Wp/khw/نوبل انعام برائے طبیعیات وصول کنندگانن فہرست

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وصول کنندگان[edit]

سال وصول کنندگان[A] ملک[B] وجہ[C]
1901ء WilhelmRöntgen.JPG ولہیلم رونٹیگن جرمنی "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him"[1]
1902ء H A Lorentz (Nobel).jpg ہنڈرک لورنٹز نیدرلینڈز "in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"[2]
Pieter Zeeman.jpg پیڑ زیمین نیدرلینڈز
1903ء Portrait of Antoine-Henri Becquerel.jpg ہنری بیکرویل فرانس "for his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"[3]
PierreCurie.jpg پیری کیوری فرانس "for their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor ہنری بیکرویل"[3]
Mariecurie.jpg میری کیوری پولینڈ
1904ء John William Strutt.jpg رےلیہ برطانیہ "for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"[4]
1905ء Phillipp Lenard in 1900.jpg فلپ لینارڈ آسٹریا-Hungary
"for his work on cathode rays"[5]
1906ء J.J Thomson.jpg جے جے تھامسن برطانیہ "for his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"[6]
1907ء Albert Abraham Michelson2.jpg البرٹ اے مچلسن امریکا "for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"[7]
1908ء G lippmann.jpg گبریل لیپمین فرانس "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"[8]
1909ء Guglielmo Marconi.jpg مارکونی اطالیہ "for their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"[9]
Ferdinand Braun.jpg کارل فرڈینڈ براون جرمنی
1910ء Johannes Diderik van der Waals.jpg جوہنس ڈیڈریک ونڈر وال نیدرلینڈز "for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids"[10]
1911ء Wilhelm Wien 1911.jpg ویلیم وین جرمنی "for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat"[11]
1912ء Nils Gustaf Dalén.jpg گوستاف ڈلین سویڈن "for his invention of automatic valves designed to be used in combination with gas accumulators in lighthouses and buoys"[12]
1913ء Kamerlingh portret.jpg ہائک کملنگ اونس نیدرلینڈز "for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium"[13]
1914ء Max von Laue 1914.jpg میکس وون لیو جرمنی "For his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals",[14] an important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy.
1915ء Wh-bragg.jpg ولیم ہنری براگ برطانیہ "For their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays",[15] an important step in the development of X-ray crystallography
Wl-bragg.jpg ولیم لاورنس براگ آسٹریلیا


1916ء نہیں دیا گیا پہلی جنگ عظیم
1917ء Charles Glover Barkla.jpg چارلس گلور بارکالا برطانیہ "For his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements",[16] another important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy
1918ء Max Planck 1933.jpg میکس پلانک جرمنی "for the services he rendered to the advancement of physics by his discovery of energy quanta"[17]
1919ء Johannes Stark.jpg جوہنس سٹارک جرمنی "for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields"[18]
1920ء Guillaume 1920.jpg چارلس اڈوارڈ گلیاوم Switzerland "for the service he has rendered to precision measurements in physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel-steel alloys"[19]
1921ء Einstein1921 by F Schmutzer 4.jpg البرٹ آئنسٹائن جرمنی
"for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"[20]
1922ء Niels Bohr.jpg نیلز بوہر ڈنمارک "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"[21]
1923ء Robert Andrews Millikan 1920s.jpg رابرٹ انڈریو ملکین امریکا "for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"[22]
1924ء 1924 Karl Manne Siegbahn.jpg مینن سیگ بہن سویڈن "for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy"[23]
1925ء James Franck 1925.jpg جیمز فرانک جرمنی "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"[24]
Gustav Hertz.jpg گستاف لوڈوگ ہرٹز جرمنی
