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India, official nutum Republic of India (Bhārat Gaṇarājya), do South Asia reaḱ miat́ disum tana. June 2023 jooṅ re nena do Area lekate 7 aḱ maraṅ disum; onḍoḱ saben ko aete laaḱ population an disum tana. 1947 sirma re independence aete nena do world reaḱ saben aete laaḱ population an democracy tana. South re Indian Ocean, southwest re Arabian Sea, southeast re Bay of Bengal menaḱa. West re Pakistan, North paa China, Nepal onḍoḱ Bhutan, east paa Bangladesh onḍoḱ Myanmar loḱ chirmit́ menaḱa. Indian Ocean ren Sri Lanka, Maldives naeć re menaḱa. India aḱ Andaman Nicobar Island koaḱ do Thailand, Myanmar, Indonesia loḱ maritime Chirmit́ menaḱa.

Modern human ko do Africa aete Indian subcontinent te tapayomutar 55,000 sirma maaṅ rekô hućoḱ lena. Eoṕ re hunter-gatherer ko leka varying-form-of-isolation re taen taen te enkoaḱ sipirmaoḱgen Banasa te nen Region esu diverse yena, human-genetic-diversity lekate ma Africa sekar laaḱ yena. 9,000 sirma maaṅ Sindhu-river-basin western kuṭi re settled-life nelnam yena, ena ge tayom mãe mãe te 3000 BCE re Indus-Valley-Civilization baioḱge evolve yena. 1200 BCE loḱ re do, miat́ Indo-European Language Sanskrit aḱ mari Oṛoṅ (Form), northwest aete India re diffuse len taekena. Ena reaḱ Evidence Rigveda reaḱ Hymn kore namoḱa. Resolutely-vigilant-oral-tradition te preserve len Rigveda re India re Hinduism reaḱ Aṅèneoṕ record akana. India aḱ northern onḍoḱ western Region ko ren Dravidian language ko do supplant yena. 400 BCE loḱ do Hinduism re caste lekate Stratification onḍoḱ Exclusion nelnam yena, onḍoḱ heredity loḱ link banoḱ tan social-order proclaim ê tan Buddhism onḍoḱ Jainism eoṕ yena. Sidae sidaeaḱ political-consolidation te Ganga gaṛa basin re loose-knit Maurya onḍoḱ Gupta-empire ko emerge yena. Nekoaḱ collective-period do wide-ranging-creativity te pereć lena, mendo Êra koaḱ status-decline onḍoḱ untouchability organised-system-of-belief lekate incorporate yen teaḱ te ó urum lena. South-India re, Middle-kingdom ko Southeast-Asia ren kingdom ko paa te Dravidian-language-script ko onḍoḱ religious-culture kokô export ket́a.

Early-medieval-era re, India aḱ southern onḍoḱ western-coast kore Christianity, Islam, Judaism, onḍoḱ Zoroastrianism ko establish yena. Central Asia aeten Muslim army ko intermittenly India aḱ north-plain ko attack ê taekena, eventually Delhi Sultanate ko bai bit́ ket́a, onḍoḱ enkate north-India do medieval Islam aḱ cosmopolitan sikuar (network) loḱkô or mesa ket́a. 15th-century re, Vijayanagara-Empire renko south-India re long-lasting-composite-Hindu-culture ko bai ket́a. Punjaṕ re, institutionalised-religion reject ê tan Sikhism ooḱl yena. 1526 re Mughal Empire iate 2-century relative-peace agu yena, onḍoḱ luminous-architecture reaḱ legacy bagetúê yena. En tayom British East India Company renkoaḱ gradually-expanding-rule otoṅ hućoḱ yena, India dokô colonial-economy ket́a, enloḱ enaaḱ sovereignty ókô consolidate ket́a. British Crown rule 1858 re eoṕ yena. India renko taḱ promise len rights ko do mãe mãe te em yena, mendo technological-change ko introduce yena, onḍoḱ education onḍoḱ public-life reaḱ modern-idea ko bit́ keṭeć yena. Nonviolent-resistance lagit́ nutuman miat́ pioneering onḍoḱ influential nationalist-movement ooḱl yena, onḍoḱ enage British rule tuúnḍu teaḱ major factor bai yena. 1947 re large-scale gonoć onḍoḱ unprecedented migration hoban loḱ British Indian Empire do barea independent dominion oḱge partition yena, miat́ do India, Hindu-majority Dominion, onḍoḱ miat́ do Pakistan, Muslim-majority Dominion.

