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Assur

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Assur
human settlement, archaeological site, ancient city
Inception2500 BCE Tekre
CountryIraq Tekre
Capital ofOld Assyrian Empire, Middle Assyrian Empire, Neo-Assyrian Empire Tekre
Located in the administrative territorial entitySaladin Governorate Tekre
Located in time zoneUTC+03:00 Tekre
Located in or next to body of waterTigris Tekre
Coordinate location35°27′24″N 43°15′45″E Tekre
Heritage designationWorld Heritage Site Tekre
World Heritage criteriaWorld Heritage selection criterion (iii), World Heritage selection criterion (iv) Tekre
Director of archaeological fieldworkLeopold Messerschmidt Tekre
Map

Assur (/ˈæsʊər/; Sumerian goam puge: 𒀭𒊹𒆠 AN.ŠAR2KI, Assyrian cuneiform gulsg puge:  Aš-šurKI, "Wende (Aššur) Tenga"; Syriac goam puge: ܐܫܘܪ Āšūr; Old Persian goama𐎠𐎰𐎢𐎼 Aθur, Persian goam goam puge: آشور: Āšūr; Hebrew goama: אַשּׁוּר, ʾAššūr, Arabic goam puge: اشور), tɩ b leb n mi a Ashur la Qal'at Sherqat,dag ya na-tẽnga bi tẽng-zugu ni tẽng ning n boond tɩ kudgo Assyrian ten-bedra (anglindi: city-state) (2025-1750BC), tɩ da leb n ya na-tẽnga n ko Middle Assyrian Empire (911-608BC), la sas bilf nina a da ya na-tẽnga n ko Neo-Assyrian Empire wa (911–609 BC). Tẽnga sãna n pa n be Tigris kʋilga ko-koaka nen-taoore rik n tud Tigris kʋilga ni Little Zab kʋilga sen sɛg ni taab zĩiga rɩtgo baobg wã, sen be rumda Iraq tẽnga puge, sen ya takɩ la Saladin Governorate wã puge al-shirqat District.

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Balem-tɩɩse

  1. Kʋdemde vaeesgo
  2. Yʋʋre
  3. Kʋdemde
  • Early Bronze Age
  • Old and Middle Assyrian Empire
  • Neo-Assyrian Empire
  • Achaemenid Empire
  • Parthian Empire
  1. Assur lɩɩse
  2. Ges-n-paasga
  3. Seb-tũnugdse
  4. Sebtiise
  5. Kɛɛng tokre

Kũdemde Vaeesgo

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Assur ziiga raare sɩnga yʋʋm 1898 ti ya archaeologists naase sɩng yʋʋm 1900 ti Friedrich Deutsch la kelle m'be 1903-1913 ti ya Orient-Gesellschaft ti ya Robert Koldewey leo taoore pipi ti Walter Andrae pãasi

Yʋʋre

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Kʋdemde

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Early Bronze Age

Old and Middle Assyrian Empire

Neo-Assyrian Empire

Achaemenid Empire

Parthian Empire

Assur lɩɩse

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Ges-n-paasga

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  • Ashur (god) and Ashurism
  • Chronology of the ancient Near East
  • Cities of the ancient Near East
  • Kings of Assyria
  • Short chronology timeline
  • World Heritage Sites in Danger
  • Assyrian homeland

Seb-tũnugdse

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  1. Radner 2015, pp. 7, 19.
  2. Also phonetically 𒀀𒇳𒊬 a-šur4 or 𒀸𒋩 aš-šur Sumerian dictionary entry Aššur (GN)
  3. Pongratz-Leisten, Beate (2015). Religion and Ideology in Assyria. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. p. 110. ISBN 978-1-61451-426-8.
  4. Walter Andrae, Der Anu-Adad-Tempel in Assur, JC Hinrichs, 1909, (1984 reprint ISBN 3-7648-1805-0)
  5. Walter Andrae, Die Stelenreihen in Assur, JC Hinrichs, 1913, (1972 reprint ISBN 3-535-00587-6)
  6. Walter Andrae, Die archaischen Ischtar-Tempel in Assur, JC Hinrichs, 1922, (1970 reprint ISBN 3-7648-1806-9)
  7. Walter Andrae, Hethitische Inschriften auf Bleistreifen aus Assur, JC Hinrichs, 1924
  8. Walter Andrae, Das wiedererstandene Assur, 1938, JC Hinrichs, (1977 reprint ISBN 3-406-02947-7)
  9. Excavations in Iraq 1989–1990, Iraq, vol. 53, pp. 169-182, 1991
  10. R. Dittmann, Ausgrabungen der Freien Universitat Berlin in Ashur und Kar-Tukulti-Ninurta in den Jahren 1986-1989, MDOG, vol. 122, pp. 157–171, 1990
  11. Asshur Abarim Publications

