Wp/kck/TjiNgisi

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TjiNgisi

Tjingisi lulimi gwe West Germanic gwakatanga lebelekewa ntolo kwazo ndelubaka gwe midiyevali, tjiNgisi nditjo tjatjibe lulimi gwatjibhudilila kwazo gwatjipfumila kakale gunoyenda mbeli mudzihango dzose nhasi. Zina lakabva munhu unoyi ndi Angles, umwe nhu wema Germanic antolo bakaswika muhango ye Great Britain kukatikala kuti kuhingisiwe zina labo, England. Mazina whose anobva kuna Anglia, nhu we peninsula weku Baltic Sea. TjiNgisi tjondidzana kwazo kwazo ndetji Frisian ndetjiLow Saxon, kukoti matama manjinji etjiNgisi anobva mudzimwe ndimi dze Germanic, kwazo kwazo mundimi dzinonga tji Old Norse (lulimi gwe North Germanic l), kakale ndetjiLatin ndetjiFrench. TjiNgisi tjatjitola makole anopinda 1, 400 kuti tjipfumile. Matama ndemishara yekutanga yelulimi gwetjiNgisi, tjiligubungano yendimi dze West Germanic (Ingvaeonic) dzakahhisiwa ku Great Britain ndebanhu be Anglo-Saxon ndelubaka gwe 5th centjuri, anohanganisiwa ekadangwa eyi tjiNgisi tjantolo. tjiNgisi tjapakati tjakatanga kopela 11th centjuri ndelubaka gwa Norman conquest we England; Kwaka kululubaka hhapo tjiNgisi tjakatjiwana matama manjinji anobva kululimi gwe tjiOld French, kwazo kwazo kubva mululimi gwe tjiOld Norman. TjiNgisi tjoKutanga tjaPakati tjaka bepo ndebupelo gwe 15th centjuri hhapo kwakatanga kwagwa whalo kuLondon, kwagwa kwe bhayibhili le King James ndotanga kwendongoloso yaka idangwa iyi Great Vowel Shift. TjiNgisi tjaPakati tjatjihhala hango dzose milikila nde17th centjuri kutiwha ndemasimba ehango ye British Empire ndeye United States. Kuhingisiwa whalo dzakakwagwa ndemitjina inoyendesa ndebo mudzihango idzedzi , tjiNgisi tjoyenda mbeli selulimi gwehango dzose kakale tjohinga selulimi gupehhugwi kudzintha dzinjinji, tjohinga muzwidiyo zwesayensi, layila zila ndemunlayo. Zila yobanganya tjiNgisi tjaNgwenu inobva muluntjintjo guyapo mululimi mbijanambijana, kutiwha ndezila yebumbiwa kwemabala imundimi dze Indo-European, kakale lusununguko guyapo mululimi hhapo mabala engahanganisiwa ndezila dzakasiyana kusina milayo inokulambila. Zila yobumba mitshara kakale inodangwa iyi n’holo-tjito-tjinotiwa inolemela dzimwe ndimi koga yakatambunhuka. TjiNgisi TjaNgwenu tjohinga kwazo ndezwito zwinohhadzisa ndemabala anotambunhudza tiwha kwezwiyeto, ndekumwe kunondidzana ndezwiyeto. TjiNgisi ndigo lulimi gukulu kupinda dzose ndimi muhango dzose kwakalingiwa bunji gwebanhu gwabanogulebeleka. tjiNgisi kakale muhango dzose mubanhu banotjilebeleka ndekozwagwa tjimunamba yetjitatu, tjitebela tjiStandard Chinese ndetji Spanish. Lulimi gwetjiNgisi gunabanhu banjinji banozwidiya gulebeleka kakale gohingisiwa muntabi dzahulumente wehango dzingaswika 60 selulimi gupehhugwi. Banhu batjizwidiya lebeleka tjiNgisi bepinda banhu banotjilebeleka ndokozwagwa overeign states. Nde 2005, kwakaku kumbuligwa kuti banhu banolebeleka tjiNgisi banopinda 2 bhiliyoni. TjiNgisi tjolebhgwa ndebanhu banjinji kwazo ndozwagwa kuhango dzinonga kuUnited States, kuUnited Kingdom, kuCanada, kuAustralia, kuNew Zealand ndeku Ireland, kakale tjolebhgwa kwazo muntha dzekuCaribbean, kuAfrica ndeku South Asia. Lulimi gunohingisiwa ndegubungano lehango dzose linoyi United Nations, ndele European Upx|n nde hhamwe magubungano anowangwa muhango dzose. Tjolebhgwa kwazo ndendimi dze Germanic, kubva kuti banoswika 70% banotjilebeleka mugubungano yendimi dze Indo-European. Banhu banolebeleka tjiNgisi banodangwa beyi "Anglophones". tjiNgisi tjolebhgwa ndezila dzakasiyana kutiwa ndosiyana kwedzihango ndemitunhu. Kobe kusiya lebewha kwemabala ndebumbiwha kwawho, kakale kungatikala kuti mabala , mitshara, grama ndekwala kusindidzane koga akutodzibilila kuti banhu basindidzane mundebo