India do 1950 sirma aete miat́ federal-republic leka menaḱa, Democratic Parliamentary System te govern oḱ tana. Nena do miat́ pluralistic, multilingual onḍoḱ multi-ethnic-society tana. India aḱ population do 1951 sirma re 361 million aete 2022 sirma re 1.4 billion jooṅ laaḱ beṭa yena. En time-frame rege, India aḱ nominal-per-capita-income sirma re 64 US$ aete 2,601 US$ jooṅ beṭa yena, onḍoḱ literacy-rate 16.6% aete 74% jooṅ beṭa yena. 1951 sirma ren miat́ comparatively ringâ-rengeć disum aete, India do nahḱ ãacha tersaoḱ tan major-economy onḍoḱ osaroḱ tan middle-class menaḱ tan information-technology-service ren huṕ akana. India re sapange plan akan onḍoḱ complete yen extraterrestrial-mission ko menaḱ tan space-programme menaḱa, Indian-movie, music, spiritual-teaching ko do global-culture re increasing-role menaḱa. Increasing-economic-inequality reaḱ Gonoṅ em keet́ India reaḱ poverty-rate do substantially adit́ (reduce) akana. Military-expenditure re high-rank menaḱ tan India do nuclear-weapon-Disum tana. Neighbour ren Pakistan onḍoḱ China loḱ 20th century aete unresolve akan Kashmir reaḱ dispute menaḱ akat́ gea. India sanamaṅ re menaḱ tan socio-economic-challange ko do, gender-inequality, child-malnurition onḍoḱ level-rise oḱ tan air-pollution. 4 biodiversity-hotspot ko menaḱa loḱ te, India aḱ ote do megadiverse gea. India aḱ 21.7% Area do bir te aṭet́ akana. Traditionally do tolerance loḱ nel aguoḱ tan India aḱ wildlife do nen Bir ko re ge, onḍoḱ eṭaḱ paa raka akan Habitat ko re ge support akana.

Etymology

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Oxford English Dictionary (third edition 2009) lekate, "India" nen nutum do Classical Latin re South Asia onḍoḱ enaaḱ east ren miat́ uncertain Region iíngul India aete derive akana. Enleka ge "India" nen nutum reaḱ derivation-source do miat́ tayom miat́ Hellenistic Greek ren India ( Ἰνδία), ancient Greek ren Indos ( Ἰνδός), Old Persian ren Hindush (Achaemenid Empire ren eastern province), onḍoḱ tayomutar do Sanskrit ren enaaḱ cognate Sindhu, chi "gaḍa" aete derive akana, nen “gaḍa” te specifically do Indus Gaṛać inguloḱ tana, onḍoḱ implication te, enaaḱ well-settled-southern-basin ó. Ancient Greek ko India renko do Indoi (Ἰνδοί) kô metakô taekena, ena reaḱ translation do “Indus gaḍa ren ko”.

Indian epic poetry onḍoḱ India aḱ Constitution banar re ol akan nutum Bharat (Bhārat; pronunciation: [ˈbʱaːɾət]) do, enaaḱ variation ko loḱ sapange Indian language kore ol kaji joṅoḱa. Eoṕ sidae re North-India lagit́ taeken historical nutum Bharatavarsha aḱ modern-form Bharat do 19th-century tala mala aete India aḱ native nutum lekate popular akana.

Hindustan ([ɦɪndʊˈstaːn]) do 13th-century re popular len taeken India aḱ Middle-Persian Nutum, ena Mughal-Empire-period aete saben muli agu joṅo taekena. Hindustan reaḱ meaning re variation tae aken gea, tisiṅaḱ north-India onḍoḱ Pakistan mesa keet́aḱ Region ó inguloḱ taekena, onḍoḱ goṭa noḱ India ó.

History

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Ancient India

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55,000 sirma maaṅ loḱ do, ayarutar modern-human ko (Homo sapien ko), ako sidae evolve len Africa aete Indian subcontinent kô hućoḱ sekaa yen taekena. South Asia ren earliest-known modern-human satareć ko reaḱ back-date do 30,000 sirma maaṅ daradari. 6500 BCE tayom, Mehrgarh onḍoḱ Pakistan aḱ Balochistan ren eṭaḱ site kore, food-corps onḍoḱ animal koaḱ domestication, permanent-structure ko reaḱ banai, onḍoḱ agricultural-surplus-storage reaḱ evidence nelnam yena. Nena ko ge gradually 2500 BCE aete 1900 BCE re Pakistan onḍoḱ western India re flourish len South Asia ren ayarutar urban culture Indus Valley Civilisation oḱge bai tersa yena. Tala re Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Dholavira, onḍoḱ Kalibangan lekan city ko taeken loḱ, epeṭaḱ lekan subsistence chetan têṅgô len taeken nen civilisation crafts-production onḍoḱ wide-ranging trade re engage len taekena.

2000-500 BCE period re, nen subcontinent ren esu Region ko Chalcolithic-culture ko aete Iron-Age-culture paa te transition yena. Hinduism loḱ topolan mariutar scripture Veda ko do, nen period rege compose len taekena, historian ko nena ko analyse keet́ Vedic-culture do Punjab Region onḍoḱ upper Gangetic Plain re taekena mente ko argue tat́a. Laaḱpaa historian koaḱ manatiṅ lekate nen period rege Indo-Aryan koaḱ north-west paa aete subcontinent bitâr ten chiminaṅ wave ren migration hoba lena. Priest, warrior, onḍoḱ free-peasant koaḱ hierarchy bai ken, indigenous-people koaḱ banasa do impure gea mente label keet́ akô excluded ken caste system do nen period rege bai birit́ lena. Deccan Plateau reaḱ nen period ren archaeological-evidence te inguloḱ tana chi nentaḱ re political-organisation reaḱ chiefdom-stage taekena mente. South India re, nen period paa te back-date akan maparaṅ sereṅ (megalithic) monument ko te onḍoḱ en daradari ren agriculture, irrigation tank ko, onḍoḱ craft-tradition ko reaḱ satareć ko te sedentary life paa ten Progression inguloḱ tana.