Asshur Abarim Publications

  1. Joshua J. Mark. "Ashur". World History Encyclopedia.
  2. Joshua J. Mark. "Ashur". World History Encyclopedia.
  3. Joshua J. Mark. "Ashur". World History Encyclopedia.
  4. Joshua J. Mark. "Ashur". World History Encyclopedia.
  5. Joshua J. Mark. "Kalhu". World History Encyclopedia.
  6. Joshua J. Mark. "Dur-Sharrukin". World History Encyclopedia.
  7. A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East "In 614 BC Assur was conquered by the Medes under king Cyaxares (625-585 BC)"
  8. The Fall and Rise of Jerusalem: Judah Under Babylonian Rule "the Medes left Arrapha, attacked Kalhu (Nimrud) and Ninuwa (Nineveh), and continued rapidly northward to capture the nearby city of Tarbisu. Afterward, they went back down the Tigris and laid siege to the city of Assur. The Babylonian army came to the aid of the Medes only after the Medes had begun the decisive offensive against the city, capturing it, killing many of its residents, and taking many others captive."
  9. "Assyrians after Assyria". Nineveh.com. 4 September 1999. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
  10. Beyer 1998, p. 155
  11. C. S. Lightfoot, "Trajan's Parthian War and the Fourth-Century Perspective" in The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 80 (1990), pp. 115-126
  12. Erich Kettenhofen, "Trajan" in Encyclopædia Iranica (2004)
  13. Simon Grote, "Another look at the Breviarium of Festus" in The Classical Quarterly, Volume 61, Issue 2 (December 2011), pp. 704-721
  14. Theodore Mommsen, Römische Geschichte (Berlin 1885), vol. V (Die Provinzen von Caesar bis Diocletian), p. 403
  15. UNESCO World Heritage in Danger 2003
  16. Mezzofiore, Gianluca; Limam, Arij (28 May 2015). "Iraq: Isis 'blows up Unesco world heritage Assyrian site of Ashur' near Tikrit". International Business Times. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
  17. "Iraq Assur | AP Archive". www.aparchive.com. 2016-12-11. Retrieved 2019-03-25.
  18. "Iraqis seek funds to restore cultural artifacts recovered from ISIS". CBS News. Associated Press. February 24, 2017. Retrieved October 8, 2017.

Sebtiise

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  • Beyer, Klaus (1998). Die aramäischen Inschriften aus Assur, Hatra und dem übrigen Ostmesopotamien. Germany.
  • Walter Andrae: Babylon. Die versunkene Weltstadt und ihr Ausgräber Robert Koldewey. de Gruyter, Berlin 1952.
  • Stefan Heidemann: Al-'Aqr, das islamische Assur. Ein Beitrag zur historischen Topographie Nordmesopotamiens. In: Karin Bartl and Stefan hauser et al. (eds.): Berliner Beiträge zum Vorderen Orient. Seminar fur Altorientalische Philologie und Seminar für Vorderasiatische Altertumskunde der Freien Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Altertumswissenschaften. Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin 1996, pp. 259–285
  • Eva Cancik-Kirschbaum: Die Assyrer. Geschichte, Gesellschaft, Kultur. C.H.Beck Wissen, München 2003. ISBN 3-406-50828-6
  • Olaf Matthes: Zur Vorgeschichte der Ausgrabungen in Assur 1898-1903/05. MDOG Berlin 129, 1997, 9-27. ISSN 0342-118X
  • Peter A. Miglus: Das Wohngebiet von Assur, Stratigraphie und Architektur. Berlin 1996. ISBN 3-7861-1731-4
  • Susan L. Marchand: Down from Olympus. Archaeology and Philhellenism in Germany 1750-1970. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1996. ISBN 0-691-04393-0
  • Conrad Preusser: Die Paläste in Assur. Gebr. Mann, Berlin 1955, 1996. ISBN 3-7861-2004-8
  • Friedhelm Pedde, The Assur-Project. An old excavation newly analyzed, in: J.M. Córdoba et al. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, Madrid, April 3–8, 2006. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Ediciones, Madrid 2008, Vol. II, 743-752.https://www.jstor.org/stable/41147573
  • Steven Lundström, From six to seven Royal Tombs. The documentation of the Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft excavation at Assur (1903-1914) – Possibilities and limits of its reexamination, in: J.M. Córdoba et al. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, Madrid, April 3–8, 2006. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Ediciones, Madrid 2008, Vol. II, 445-463.
  • Friedhelm Pedde, The Assur-Project: A new Analysis of the Middle- and Neo-Assyrian Graves and Tombs, in: P. Matthiae – F. Pinnock – L. Nigro – N. Marchetti (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, May, 5th-10th 2008, "Sapienza" – Università di Roma. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2010, Vol. 1, 913–923.
  • Barbara Feller, Seal Images and Social Status: Sealings on Middle Assyrian Tablets from Ashur, in: P. Matthiae – F. Pinnock – L. Nigro – N. Marchetti (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, May, 5th-10th 2008, "Sapienza" – Università di Roma. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2010, Vol. 1, 721-729.
  • Friedhelm Pedde, The Assur Project: The Middle and Neo-Assyrian Graves and Tombs, in: R. Matthews – J. Curtis (Ed.), Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, London 2010. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2012, Vol. 1, 93-108.
  • Friedhelm Pedde, The Assyrian heartland, in: D.T. Potts (Ed.), A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester 2012, Vol. II, 851-866.
  • Radner, Karen (2015). Ancient Assyria: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-871590-0.

Kɛɛng tokre

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  • Schippmann, K. (1987). "ASSYRIA iii. Parthian Assur". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. II, Fasc. 8. pp. 816–817.
  • Assyrian origins: discoveries at Ashur on the Tigris: antiquities in the Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries (fully available online as PDF), which contains material on Assur
  • Friedhelm Pedde, Recovering Assur. From the German Excavations of 1903–1914 to today's Assur Project in Berlin