").

B sẽn da tõe n wẽe kambã[edit | edit source]

Sẽn tar yõod n yɩɩdã la sẽn yaa rog-n-migs sẽn yit Montevide wã yaa: Cuareim, Ansina la Cordon. Bãngdb wʋsg n be n tõog n kɩt tɩ b yɩɩlã ket n tar pãng yʋʋm kobs-yi. Sull ning sẽn boond tɩ Ansina wã pʋgẽ: Wáshington Ocampo, Héctor Suárez, Pedro "Perico" Gularte, Eduardo "Cacho" Giménez, Julio Giménez, Raúl "Pocho" Magariños, Rubén Quirós, Alfredo Ferreira, "Tito" Gradín, Raúl "Maga" Magariños, Luis "Mocambo" Quirós, Fernando "Hurón" Silva, Eduardo "Malumba" Gimenez, Alvaro Salas, Daniel Gradín, Sergio Ortuño y José Luis Giménez.[8]

Argentine tẽng a Candombe[edit | edit source]

Tambores del Litoral—a group of Afro-litoraleño Argentine Candombe.

Afro-Argentinã Candombe wã yɩɩla ne tãb-biis a yiib sẽn yaa rap bal n wẽedẽ. B boond-b lame me tɩ "bas", "tumba", "quinto" bɩ "tumba base", la "repicador" (b leb n boond-a lame tɩ "contestador", "repiqueteador" bɩ "requinto"). Pipi wã yaa basã, t'a yiib-n-soabã yaa tãntãntã. B sẽn maan tãmpugã to-to wã yaa a yiibu: a yembr yaa b sẽn maan ne zũud la a to wã yaa b sẽn maan ne tãmpigã.

Pipi wã yaa b sẽn gãneg-a bãnd n gãneg b nugẽ, la b rɩkd-a n tãood sorã zug n maand reemã. Sẽn pʋgl-bã yɩɩda bãmbã, la b get-b-la wa bũmb sẽn be yamleoogo. Yaa ne nus a yiibã bal la b tõe n wẽ. Wakat-wakate, b leb n peebda tãb-biis a taab me: "macú" la "sopipa". B yiibã fãa yaa tɩɩg gãn-kãnga, pipi wã b sẽn gãneg n gãneg tẽnga, bala a yaa gãn-kãnga sẽn yaa kãseng n yɩɩdã la sẽn tar pãng n yɩɩdã; la "Sopipa" wã sẽn yaa bilf la sẽn tar pãng n yɩɩdã, b gãneg-a-la b nugu, bɩ b gãneg-a-la b naowã sʋka.

B sẽn boond tɩ "taba" wã la "mazacalla" wã bee gom-biis nins sẽn be tãmpã pʋgẽ wã sʋka. B tõe n paasame tɩ: "quijada", "quisanche", la "chinesco ⁇ ". Argentin Candombe wã yaa yɩɩl-rɩk-rɩk sẽn yaa wa rʋk-rɩk sẽn na n yɩɩll n zĩndi, bɩ n kẽnd soayã zugu. Yɩɩll wʋsg n be Afirik buud-goam nins sẽn yaa kʋdemdã pʋsẽ, bɩ sẽn yaa Ɛspayn buud-goam bɩ b yiibã fãa lagem-n-taar pʋgẽ. "B wae n yɩɩ sõss sẽn yaa sõss b sẽn tõe n sõse, tɩ b tõe n yɩɩl b yembr bala, tɩ b tõe n yɩɩl b toore, tɩ b tõe n yɩɩl b toore, tɩ b tõe n yɩɩl b toore, wall tɩ b yɩɩl b toore. Baa ne yɩɩlã sẽn nong n yaa pagbã rẽndã, rapã tõe n yɩɩndame. B sã n gomd ne koees toor-toore, b fãa gomda ne taaba.

Uruguayan Candombe sẽn maana[edit | edit source]

An oil painting of Pedro Figari depicting Candombe dancers (oil on canvas 75×105 cm) Costantini Collection.

A Candombe sull fãa, b sẽn boond tɩ Comparsa Lubola (sẽn naag ne nin-pɛɛlg sẽn lebg bũmbu, la sẽn tar kʋdemd sẽn yõogd korg) bɩ Candombera (sẽn naag ne nin-biis sẽn yaa bũmbu), yaa cuerda, sẽn yaa pagb sẽn maand reem b sẽn boond tɩ mulatas, la neb wʋsg sẽn be be, ned kam fãa ne a reem sẽn yaa takɩ. Bãngr-goamã makda:

  • La Mama Vieja: yaa ma-kʋdgã.
  • A El Gramillero: yaa tɩɩm soab ning sẽn zãad tɩɩsã. A ra yaa nin-bi-bõoneg sẽn da zãad fu-bedr la gãndo, la a zãad tɩɩsã kibs a nugẽ.
  • A El Escobero: a sẽn boond t'a "Sãan-dãmbã", a ra segd n yɩɩ ned sẽn minim n yɩɩnd la a maand reem sẽn tar yamleoogo, n maand tʋʋm-kãsems sẽn pa wõnd a taaba, n maand reem-dãmb ne a sãan-dãmbã.