600 BCE naećpaa, late-Vedic-period re, Ganga gaṛa Plain onḍoḱ north-western Region ren hupuṛiṅ state onḍoḱ chiefdom ko do, mahayenapada ko menoḱ 16 major oligarchy onḍoḱ monarchy baioḱ ge consolidate yen taekena. Unduṕ yen urbanisation te non-Vedic-religious-movement ko birit́ yena, ena re barea do independent-religion bai yena. Jainism do ena ren exemplar Mahavira jiwt́ len re prominent yen taekena. Gautama Buddha aḱ teaching chetan bit́ akan Buddhism paa te, middle-class bage keet́ saben social-class ren ko or idi len taekena; Buddha aḱ life reaḱ chronicling do India aḱ recorded-history reaḱ eneoṕ re central-role taekena. Urban wealth saaroḱ tan time-period re, nen barea religion re renunciation ge ideal mente rikâ lena, onḍoḱ en barea rege long-lasting monastic-tradition establish yena. Politics nele redo, 300 BCE loḱ do, Magadha kingdom ge eṭaḱ state ko annex keet́ baredo reduce keet́ Mauryan Empire bai yena. Nen empire aḱ do far-south bage keet́ goṭa noḱ subcontinent re control taekena mente menoḱ taekena, mendo nahḱ menoḱ tana, core-region ko do maparaṅ autonomous Area ko te tannga lena mente. Mauryan king ko Ashoka aḱ militarism banage onḍoḱ Buddha aḱ dhamma reaḱ osar-saniṅ advocacy lagit́ chimin ko nutumana, imin ge nutum empire-building onḍoḱ public-life reaḱ determined Management lagit́ ó menaḱa.

200 BCE onḍoḱ 200 CE tala re, southern-peninsula do, Roman Empire onḍoḱ West onḍoḱ Southeast Asia loḱ extensive-trade taeken Chera ko, Chola ko, onḍoḱ Pandya dynasty ko rule let́ taekena mente Tamil language reaḱ Sangam literature re uduboḱ tana. North India re, Hinduism iate family re Patriarchal Control agu tala yen te, êra koaḱ subordination laaḱ yena. 4th onḍoḱ 5th century loḱ do, Gupta Empire iate greater Ganga gaṛa Plain re administration onḍoḱ taxation reaḱ Complex System bai yen taekena; nen system ge tayomaḱ Indian kingdom ko lagit́ model bai yena. Gupta ko subâ re, ritual reaḱ management kaa keet́, Devotion chetan bit́ akan namasaṕ (renewed) Hinduism agu tala eoṕ yena. Nen Namasanaṕ do urban-elite ko patronize let́ sculpture onḍoḱ architecture re reflect yena. Classical Sanskrit Literature ó hara sagen yena, India ren Science, Astronomy, Medicine, onḍoḱ Mathematics ko significantly advance yena.

Medieval India

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600 aete 1200 CE, India aḱ early-medieval-age do, regional kingdom ko onḍoḱ cultural diversity te nutum len taekena. 606 aete 647 CE re Indo-Gangetic Plain goṭa naeć rule ken Kannauj ren Harsha south paa teć expand lekead re, Deccan ren Chalukya ruler taḱaeteć haratiṅ yena. Aćaḱ successor east paa teć expand lekead re Bengal ren Pala king taḱaeteć haratiṅ yena. Chalukya ko south paa teko expand lekead re onḍoḱ saniṅ south ren Pallava ko taḱaeteko haratiṅ yena, onḍoḱ neko ó onḍoḱ laaḱ saniṅ south ren Pandya onḍoḱ Chola ko darom kedkoa. Nen period ren jaan ruler ko ó empire bai keet́ akoaḱ core-region aete laaḱ ote consistantly kakô control daeada. Nen time-period re, non-traditional ruling class ko leka ge, growing agricultural economy lagit́ hora bai re ote amiṅ yen pastoral people ko ó caste society reko accommodate yena. Enate, caste society re regional difference ko nelnam yena.

6th onḍoḱ 7th century re, Tamil language ren ayarutar devotional-hymn ko bai yena. Ena ko goṭa India re imitate yena onḍoḱ enate Hinduism ó resurge yena onḍoḱ subcontinent ren saben modern language ko ó develop yena. India aḱ huṛiṅ maraṅ saben lekan royalty koaḱ iate, onḍoḱ ako patronise let́ temple ko iate, economic hub leka ó bai yen capital city ko te esu sangi citizen ko or idi yena. India re onḍoḱ misa hoban tan urbanisation loḱ epeṭaḱ size ren temple town ko saben muli nelnam yena. 8th onḍoḱ 9th century loḱ do, South India reaḱ culture onḍoḱ political sysem ko tisiṅaḱ Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Brunei, Cambodia, Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia onḍoḱ Indonesia re mesa yen disum ko te export yen loḱ te ena ko reaḱ epelaṅ Southeast Asia re nel yena. Nen transmission re Indian merchant, scholar, misâ ko do army koaḱ role taekena; ena re Indian seminary ko re basa keet́ Buddhist onḍoḱ Hindu text ko akoaḱ language te translate ê loḱ Southeast Asia ren koaḱ initiative ó taeken gea.

