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Blue check.png यह पन्ना एक विकिन्यूज़ पर मार्गदर्शिका माना जाता है। यह सम्पादकों के मध्य, प्रायः स्वीकार्य है, एवं अपेक्षित है, कि सभी उपयोक्ता इसका अनुसरण करें। फिर भी यह कोई पत्थर की लकीर नहीं है, एवं इसको अपने विवेक एवं प्रासंगिक अपवादों सहित अपनाएं। इस पन्ने को सम्पादित करते हुए, यह सुनिश्चित करें, कि आपका पुनरावलोकन मतैक्य प्रतिबिम्बित करे। जब कोई संदेह हो, तो पहले वार्ता पृष्ठ पर चर्चा करें।

यह शैली संदर्शिका बताती है, कि किस तरह विकिन्यूज़ सामग्री पाठकों को प्रस्तुत की जाती है। रिपोर्टिंग प्रक्रिया हेतु देखें विषयवस्तु संदर्शिका . विकि सम्पादन सहायता हेतु देखें सम्पादन सहायता

विकिन्यूज़:नीतियाँ एवं मार्गदर्शक

विकिन्यूज़:निष्पक्ष दृष्टिकोण
विकिन्यूज़:विषय वस्तु संदर्शिका
विकिन्यूज़:शैली संदर्शिका

प्रत्यापन नीति
वीज़ल शब्दों से बचें
सदस्य रोक समूह
दृष्टांत उद्गम दें
हितों का अंतर्विरोध
प्रकाशनाधिकार
विवाद सुलझाव
रद्दीकरण के मानद्ण्ड
तेज रद्दीकरण के मानदण्ड
विकिन्यूज़ को तितर-बितर ना करें
निष्कपट प्रयोग
चित्र प्रयोग नीति
नामकरण परिपाटी
मूल रिपोर्टिंग
पन्ना सुरक्षा नीति
तीन बार पलटें - नीति
सदस्यनाम नीति

तौर तरीके

Policy template

उद्देश्य[edit]

समाचार स्रोतों की विशाल संख्या में से अधिकांश स्टाइलबुक पर निर्भर हैं। यह लेखन शैली के ऊपर सर्व-सहमति से बनी मार्गदर्शिका है। स्टाइलबुक या शैली-पुस्तिका लेखकों एवं सम्पादकों की सहायता एक मानकीकृत लेखन पथ समझअ कर, करती है। शैली पुस्तिका शिर्षकों, संक्षिप्तियों, संख्याओं, विराम चिह्नन एवं भद्रता शीर्षक, इत्यादि जैसे विषयों में सामंजस्य सुनिश्चित करती है। इसलिये शैली-पुस्तिकाएं काफी सहायक होतीं हैं।

घटनाओं के बारे में दक्ष एवं सही सूचना प्रदान पर जोर देकर समाचार शैली विकसित होती है। इसके लिये हमारे समाचार शैली सुझाव का अनुकरण कर के आप अपनी मूल शैली को प्रभावशाली बनाने में काफी मदद पायेंगे। और इस तरह आप भी एक समाचार लेखक बन गये।

विकिन्यूज़ शैली विकिन्यूज़ लेखों की अधिकांश पाठकों द्वारा तेज समझ एवं सूचनायुक्त होने के लिये लक्षित है। परंतु यहां कुछ भी अनिवार्य नहीं है।

स्तर[edit]

विकिन्यूज़ शैली-पुस्तिका, अन्य समाचार संस्थाओं मे कार्य करती शैली संदर्शिकाओं की भांति ही, प्रगतिशील कार्य हेतु बनी है, और इसका बदलाव उद्यत है, जैसे जैसे नये मुद्दे उभरते हैं तथा समाचार रिपोर्ट की भाषा विकसित होती है।

परिपाटी[edit]

व्याकरण एवं विराम चिन्हन के अवयवों को सर्वथा समान शब्दों द्वारा ही इंगित नहीं किया जाता. इस पुस्तिका (”मैन्युअल”) की क्षेत्रीय होने की कोई मंशा नहीं है, लेकिन संभ्रम की स्थिति से बचने हेतु, निम्न शब्दों का प्रयोग स्पष्टता हेतु किया जाता है:

  • पीरियड: इस अमेरिकन शब्द को पूर्ण विराम के लिये प्रयोग किया जाता है.