1926ء Jean Perrin 1926.jpg جین باپٹسٹ پیرین فرانس "for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"[25]
1927ء Arthur Compton.jpg آرتھر کومپٹون امریکا "for his discovery of the effect named after him"[26]
CTR Wilson.jpg چارلس تھومسن ریس ولسن برطانیہ "for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour"[26]
1928ء Owen Richardson.jpg اون ولنس رچرڈسن برطانیہ "for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him"[27]
1929ء Broglie Big.jpg لیوس دی بروگلی فرانس "for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons"[28]
1930ء Sir CV Raman.JPG سی وی رامن بھارت "for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him"[29]
1931ء نہیں دیا گیا
1932ء Bundesarchiv Bild183-R57262, Werner Heisenberg.jpg ورنر ہیزنبرگ جرمنی "for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"[30]
1933ء Erwin Schrödinger (1933).jpg ارون شروڈنگر آسٹریا "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"[31]
Dirac 4.jpg پال ڈیراک برطانیہ
1934ء نہیں دیا گیا
1935ء James Chadwick.tif جیمز چیڈوک برطانیہ "for the discovery of the neutron"[32]
1936ء Hess.jpg وکٹر فرانسس ہیس آسٹریا "for his discovery of cosmic radiation"[33]
کارل ڈیوڈ انڈریسن امریکا "for his discovery of the positron"[33]
1937ء Clinton Davisson.jpg کلنٹن ڈیویسن امریکا "for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"[34]
George Paget Thomson.jpg جارج پاگٹ تھامسن برطانیہ
1938ء Enrico Fermi 1943-49 140x190.jpg انریکو فرمی اطالیہ "for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"[35]
1939ء Ernest Lawrence.jpg ارنسٹ لاورنس امریکا "for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"[36]
1940ء نہیں دیا گیا دوسری جنگ عظیم
1941ء نہیں دیا گیا جنگ عظیم II
1942ء نہیں دیا گیا جنگ عظیم II
1943ء Otto Stern.jpg اوٹو سٹرن امریکا "for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"[37]
1944ء Isidor Isaac Rabi.jpg ازیڈور ائیزک ربی امریکا "for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"[38]
1945ء Wolfgang Pauli ETH-Bib Portr 01042.jpg ولف گینگ پاولی آسٹریا "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle"[39]
1946ء Bridgman.jpg رچرڈ فائنمین امریکا "for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made there within the field of high pressure physics"[40]
1947ء Appleton.jpg اڈوارڈ وکٹر اپلیٹن برطانیہ "for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"[41]
1948ء Blackett-large.jpg پیٹرک بلیکٹ , بارون بلیکٹ برطانیہ "for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"[42]
1949ء Yukawa.jpg ہاڈیکی یوکوا جاپان "for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"[43]
1950ء Cecil Powell.jpg سی ایف پاول برطانیہ "for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"[44]
1951ء جوہن کوکروفٹ برطانیہ "for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"[45]
Ernest Walton.jpg ارنسٹ والٹن جمہوریہ آئرستان
1952ء Felix Bloch, Stanford University.jpg فلکس بلوک Switzerland
"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"[46]
Edward Mills Purcell.jpg ایڈوارڑملس پرسل امریکا
1953ء Zernike.jpg فرٹز زرنیک نیدرلینڈز "for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"[47]
1954ء Max Born.jpg میکس بورن جرمنی
"for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"[48]
Bothe.jpg والٹتھر بوتھ مغربی جرمنی "for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"[48]
1955ء Willis Lamb 1955.jpg ولس لیمب امریکا "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum"[49]
Polykarp Kusch.jpg پولی کارپ کوشچ امریکا "for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"[49]
1956ء Bardeen.jpg جوہن باردین امریکا "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"[50]
Brattain.jpg والٹر ہوایسن براطین امریکا
William Shockley, Stanford University.jpg ولیم شوکلی امریکا
1957ء سونگ داو لی چین
"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"[51]
CNYang.jpg چن نینگ یانگ چین