10th century tayom, ãacha-sadom cavalry onḍoḱ ethnicity religion te tolmit́ (unite) akan army ko te Central Asia ren nomadic Muslim clan ko, dao ge dao South Asia aḱ north-western plain ko attack yet́ taekena, ena ko te ge tayom 1206 re Islamic Delhi Sultanate establish yena. En Sultanate te ge goṭa noḱ North India control lena, onḍoḱ ena te ge South India chetan te sangi dao attack hoba lena. Although at first disruptive for the Indian elites, the sultanate largely left its vast non-Muslim subject population to its own laws and customs. 13th century re nen sultanate iate, dao ge dao Mongol raider ko darom kôl yen te, India save yena West onḍoḱ Central Asia re hoba yen devastation aete, nena ko te ge tayom en Region aete nir tan soldier, scholar, mystic, trader, artist, artisan ko chiminaṅ century subcontinent te ko migrate hućoḱ teaḱ hora bai yena, enate ge north re syncretic Indo-Islamic culture bai yena. Sultanate aḱ raid ko te, onḍoḱ weak oḱ tan South India ren regional kingdom ko te indigenous Vijayanagara Empire aḱ hora bai yena. Strong Shaivite tradition otoṅê loḱ, onḍoḱ sultanate aḱ military technology aete bai rakabê loḱ nen empire te goṭa noḱ peninsular India control yena, onḍoḱ tayom do sipirmaoḱ ge South India ren society influence yena.

Eteoṕ modern India

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Eteoṕaḱ 16th century re mainly Muslim ruler ko subâ re taeken northern India, onḍoḱ misâ superior mobility onḍoḱ firepower an Central Asian warrior koaḱ nama generation taḱaete haratiṅ yena. Enahḱ result te bai yen Mughal Empire re, rule subâ yen local society ko ẽeć do kakô ẽeć muchat́ yena. Ensati, akô do nama administrative practice ko te onḍoḱ diverse, inclusive ruling elite koaḱ iatekô balance onḍoḱ pacify yen taekena. Mughal ko, especially Akbar subâ re, tribal bond onḍoḱ Islamic identity bage keet́, Persianised culture te near-divine status menaḱ tan emperor chetan re em len loyalty te, akoaḱ osar saniṅ ote chirmit́ ko unite ket́a. Laaḱpaa revenue do agriculture aete hućoḱ tan, onḍoḱ tax do well-regulated silver-currency te emoḱ ka mente mandate taeken Mughal state aḱ economic policy iate peasant onḍoḱ artisan ko larger market tekô bolo yena. Goŧa noḱ 17th century re empire maintain let́ relative-peace do India aḱ economic expansion ren miat́ factor leka taekena, enate painting, literary form, textile, onḍoḱ architecture ko laaḱ patronage em yena. Mughal rule imita, North onḍoḱ West India re Maratha, Rajput onḍoḱ Sikh lekan namage coherent akan social group ko re, military onḍoḱ governing ambition nelnam yena, ena te ge akô do collaboration te ó adversity te ó recognition onḍoḱ military experience ko nam akit́ ket́a. Mughal rule imita expand oḱ tan commerce te South onḍoḱ East India coast re nama commercial onḍoḱ political elite ko nelnam yena. Empire disintegrate oḱ tan loḱ, nen elite ko re ge sangi do ako akoaḱ affair ako tekô control dae taekena.

18th century eteoṕ loḱ do, commercial onḍoḱ political dominance tala ren panaa gaar ẽeć tersaoḱ tan loḱ, English East India Company mesa keet́aḱ Europe aḱ sangi trading company ko patukam kuṭi (coastal) outpost kokô establish sekaa let́ taekena. Daḱ chetan control, laaḱ resource, laaḱ advance akan military training,technology ko iate East India Company ren ko tersa tersa military peećkô usâ uduṕ ket́a, ena te Indian elite ren chiminaṅ do akô paa tekô or idi yena; nen company Europe aḱ eṭaḱ company ko sideline keet́ 1765 re Bengal Region re Control eć namê teaḱ hora bai re, nekan factor ko reaḱ crucial role taekena. Bengal aḱ biti reaḱ onḍoḱ laaḱ access, onḍoḱ en tayomaḱ peeć onḍoḱ army size re lanahḱ te laaḱpaa India annex baredo subdue ć dae yena.

India aete onḍoḱ do sêdae re sipirmaoḱ ge taeken leka manufactured good ko do kaa export oḱ taekena, ena sati, British ko raw material ko supply oḱ taekena. Sangi historian ko do nena ge India aḱ colonial period ren anaṅ mentekô metaḱa. Nen imita loḱ do, British parliament iate akôaḱ economic power curtail yen ko te onḍoḱ sari samanaṅ re do British administration aḱ miat́ tí bai yen ko te, East India Company ren ko adaan aete ge education, social reform, culture mesa keet́aḱ non-economic Area rekô bolo yena.