B maanda Candombe wã wakat fãa Montevideo tẽn-kʋdgã goabg babgã soay zut yʋʋm-vẽkr la tʋʋl-nif kiuugã, Uruguay Karneval sasa, la tẽn-gãongã fãa. Kom-bɩɩs nins fãa b sẽn boond tɩ "comparsas" wã sõor sẽn ta 80 bɩ 90 n be rũndã-rũndã wã kẽesda b mens karnavɛɛll-kãseng pʋgẽ b sẽn boond tɩ Las Llamadas ("kallã") la b zabd ne taaba, Teatro de Verano wã zĩigẽ. Las Llamadas wã sasa, kamb nins sẽn be komparsã pʋgẽ wã nong n yera fut sẽn wilgd tɩ yɩɩlã sɩngr yaa ne yembsã koosgo, wala wĩntoog fu-rɩtse, la nengã sẽn be ne zũudã. Ligd kũunã pa wʋsg ye; bũmb nins sẽn tar yõod n yɩɩdã yaa sũ-noog baoobo, wuk-m-meng baoobo, la a taabã waoogr baoobo. Bɩ y maan sũ-noog wʋsg y sẽn na n yɩɩlã pʋgẽ, tõe n sãama zɩɩm sel-dãmb sẽn yaa miuugã, tɩ rẽ kɩt tɩ f sã n wa wẽed tãmpĩli, f sã n wa wẽed tãmpĩli, f tõe n yãame tɩ f no-tũudgã yaa wa sãnem.[9]

Ges-y me[edit | edit source]

Sebtiise[edit | edit source]

Sebr ning sẽn pʋgdã[edit | edit source]

  1. https://ich.unesco.org/en/RL/candombe-and-its-socio-cultural-space-a-community-practice-00182
  2. https://books.google.com/books?id=Hf_EDwAAQBAJ&q=%22Viejo+Tanguero%22&pg=PA149
  3. https://books.google.com/books?id=Y0_u5aLUT8YC&q=%22Viejo+Tanguero%22&pg=PA198
  4. https://books.google.com/books?id=bQRwDwAAQBAJ&q=%22Viejo+Tanguero%22&pg=PA360
  5. http://www.revistaquilombo.com.ar/documentos/cirioargentina.pdf
  6. https://web.archive.org/web/20150429034013/http://www.soundsandcolours.com/articles/uruguay/mateo-alone-licks-himself-well/
  7. https://brecha.com.uy/raspa-pega-enciende/
  8. https://web.archive.org/web/20110929144457/http://www.eumus.edu.uy/docentes/jure/perico/perico.html
  9. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18434617

Sɛb sõor[edit | edit source]

  • Andrews, George Reid (1919). Rasã ne sullã lagem-n-taar: Afro-Argentine dãmba sẽn be Buenos Aires, 1800-1900. Journal of Latin American Studies, yʋʋmd 1979 tʋʋl-nif kiuugã, Vol. 11, pa woto ye. 1.
  • A Collier, Cooper, Azzi la a Martin (1995) wilgame tɩ b tõe n maana bũmb toor-toor sẽn na n sõng tɩ b bãng b sẽn segd n maan to-to. Tango! Dũndã, yɩɩlã, la kibarã. Thames and Hudson, Ltd. seb-neng 44, 45. ISBN 978-0-500-01671-8 sẽn kẽed ne tʋʋm-noyã
  • Thompson, Robert Farris (2005). "Tango: Nonglem yɛl sẽn tɩ loe ne minimã". Pantheon sebrã. ISBN 978-0-375-40931-8 sẽn kẽed ne tʋʋm-noyã
  • Cirio, Norberto Pablo (2008). A pa le wa be ye. ¿Qué es la música afroargentina?. A Federico Sammartino ne a Héctor Rubio (Eds.), Músicas populares: Aproximaciones teóricas, metodológicas y analíticas en la musicología argentina. Córdoba: Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, seb-neng 81-134 la 249 -277.
  • Cirio, Norberto Pablo (2011). Yaa sẽn na yɩl n wilg Afro-Arzãntẽ nebã vɩɩm sẽn yaa to-to wã. A Afrodescendencia wã pʋgẽ. Aproximaciones contemporáneas de América Latina y el Caribe. México: ONU, pages 23-32. http://www.cinu.mx/AFRODESCENDENCIA.pdf Archived 2016-08-18 at the Wayback Machine.

Zems-n-taase[edit | edit source]