1958ء Cerenkov.jpg پاول چینکوف سویت اتحاد "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"[52]
Ilya Frank.jpg الوا فرانک سویت اتحاد
Igor Tamm.jpg اگور ٹام سویت اتحاد
1959ء Owen Chamberlain.jpg اون چیمبر لین امریکا "for their discovery of the antiproton"[53]
Segre.jpg ایملیو جی سگری اطالیہ
1960ء 75px ڈونالڈ اے گلیسر امریکا "for the invention of the bubble chamber"[54]
1961ء Robert Hofstadter.jpg رابرٹ ہوفسٹڈلر امریکا "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"[55]
Mossbauer.jpg روڈولف موسباور مغربی جرمنی "for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"[55]
1962ء Landau.jpg لیو لینڈاؤ سویت اتحاد "for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"[56]
1963ء Wigner.jpg یوجین پاول وگنر Hungary
"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"[57]
Maria Goeppert-Mayer.jpg ماریہ جیوپرٹ مئیر امریکا "for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"[57]
Johannes Hans Daniel Jensen (1907–1973).jpg جے ہنس ڈی ہنسن مغربی جرمنی
1964ء Basov.jpg نکولے گناڈیےوچ باسو سویت اتحاد "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maserlaser principle"[58]
Aleksandr Prokhorov.jpg الیکزینڈر پروکورو سویت اتحاد
75px چارلس ہارڈ ٹاونس امریکا
1965ء رچرڈ فلپ فے مین امریکا "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics (QED), with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"[59]
Schwinger.jpg جولیان سکونگر امریکا
Tomonaga.jpg سن اٹیرو ٹومو ناگا جاپان
1966ء Kastler.jpg الفرڈ کاسٹلر فرانس "for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"[60]
1967ء Hans Bethe.jpg ہنس بیتھ امریکا "for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in ستارہs"[61]
1968ء LWA Picture Final.jpg لیوس والٹلر الوریزز امریکا "for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"[62]
1969ء Murray Gell-Mann.jpg ماری گیل مین امریکا "for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"[63]
1970ء YoungAlfven.jpg ہینس الفوین سویڈن "for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"[64]
Louis Neel 1970.jpg لیوس نیل فرانس "for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"[64]
1971ء ڈینس گبور Hungary – برطانیہ "for his invention and development of the holographic method"[65]
1972ء Bardeen.jpg جوہن باردین امریکا "for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"[66]
Nobel Laureate Leon Cooper in 2007.jpg لیون کوپر امریکا
John Robert Schrieffer.jpg جوہن رابرٹ سکریفر امریکا
1973ء Leo Esaki 1959.jpg لیو اسکائی جاپان "for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"[67]
Ivar Giaever.jpg ایور گیور امریکا
Template:CSS image crop برائن ڈیوڈ جوزف سن برطانیہ "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect"[67]
1974ء مارٹن ریل برطانیہ "for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"[68]
انٹونی ہیوش برطانیہ
1975ء Aage Bohr.jpg ایگ بوہر ڈنمارک "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"[69]
Mottelson,Ben 1963 Kopenhagen.jpg بن روئے مٹل سن ڈنمارک
75px لیو جیمز رین واٹر امریکا
1976ء Burton Richter - charm quark.jpg برٹن رچر امریکا "for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"[70]
Samuel ting 10-19-10.jpg سیمیول چاؤ چنگ تنگ امریکا
1977ء Andersonphoto.jpg فلپ وارن انڈرسن امریکا "for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"[71]
75px نیول فرانسس موٹ برطانیہ
JH van Vleck 1974.jpg جوہن ہیزبروک وان ویک امریکا
1978ء Pyotr L Kapitsa Russian physicist 1964.jpg پیوٹر لیونڈیوچ کیپٹسہ سویت اتحاد "for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"[72]
Arno Penzias.jpg ارنو الن پنزاس امریکا "for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"[72]
Wilson penzias200.jpg رابرٹ وڈرو ولسن امریکا
1979ء Sheldon Glashow at Harvard cropped.jpg شیلڈن لی گلاشو امریکا "for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"[73]