Modern India

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Historian koaḱ menatiṅ lekate India reaḱ modern-age do 1848 onḍoḱ 1885 tala paa re eoṕ lena. 1848 re Lord Dalhousie East India Company ren Governor General lekać appoint yen teaḱ te ge miat́ modern state baái ren essential change ko lagit́ stage bai yena. Ena ko re sovereignty reaḱ consolidation onḍoḱ demarcation, hoo koaḱ surveillance onḍoḱ citizen koaḱ education ó mesa akana. Europe re introduce len aete te laaḱ Sipirma aurioḱ re ge—railway, ur loor (canal) onḍoḱ Telegraph emanaḱ—technological change ko introduce lena. Mendo, nen time period re ge company lagit́ dissafection ó laaḱ lena onḍoḱ ena te 1857 ren Indian Rebellion uskur yena. Invasive gen British-style social reform, harsh land tax, chiminaṅ landowner onḍoḱ prince ko summary ge treat ket́ ko teaḱ ko mesa keet́aḱ diverse resentment onḍoḱ perception te ajom hara len nen rebellion te do northern onḍoḱ central India ren sangi Region ko ituṅ yena onḍoḱ Company rule ren foundation ekela yena. 1858 loḱ re nen rebellion suppress yen re ó, ena te mendo East India Company aḱ Leneyaṅ (dissolution) onḍoḱ British government hotete India aḱ direct administration agu yena. Unitary state onḍoḱ mãe mãe te limited British parliament system proclaim keet́, nen nama ruler ko prince onḍoḱ ote hasa an land gentry ko kapalomaḱ unrest aeten safeguard leka ko protect ledkôa. Ena tayomaḱ decade ko re, India re public life mãe mãe te nelnam yena, onḍoḱ ena te ge 1885 re Indian National Congress bai bit́ yena.

19th century reaḱ second tara re technology onḍoḱ commercialisation reaḱ ãacha hunujuḱ do economic setback ko te marka lena, onḍoḱ sangi hupuṛiṅ farmer ko do sangin market reaḱ whim koaḱ dae subâ yenakô. Maraṅ-scale ringâ ko reaḱ leneka laaḱ yena, onḍoḱ do, infrastructure development reaḱ risk India ren taxpayer ko chetan re taeken re ó, India ren ko lagit́ esu kom industrial employment generate yen taekena. Salutary effect ko ó taeken gea: especially do nama ge Canal ko bai akan Punjab re Commercial Cropping te, Internal Consumption lagit́ Food Production increase yena. Railway network te critical famine relief em yena, goods ko ipidi reaḱ cost adit́ yena, onḍoḱ namage unduṕ akan Indian-owned industry denga yena.

Approximately mit́ million Indian ko serve ken ayaraḱ World War tayom, nama period eoṕ yena. Ena ge do British reform ko te urum len ge, repressive legislation te, India ren koaḱ self-rule lagit́ ten onḍoḱ keṭeć anasi te, Mahatma Gandhi leader onḍoḱ enduring symbol eć bai yen non-co-operation ren nonviolent movement reaḱ eneoṕ ko te ó ge. 1930 ko re, British ko mãe mãe ten legislative reform ko enact ket́a; ena te hoba yen election ko re Indian National Congress dae yena. En tayomaḱ 10 sirma do crisis ko te toḱ lena: World War II re India ren koaḱ menesa, non-co-operation lagit́ Congress aḱ chapanaṕ unuskur, onḍoḱ Muslim nationalism reaḱ pair ranakab. Saben ge 1947 re independence reaḱ hunujuḱ te koṭoṅ yen re ó, India barea state, India, Pakistan re hanaṭiń yen te temper ó temper yena.

Independent nation lekate India aḱ self-image baioḱ lagit́ do, secular onḍoḱ democratic republic bit́ ken, 1950 re sekaa jan, India aḱ constitution aḱ vital role taekena. London declaration lekate, India ren ko commonwealth reaḱ membership kô retain ket́a, enka te ena ren ayarutar Member kô bai yena. 1980 ko re eoṕ len economic liberalisation te,, technical know-how lagit́ Soviet Union loḱaḱ collaboration te, miat́ large urban middle class bai hućoḱ yena,, India do Ote chetan ãachautar growing economic ko loḱ lekaoḱ ge transformer yena,, onḍoḱ India aḱ geopolitical Clout laaḱ yena. Enreó, India do, unyielding ge neloḱ rural,, urban ripinga te; religious,, caste-related Violence te; Maoist koaḱ te inspire akan Naxalite insurgency ko te; Jammu onḍoḱ Kashmir,, Northeast India ren separatism ko te ó shape akana. India aḱ China,, Pakistan loḱ kaa resolve akan ote chirmit́ dispute menaḱa. India aḱ sustained democratic freedom do ote chetan ren nama noḱ disum ko group re unique gea; mendo, daaradaḱ economic success ko menaḱ sante, India ren disadvantage akan ko riningâ aete raa kô teaḱ goal do, sangin re menaḱ akat́ gea.