मूल समाचार लेखन[edit]

बेहतर लेखन हेतु छः सुझाव[edit]

1946 पुस्तक में, शूटिंग एन एलीफ़ेण्ट एण्ड अदर एसेय्ज, लेखक जॊर्ज ऒर्वेल ने छः सरल सुझाव सुझाए, जो किसी को भी बेहतर लेखक बना सकते हैं. उन्हें लघु रूप में यहां दिया गया है:

  1. जब आप कृतवाच्य प्रयोग कर सकते हों, तब कर्मवाच्य कदापि प्रयोग ना करें.
  2. वाक्यों एवं अनुच्छेदों को यथासम्भव छोटा रखें. यदि आप वाक्य में से एक शब्द भी घटा सकें, तो अवश्य घटाएं.
  3. शब्द चुनाव में भी लघुतर शब्द चुनें. जहां कोई छोटा शब्द प्रयोग हो पाए, वहां बड़ा शब्द कदापि ना डालें।
  4. अपने पाठकों को असामान्य शब्दों से भ्रमित ना करें। विदेशी वाक्यांश, वैज्ञानिक शब्दावली या उच्च श्रेणी के तकनीकी शब्दों से बचें, यदि आप प्रतिदिन की भाषा को उसके बराबर प्रस्तुत कर सकते हों।
  5. क्लिष्ट अलंकार, स्माइली या जो चित्र आप अन्य लेखनों में पाते हैं, उन्हें ना प्रयोग करें. मौलिक रहें।
  6. नम्र रहें — तब भी जब आप असहमत हों। यदि आप अपमानजनक या कड़े शब्द प्रयोग कर रहें हों, तब चाहे किसी भी उपरोक्त नियम को तोड़ना पडे़, तोड दें, परंतु उससे बचें। निजी टिप्पणियों से भी बचें, हालत की अत्युक्ति ना बनाएं, कटा़ओं एवं अतिश्योक्तियों से भी बचें। वरना आप पाठकों के सम़्अ अपनी विश्वर्नीयता खो बैठेंगे।

शीर्षक[edit]

अपने लेख का नामकरण करते समय, निम्न बिन्दुओं का ध्यान रखें। (अधिकांश बिन्दु लेख की सामग्री पर भी लागू होते हैं, एवं उन्हें बडे़ तौर पर इस पन्ने में नीचे बताया गया है।)

  • उन्हें अद्वितीय एवं विशिष्ट बनाएं - Due to the way the software of Wikinews works, each headline must be unique; choose specific details which describe this unique news event.
  • छोटा बनाएं - Headlines are as short as possible.
  • क्रियाएं प्रयोग करें - A headline is at its essence a sentence without ending punctuation, and sentences have verbs.
  • Use downstyle capitalisation - Downstyle capitalisation is the preferred style. Only the initial word and proper nouns are capitalized. In upstyle headlines, all nouns and most other words with more than four letters are capitalized.
Downstyle: "Powell to lead U.S. delegation to Asian tsunami region"
Upstyle: "Powell to Lead U.S. Delegation to Asian Tsunami Region".
  • Tell the most important and unique thing - Article titles should consist of a descriptive and enduring headline. As a series of stories on a topic develop, each headline should convey the most important and unique thing about the story at that time.
For example, "Los Angeles bank robbed" is an unenduring headline because there will likely be another bank robbery in Los Angeles at some point. Instead, find the unique angle about the story you are writing and mention that: "Thieves commit largest bank robbery in Los Angeles history", or "Trio robs Los Angeles bank, escapes on motorcycles", or even "Trio commits largest bank robbery in Los Angeles history, flees on motorcycles".
  • Use present tense - Headlines (article titles) should be written with verbs in present tense.
  • Use active voice - News is about events, and generally you should center on the doers, and what they are doing, in your sentence structure. Active voice is "Leader goes to shops" whereas passive voice, to be avoided, would be "Shops visited by leader".
A quick check is try to word your sentences to avoid verbs ending in 'ing' and look for 'be verbs', eg 'are going to' can easily be converted to 'will' or simply 'to'. Rather than "More criminals are going to face execution in 2005", if we put "More criminals to face execution in 2005" or "More criminals face execution in 2005" a better sense of immediacy is conveyed.
  • Try to attribute any action to someone - "Insurgents shoot U.S. troops in North Baghdad" is better than "U.S. troops shot in North Baghdad".
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  • Use comma, not 'and' or '&' - Often the word 'and' may be substituted with a comma ','. Example: "Powell and Annan set international goals for aid" could be written: "Powell, Annan set international goals for aid"

Using the Date and Dateline templates[edit]

Articles must include at least the date as the first line of the article. This is most easily accomplished using the date template (if you were not present at the event you are reporting upon), so the first line of each article should include this code:

{{date|Month DD, YYYY}}

The template will add the article to the appropriate date category, and put the date on the first line in bold text. The date given on an article is should be of the day on which the article was published. The date on which the event happened is not the story's date.

In journalism, the location in the dateline may either refer to the location of where the article was filed from or where the event happened even if the writer was not physically present. Currently, the dateline template is only used when a Wikinewsie is actually present to "file" the story (generally as original reporting). The template generates text in the following manner:

{{Wn/hi/Dateline|date=January 1, 2005|location=Mumbai, India}} Massive floods soaked ...

which appears like this in an article:

Template:Wn/hi/Dateline Massive floods soaked...