Abdus Salam 1987.jpg ڈاکٹر عبدالسلام Pakistan
Steven weinberg 2010.jpg سٹیون وینبرگ امریکا
1980ء James-cronin.jpg جیمز واٹسن کرونن امریکا "for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"[74]
Val Fitch.jpg وال لودسن وچ امریکا
1981ء Nicolaas Bloembergen 1981.jpg نکولس بلومبرن امریکا "for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"[75]
Artur Schawlow, Stanford University.jpg آرتھر لیونارڈ شکالو امریکا
Kai Manne Börje Siegbahn 2.jpg کائی مین بورجی سیگبہن سویڈن "for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"[75]
1982ء کینتھ ج ولسن امریکا "for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"[76]
1983ء سبرامنین چندرشیکھر امریکا
"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars"[77]
ولیم الفرڈ فاولر امریکا "for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"[77]
1984ء Carlo Rubbia 2012.jpg کارلو روبیا اطالیہ "for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"[78]
سم ونڈر میر نیدرلینڈز
1985ء Klausvonklitzing.jpg کلاوس ون کلٹزنگ West جرمنی "for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"[79]
1986ء ارنسٹ رسکا مغربی جرمنی "for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"[80]
Gerd Binnig sw.jpg گرڈ بنگ مغربی جرمنی "for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"[80]
Rohrer.jpg ہنرچ رورر سوئٹزرلینڈ
1987ء Georg Bednorz speaking at the groundbreaking of the new IBM and ETH Zurich Nanotech Exploratory Technology Lab.jpg جونس جیورج بیڈنورز مغربی جرمنی "for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"[81]
Karl Alexander Mueller.jpg کارل ایلکزینڈر میولر سوئٹزرلینڈ
1988ء Leon M. Lederman.jpg لیون میکس لیڈر مین امریکا "for the نیوٹرینو beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"[82]
ملون سکوارٹز امریکا
Jack-Steinberger-2008.JPG جیک سٹین برگر امریکا
1989ء نورمن فوسٹر رامسے جے آر امریکا "for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"[83]
ہنس جیورج ڈیہلمٹ امریکا "for the development of the ion trap technique"[83]
ولف گینگ پاول مغربی جرمنی
1990ء جیروم آئیزک فرائڈ مین امریکا "for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"[84]
Henry Kendall by Tom Frost crop.jpg ہنری وے کینڈل امریکا
رچرڈ ای ٹیلر کینیڈا
1991ء Pierre-Gilles crop.jpg پیری گلز ڈی جینز فرانس "for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"[85]
1992ء CHARPAK Georges-24x50-2005 cropped.JPG جیرج چارپک فرانس/Poland "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"[86]
1993ء رسل الن ہلز امریکا "for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"[87]
2008JosephTaylor.jpg جوزف ہوٹن ٹیلر جے آر امریکا
1994ء Bertram Brockhouse.jpg برٹرام بروک ہاؤس کینیڈا "for the development of neutron spectroscopy" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"[88]
کلفورڈ گلنوڈ شل امریکا "for the development of the neutron diffraction technique" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"[88]
1995ء Martin Perl - tau.jpg مارٹن لیوس پیرل امریکا "for the discovery of the tau lepton" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[89]
Frederick Reines.jpg فریڈرک رینز امریکا "for the detection of the نیوٹرینو" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[89]
1996ء Nobel Laureate David Morris Lee in 2007.jpg ڈیوڈ مورس لی امریکا "for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"[90]
Douglas Osheroff NSF.jpg ڈوگلاس ڈی اوشروف امریکا
Robert Coleman Richardson.jpg رابڑت کول مین رچرڈسن امریکا
1997ء Steven Chu official portrait headshot.jpg صتیون چھو امریکا "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light."[91]
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji.JPG کلاؤڈ کوہن-ٹناڈجی فرانس
William D. Phillips.jpg ولیم ڈینیل فلپس امریکا
1998ء Robert Laughlin, Stanford University.jpg رابرٹ بی لاولینگ امریکا "for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"[92]