Geography

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Indo-Australian Plate aḱ miat́ part tan Indian-tectonic-plate chetan re menaḱ tan India do Indian subcontinent aḱ goṭa-noḱ-homoo (bulk) leka menaḱa. India aḱ defining geological process ko do, 75 million sirma maaṅ re, en imita southern supercontinent Gondawana aḱ part taeken Indian Plate, seafloor south-west paa te, onḍoḱ tayom ko do south,, south-east paa te udur aguoḱ tan te north-east paa te usâ eoṕ yen re eoṕ lena. Ena ko hoban tan imita ge, India aḱ northeast ren maraṅ lekan Tethyan oceanic crust do Eurasian Plate latar re subduct eṭeḱ yena. Ote aḱ Convection te hoban taeken en barea process te, Indian Ocean ó bai yena, onḍoḱ Indian continental crust te tayom Eurasia under-thrust yen te Himalaya buru ó udur rakaṕ yena. Rakaboḱ tan Himalay buru japaḱ rená south re, plate movement te maraṅ lekan cresent-shaped bahni bai yena, tayom do ena ãacha ge gaṛa atu agu let́ Sediment te pereć yena, ena te ge nahḱaḱ Indo-Gangetic Plain bai akana. India aḱ original plate do, sediment chetan re ayarutar Delhi Ridge aete south-west paa te bil akan ancient Aravalli range re nel lena. West re do, eastern Binil Aravallis te koṭoṅ akan Thar Desert menaḱa.

Sareć akan Indian Plate do, mariùtar,, geologically India aḱ most-stable-part part tan peninsular India leka menaḱ akat́a. Ena ge sangin utar do north re Satpura jooṅ onḍoḱ central re Vindhya range jooṅ sartal akana. Ena reaḱ parallel chain ko do west re Gujrat ren Arabian Sea coast aete, east ren Jharkhand aḱ coal-rich Chota Nagpur Plateau jooṅ bil akana. South re, sareć akan pensular landmass Deccan Plateau do, west,, east re, Western,, Eastern Ghats menoḱ coastal range te aṭangi akana; en plateau re nen disum aḱ mariutar sereṅ formation ko menaḱa, ena re chiminaṅ do mit́ billion sirma maria. Neleka bai akan India do, 6° 44′,, 35° 30′ north latitude onḍoḱ 68° 7′,, 97° 25′ east longitude tala re equator aete north re menaḱ. India aḱ coastline do 7,517 kilometer jiliṅa; nen distance reaḱ 5,423 kilometre do peninsular India rea, onḍoḱ 2,094 kilometer do Andaman,, Nicobar,, Lakshadweep island-chain rea. Indian navy aḱ hydrographic chart ko lekate, mainland coastline re menaḱ teaḱ ko do: 43% gitilan beach ko; 11% cliff ko mesa keet́aḱ sereṅan beach ko; onḍoḱ 46% do Mudflat (marshy shore) ko. Substantially India re atun major Himalayburusaṅ (Himalayan-origin) gaṛa ko re Ganga,, Brahmaputra menaḱa, banar ge Bay of Bengal re atu chabaoḱa. Ganga gaṛaaḱ important Tributary ko re Yamuna,, Kosi ko lekaoḱa; sipirmaoḱge Tilat́ duṕ duṕ te hoba akan Kosi aḱ extremely-low-gradient te severe bán onḍoḱ gaṛa reaḱ Course change ko hobana. Hić laaḱan Gradient te daḱ kaa bánoḱ major peninsular gaṛa ko re Bay of Bengal re atu chabaoḱ Godavari,, Mahanadi,, Kaveri,, Krishna ko; onḍoḱ Arabian Sea re atu chabaoḱ Narmada,, Tapti ko lekaoḱa. Coastal feature ko re, west India ren Rann of Kutch,, east India ren alluvial hasaan Sunderban delta kin lekaoḱa; ena ren tayomanaḱ do Bangladesh loḱ haṭiṅ akana. India re barea archipelago menaḱa: India aḱ south-west patukâm kuṭi ren coral atoll tan Lakshadweep; onḍoḱ Andaman Honpatukâm ren sengelburu chain tan Andaman Nicobar Island ko.

India aḱ climate do, economically,, culturally pivotal Situṅ,, Rabaṅdipiliaḱ Monsoon ko aágu tan Himalayburu onḍoḱ Thar Desert te strongly influence akana. Himalayburu menaḱ te, Central Asia ren Katabatic Hoyo ko koṭoṅoḱa; ena te, bulk of Indian Subcontinent do, ena loḱ mipit́noḱ Latitude ren Location ko aeteó urgumlaaḱ gea. June aete October tala re India aḱ laaḱpaa Gamadaḱ eém tan daḱpereć south-west aḱ Situṅdipili Monsoon Hoyo ko or aágu re, Thar Desert aḱ Crucial Role menaḱa. India re predominantly upunea major Climatic Grouping menaḱa: Singichirmit́ Oda (Tropical Wet), Singichirmit́ Rooh (Tropical Dry), Singichirmit́suba Losom (Subtropical Humid), onḍoḱ Montane.

