Wp/kck/Democratic Republic of the Congo

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Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), inozibgwa kakale se Congo-Kinshasa, kene kuti Congo , ntolo yaka idan’ wa Zaire, ihango iku Central Africa. Ndobupabi , ndiyo hango ikulu kupinda dzimwe dzose ku sub-Saharan Africa, ikobe yetjibili kuhango dzose dzekuAfrica (inotebela Algeria), kakale inamba gumi ndekun’ ompela ndebukulu muhango dzose dziyapo. Bunji gwebanhu goswika mu 90 miliyoni, kubva kuti Democratic Republic of the Congo inabanhu banjinji kwazo kupinda dzimwe hango dze Frakhofoni (Francophone country in the world), ikobe yebuna ndoba ndebanhu banjinji ku Africa (itebela Nigeria, Ethiopia nde Egypt), kukoti muhango dzose dzehango inamba gumi ndekutatu. Milikila nde2015, kumabhehhuba ehango ethe (Eastern DR Congo) kunan’ wa inolema ku Kivu. Hango ipakati kwe gwizi gwe Congo, DRC yakatanga gagwa ndebanhu bakabezwivimila beCentral African kumakole angabe 90,000 atjipinda. Kukoswika banhu bebhantu mumakole engabe 3,000 akatjipinda. Kumahwahhuba , kunabuMambo gwe Kongo gunotungamila kunotanga gwizi gwe Congo bvila ku 14th kuyenda ku 19th senyuri. Ku northeast, pakati ndekubhehhuba kunabuMambo gwe Azande, Luba and Lunda gwakatanga tungamila milikila nde 16th kuyenda ku 17th senyuri kukadze kungandoswika 19th senyuri (century). Ndelubaka gwema 1870s, kusenhu kukatanga togwa kweAfrica ndemasimba, kwakaswika makhuwa ehhohola kuyapo mugwizi gwe Congo, kwakatanga swika Henry Morton Stanley wayehingidzana nda Leopold II weku Belgium. Leopold wakawana ndulamo yohinga kuntha yekuCongo ku Berlin Conference nde 1885 kakale ekasa nlayo wokuti intunhu wuwe ekawupa zina linoti Congo Free State. Ndelubaka gwe Free State, gubungano lile lemasole lakaliyi Force Publique, lakalibhata banhu bose ndemasimba kuti bathame rabha (rubber). Milikila nde1885 kunda ku 1908, banhu beCongo banopinda mamiliyoni bakatjinyika bebulayiwa ndebugwele ndehingisiwa kwazo ndemasimba. Nde 1908, Leopold, wakapa Belgium butungamili gwe Free State koga watanga esingahake, ikobe ndezina linoti Belgian Congo. Congo yakawana lunsununguko ku Belgium nsi wa 30 Hotje 1960 ikodan’ wa iyi Republic of the Congo. Patrice Lumumba waka elizwagwa weCongo kakale eda lebelekela banhu waka halugwa ekabe Prime Minister wokutanga, kukoti Joseph Kasa-Vubu ekabe Ntungamili (President) wokutanga. Kwakamilika kukatanga n’ wa yekuti ndiyani wakafanila tungamila hango, yakapiwa zina lekuti bulemo gweCongo (Congo Crisis). Dunhu le Katanga, laka lilipasi kwa Moïse Tshombe, ndele South Kasai akazama zwidusa muhango. Kwakati gubungano le UN ndemahulumente ehango dzemakhuwa atjilamba bhatsha ndekwakumbigwa, Lumumba wakati unokumbila bhatsho kudzimwe hango kuhanganisila ye Soviet Union. Hango ye US nde Belgium bakahema kwazo bekahingidzana nda Kasa-Vubu kuti atahwe mu ofisi nsi wa 5 Ndlana kakale ekabulayiwa ndemasole eBelgian-led Katangese nsi wa 17 Mikono 1961. Nsi wa 25 Mbudzi 1965, ntungamili wemasole Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, wakazwintjintja zina ekabe Mobutu Sese Seko, wakatola butungamili gwehango ndemasimba ehingisa masole. nde 1971, wakapa hango limwe zina linoti Zaire. Hango yaka itungamigwa ndezila isina ndulamilo kakale kutungamila gubungano in’ ompela yaka iyi Popular Movement of the Revolution, kuliyo yoga inobvumigwa nginila mudzipolitiki dzehango. Hulumente waMobutu wayewana lubhatsho gunobva ku United States, ngobe babendidzana nde anti-communist stance ndelubaka gwe Cold War. Kwakati kutanga ma 1990s, Hulumente waMobutu wakatanga pela masimba. N’ wa yobulayana kwebanhu ndentha yosiyana ndeludzi yakatikala kuRwanda nde 1994, yakapaladza wanana kwebanhu kumabhehhuba eBanyamulenge (Congolese Rwandans beludzi gwe Tutsi ). Kwakapela ndebanhu bose ndotola butungamili ndemasimba nde 1996 nda Tutsi FPR wekuRwanda, kukoyeta kuti kube nde n’ wa yokutanga yeCongo ( First Congo War). Nsi wa 17 Kungulu 1997, Laurent-Désiré Kabila, ntungamili wemasole ema Tutsi wayebva kudunhu leSouth Kivu, wakaba ntungamili wehango, Mobutu watjitihha ekayenda kuMorocco, ekombgwiliza zina lehango kuRepublic of the Congo. Sawhisisana pakati kwentungamili Kabila nde Rwanda ndemaTutsi ayegala kuhango yeCongo kwakayeta kuti kube nde n’ wa yetjibili yeCongo (Second Congo War) milikila nde 1998 kukandoswika 2003. Hango dzimu Africa dzadziswika hhanalume ndemagubungano emasole ayepinda makumi mabili ayemun’ wa iyeyi yakabulaya banhu banopinda 5.4 miliyoni. N’wa idzedzi dzimbili dzakapaladza hango. Ntungamili Laurent-Désiré Kabila wakabulawa nde bhodi gadi lile (bodyguard) nsi wa 16 Mikono 2001, butungamili gugwe gukotogwa ndemwana wuwe wembisana kwatjipinda mahhuba elihhanankadzi unoyi Joseph, wakakongwa milidza ndulamo dzebanhu, kuhanganisila mila kwebanhu, dzungudziwa kwebanhu, sungiwa ndedzidziwa selebgwa ndemaNGOs.