Horst Störmer cropped.jpg ہورسٹ لوڈلگ سٹورمر جرمنی
ڈینیل چی تسی امریکا
1999ء Gerard 't Hooft.jpg گیرارڈ ٹی ہوفٹ نیدرلینڈز "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"[93]
Martinus Veltman.jpg ماٹینس جے جی ولٹمین نیدرلینڈز
2000ء Zhores Alferov.jpg زورس ایونوچ الفرو Russia "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics"[94]
ہربرٹ کروئمر جرمنی
جیک سینٹ کلئر کلبی امریکا "for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"[94]
2001ء ارک الن کورنل امریکا "for the achievement of Bose–Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"[95]
کارل ایڈون ویمین امریکا
Ketterle.jpg ولف گینگ کٹرلی جرمنی
2002ء Raymond Davis, Jr 2001.jpg رئیمنڈ ڈیوس جے آر امریکا "for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"[96]
مساٹوشی کوشیبا جاپان
RiccardoGiacconi.jpg رککارڈو گیاککونی اطالیہ
"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"[96]
2003ء AA Abrikosov ANL1.jpg الیکزی الیکزیوچ ابریکوسو روس "for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"[97]
Ginzburg in MSU opaque.jpg وائیٹلی لزاروچ گنزبرگ روس
Nobel Laureate Sir Anthony James Leggett in 2007.jpg انتھونی جیمز لگٹ برطانیہ
2004ء David Gross LANL.jpg ڈیوڈ جے گروس امریکا "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"[98]
ہگ ڈیوڈ پیولٹزر امریکا
Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek 2007.jpg فرانک ولزیک امریکا
2005ء Roy Glauber Dec 10 2005.jpg روئے جے گلوبر امریکا "for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"[99]
John L. Hall.jpg جان ایل ہال امریکا "for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"[99]
Theodor W Haensch.jpg تھیوڈر ڈبلیو ہائنچ جرمنی
2006ء John-C-Mather5.jpg جان سی مادر امریکا "for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"[100]
George Smoot crop.jpg جارج ایف سموٹ امریکا
2007ء Albert Fert 0109.jpg البرٹ فرٹ فرانس "for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance"[101]
Peter Gruenberg 01.jpg پیٹر گرون برگ جرمنی
2008ء Mkobayashi.jpg مکوٹو کوبایاشی جاپان "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"[102]
Masukawa.jpg توشی ہائڈ مسکوا جاپان
YoichiroNambu.jpg یوچیرو نامبو جاپان
"for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics"[102]
2009ء Charles K. Kao cropped 2.jpg چارلس کے کاؤ Hong Kong
"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"[103]
Nobel Prize 2009-Press Conference KVA-23.jpg ولارڈ ایس بوائل کینیڈا
"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor"[103]
Nobel Prize 2009-Press Conference KVA-27.jpg جارج ای سمتھ امریکا
2010ء Andre Geim 2010-1.jpg انڈر گیم برطانیہ
"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"[104]
Konstantin Novoselov at MIPT.jpg کونسٹاٹن نوسکلو روس
2011ء Saul Perlmutter.jpg ساول پرلموتر امریکا "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"[105]
Brian P Schmidt.jpg برائن پی سیہمڈ Australia
Adam Riess.jpg ایڈم ریس امریکا
2012ء Serge Haroche - Théâtre de la Commune d'Aubervilliers - 4 mai 2009.jpg سرگ ہروچ فرانس "for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems."[106]
David Wineland 2008crop.jpg ڈیوڈ جے ونلینڈ امریکا
2013ء Francois Englert.jpg فرانکیوس انگلرٹ Belgium "for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at سرن's Large Hadron Collider"[107]
Higgs, Peter (1929)3.jpg پیٹر ہگس برطانیہ
2014ء اسامو اکاساکی جاپان "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources"[108]
ہیروشی امانو جاپان
Professor Shuji Nakamura (Cropped).jpg شوجی نکامورا جاپان
2015ء Takaaki Kajita 5171-2015.jpg تکاکی کاجیتا جاپان "for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass"[109]
Arthur B. McDonald 5193-2015.jpg آرتھر بی مکڈونلڈ کینیڈا

حوالہ جات[edit]

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