1901-2018 tala re, India aḱ Temperature do 0.7 °C laaḱ kena. Ena reaḱ Cause do India ren Climate Change ge mente often menoḱa. Himalayburu Rataṅgaṛa ko usa chabaoḱ tan te, Ganga,, Brahmaputra mesa keet́aḱ Himalayburuaḱ gaṛa koaḱ Anatu Rate adversely affect akana. Chiminaṅ nahḱ menaḱ Projection ko lekate, nen Century Chanaba loḱ re, India re Daḱrininga reaḱ leneka onḍoḱ severity do markedly laaḱ akanoḱa. "Climate Change reaḱ Adverse Impact te kaa elaṅoḱ teaḱ" Right do, India re Fundamental Right leka legally urum bai akana.

Biodiversity

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India do megadiverse Disum tana, nen Term do kipilijiwt́ (biological diversity) sangeann (high ann) onḍoḱ Hasaùpanaḱ (Enhasaùpânaḱ) Jiwt́hita ko sange menaḱ tan 17 disum ko lagit́ agujoṅoḱa. India do goṭa Toasaṅhita (Mammal) ko ren 8.6%,, Oehita ko ren 13.7%,, Leéńhita (Reptile) ko ren 7.9%,, Otedaḱhita (Amphibians) ko ren 6%,, Hakôhita ko ren 12.2%,, onḍoḱ goṭa Bahoḱsińhita (Flowering Plant) ko ren 6% koaḱ Basapai (habitat) tana. Apea re miat́ India aḱ Sińhita (plant species) ko do Enhasaùpanaḱ (endemic) ko ge. Otesaeaḱ 34 kipilijiidann hotspot (enhasaùpânaḱ ko ge sangê menaḱ loḱ significant Basapaiànat́ (habitat loss) nelnamoḱ) ko ren upunea do India re ge menaḱa. Official statistics lekate, India aḱ Birànatet́ do 713,789 km², Disumòtebiṉilaḱ 21.71% hobaoḱa. Ena ge, canopy density (Daruhunulsuṕ te umbul akan Birbêṉêl reaḱ proportion) lekaten broad category oḱge honhaṭiń daeoḱa. Daruhuṉulsuṕìnibil (canopy density) 70% aete laaḱann very dense forest do, India Otebinilaḱ 3.02% hobaoḱa. Andaman Island,, Western Ghat,, Northeast India ko ren Singichirmit́òdabir (tropical moist forest) ko re enkan Bir ge predominantly menaḱa.

Economy

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International Monetary Fund (IMF) lekate, 2024 re India aḱ Economy reaḱ Nominal Value $3.94 Trillion taekena; nen Economy Market Exchange Rate lekate mṍeaḱ-maraṅa, onḍoḱ $15.0 Trillion naaćpaa beṭaê Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) lekate apéaḱ-maraṅa. Maná hisi Sirma re Average Annual GDP Growth Rate 5.8% taeken loḱ,, 2011–2012 re 6.1% beṭa ken loḱ, India do Otesai Fastest Growing Economy re lekaoḱa. Enkareóge, Nominal GDP Per Capita lekate, India do 136 Rank re, onḍoḱ PPP re GDP Per Capita lekate 125 Rank re menaḱa. 1991 jooṅ do, sanam India aḱ Government ko, Socialist Economy ko te influence len Protectionist Policy ko saṕ otoṅ let́a. Widespread len State Intervention onḍoḱ Regulation te Economy do outside Otesai aete ginil tannga lena. 1991 ren acute Balance of Payments Crisis te, India renko Economy liberal oḱgekô force kena; en imita aete, India do Foreign Trade onḍoḱ Direct Investment Inflow banar ge emphasize keet́, increasingly Free-Market System paa te tersan tana. 1 January 1995 aete India do World Trade Organization ren Member lekate menaḱa.

2017 jooṅ re, 522 Million Worker ann Indian Labour Fource do Otesai reaḱ baáraḱ-maraṅaḱ tana. GDP reaḱ 55.6% do Service Sector, 26.3% do Industrial Sector, 18.1% do Síhasa (Agriculture) Sector. 2022 re, Otesai re ge highest, US$100 Billion hoban, India aḱ Foreign Exchange Remittance do, Foreign Disum kore paiṭi tan 32 Million India renko India aḱ Economy rekô em mesa ket́a. Major Síhasa Product kodo, Chauli, Gom, Sunumoḱjaṅ, Kat́som, Jute, Tea, Sugarcane, onḍoḱ Utusanga. Major Industry kore Textile,, Telecommunication,, Chemical,, Pharmaceutical,, Biotechnology,, Food Processing,, Steel,, Transport Equipment,, Cement,, Mining,, Dirisunum,, Machinery,, onḍoḱ Software leka mesaoḱa. 2006 re, India aḱ GDP re External Trade reaḱ Share do 24% taekena, 1985 ren 6% aete laaḱ. 2008 Sirma, Otesai Trade re India aḱ Share do 1.7% taekena; 2021 Sirma, India do Otesai ren 9aḱ maraṅ Iímportdisum onḍoḱ 16aḱ maraṅ Eéxportdisum lena. Major Exportaḱ kore, Dirisunum Product, Textile Goods, Jewellery, Software, Engineering Goods, Chemical onḍoḱ Manufactured Leather Goods leka mesaoḱa. Major Import aḱ kore, Berel Dirisunum, Machinery, Gonoṅanndiri, Fertiliser, onḍoḱ Chemical ko leka mesaoḱa. 2001 aete 2011 Sirma tala re, Total Export re Dirisunumchemical (Petrochemical) onḍoḱ Engineering Goods koaḱ Share do 14% aete 42% jooṅ laaḱ beṭa kena. 2013 Sirma, India do China tayom Otesai chetan baáraḱ-maraṅ Textile Eéxportdisum lena.

2007 ayaraḱ chiminaṅ Sirma ko Economic Growth Rate 7.5% average oḱ taeken India re, 21aḱ Century aáyar 10 Sirma re, Hourly Wage Rate barsa biur aete ó laaḱ akana. 1985 aete, 431 Million leka India renko Ripinga aetekô atom akana; 2030 jooṅ do, India aḱ Middle Class koaḱ leneka 580 Million leka hobana mente project akana. Global Competitiveness re 68aḱ Rank re menaḱ reó ge, 2010 reaḱ Data lekate, India aḱ do, chiminaṅ Advanced Economy ko aete ó laaḱ parom, Financial Market Sophistication re 17aḱ Rank, Banking Sector re 24aḱ Rank, Bussiness Sophistication re 44aḱ Rank onḍoḱ Innovation re 39aḱ Rank menaḱa. Otesaiaḱ Top 15 Information Technology Outsourcing Company re aiea do India rege base akan loḱ, 2009 reaḱ Data lekate, India do United States tayom baáraḱ Most Favorable Outsourcing Destination leka nel akana. 2023 Sirma, India do Global Innovation Index re 40aḱ Rank re menaḱa. 2023 reaḱ Data lekate, India aḱ Consumer Market do Otesaiaḱ mṍeaḱ maraṅ taekena.

Growth te udur tersa akan India aḱ Nominal GDP Per Capita do, 1991 ren US$308 aete, 2010 ren US$1,380, onḍoḱ 2024 ren estimate akan US$2,731 jooṅ steadily increase hućoḱ akana. Ena 2026 loḱ do US$3,264 jooṅ ayar tersana mente Expectation menaḱa. Enkareóge, ena do Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, onḍoḱ Thailand lekan eṭaḱ Asia ren Developing Disum ko aete ó latar rea, onḍoḱ Kanalom ó enka ge taena mente Expectation menaḱa.

2011 ren PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) report lekate, 2045 loḱ do, India aḱ Purchasing Power Parity te soṅoḱ GDP te United States aḱ ó parom laaḱ daeoḱa. Kalomaḱ barhisi Sirma re, India aḱ GDP do 8% Sirmaaḱ Average loḱ ayar tersana mente Expectation menaḱa, enkare, India do potentially 2050 jooṅ Otesaiaḱ fastest-growing major Economy oḱa. En Report re Key Growth Factor ko highlight akana: young,, rapidly-growing Working-age Population; rise oḱ tan Education,, Engineering Skill Level te Manufacturing Sector ren Growth; onḍoḱ, rapidly-growing Middle-class ko te udur tersa akan Consumer Marker reaḱ sustained Growth. World Bank aete Caution em akana, India aḱ Economic Potential achieve ê lagit́, India re Public Sector Reform, Transport Infrestructure, Síhasa,, Hatusai Development, Labour Regulation Anatom, Etosẽa, Energy Security, onḍoḱ Sangekohasubanaṅ (Public Health),, Nutrition re Focus em rika idiê te hobana.

160 Product onḍoḱ Service ko tala re 400 aete ó laaḱ Individual Price ko umaa keet́ bai len,, Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) paa aete release len 2017 Worldwide Cost of Living Report lekate, Cheapest City ko re upunea do India rege taekena: Bangalore (3aḱ), Mumbai (5aḱ), Chennai (5aḱ) and New Delhi (8aḱ).

Industry ko

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1.2 Billion Subscriber ko loḱ te, India aḱ Telecommunication Industry do Otesae baáraḱ-maraṅa. India aḱ GDP re enaaḱ Contribution do 6.5%. 2017 apéaḱ Quarter tayom, India do US laaḱparom keet́ China tayom Otesaeaḱ baáraḱ-maraṅ Smartphone Market bai yena.The Indian automotive industry, the world's second-fastest growing, increased domestic sales by 26% during 2009–2010, and exports by 36% during 2008–2009. In 2022, India became the world's third-largest vehicle market after China and the United States, surpassing Japan. At the end of 2011, the Indian IT industry employed 2.8 million professionals, generated revenues close to US$100 billion equalling 7.5% of Indian GDP, and contributed 26% of India's merchandise exports.