Wikinews does not sign articles as by an author. Articles may be edited by anyone, and are usually contributed to by more than one person, so a traditional byline is inappropriate.

The first paragraph[edit]

The first paragraph (known as the intro or lead) should summarize the article in around 50 - 80 words, using one to three sentences.

Try to answer the questions of who, what, where, when, why and how. Try to fit most of these into the first paragraph. This is known as the "five W's (and an H)", and is the first thing to learn about News writing.

  • Don't feel stifled by this suggestion. Those experienced in reporting learn to determine which of those six questions are the most relevant to the story (and, more importantly, the reader).
  • If you don't have the answer to one or two of them, skip it - but explain why you don't know later in your story.
  • Don't make your first paragraph a boring list of facts - it's the first thing the reader sees, so make it interesting.

Every fact or issue mentioned in the first paragraph should be later backed up or expanded in the main body of the article. This goes hand-in-hand with the very brief mention of facts in the first paragraph - you needn't explain everything fully in the intro, but what is mentioned should be fully explained before the reader finishes reading the article.

Do not feel compelled to finish the story completely yourself, but do try to avoid misleading or mystifying the reader. We can't help you write the story if we can't understand it.

Article length[edit]

Most complete articles should have at least three paragraphs. Don't post articles containing only a link to a story on an external news site and no story text. Such pages are quickly deleted.

One way to publish short briefs that you are not planning to expand further is in Wikinews Shorts.

If there is significant breaking news whose article is likely to be expanded, do go ahead and publish a short (but useful!) summary as breaking news. You can add an {{expand}}-tag. This will invite other editors to work on the article.

Writing tone and structure[edit]

Write to be easily understood, to make reading easier.

Beyond the first paragraph, try to stick to the following tips:

  • use brief paragraphs - between 30 and 80 words is considered acceptable in newspaper writing
    • each paragraph should be only one or two sentences (three if you use very short sentences)
    • each paragraph covers a single topic only
  • concentrate on the new facts and their known or potential consequence - keep to bare minimum all background and plot details (aka exposition)
  • most important and newsworthy facts first, with least important and least immediate facts last - this is opposite to development order in typical narratives, and is termed inverted-pyramid style
  • use plain English
  • use punchy, active language to intone a sense of immediacy
  • be balanced
  • be clear, concise and unambiguous
  • promote the human aspects of any story, using quotes etc - this makes the story interesting to a wider range of people

If you find your work is too wordy, try juggling word order, squeezing out unnecessary words. You may be surprised how many you can find! And it gets easier with practice. If not, don't worry, this is Wiki and other users may help you out.

The reason for inverted-pyramid style is twofold: One reason is to help the reader, who is usually in a hurry when reading news. Putting the important and new aspects first helps since they may skip the story after only a couple of paragraphs.

The second reason is to help people who are editing your story later. If more and more is added to the story it may become too long for a single article. In Wiki this is less of a factor, but we still like short punchy stories on Wikinews, not rambling essays.

Attribution[edit]

Every factual claim made needs to be attributed within the story text so the reader knows where it is coming from, except from anything which can be considered common knowledge. It is to be assumed that from the point where a given source is attributed, onwards, all facts mentioned emanate from that source, or are common knowledge, until another attribution is made or the end of a paragraph is reached.

Attribution is in addition to citation of references (see below), and attributions should be readable without interrupting the flow of the text.

Attributions usually happen at the end of a sentence; e.g., "The car was at the top", said Doyle. "It fell over the cliff and burst into flames," according to Miller. Doyle said there had been five people on board.

Verb tense[edit]

Articles should be written in the past tense or the present perfect. Headlines should be written in the present tense. Timelines also are written in the present tense.

Reporting on future events[edit]

Since we as writers are not in the business of predicting the future and are not psychic (arguably), it is best to stick to past or present perfect tense - especially since future events may change (or be cancelled). When writing about future or ongoing events, change tense as follows:

  • They will meet next Tuesday - change to: They are scheduled to meet next Tuesday or They said they would meet next Tuesday
  • The event will continue through the end of August - change to The event is scheduled to continue through August or The event is supposed to continue through August.
  • The show debuts in July 2012 or The show will open in July 2012 -- Change to The show's debut is scheduled for July 2012 or something similar.
  • The couple will celebrate their third anniversary next month - change to The couple plan to celebrate their third anniversary next month.

Citing your references[edit]

Articles may include a variety links and citations. They generally fall into four categories: other Wikinews articles, external links to online sources, printed reference citations, and websites with background or related information. Each category can have its own section, but there should be a distinction at least between links to factual support and links to background websites. Usually the category sections would be See also, Sources, References, and External links

Documents used as source material in the story need to be cited. This is to acknowledge prior art, so that information can be evaluated and verified by readers, and just as a general benefit to the reader. A citation should provide the author, date, publication and title of a source for information in the story.

Sources section[edit]

Sources include online articles and, for original reporting, reporter's notes. Online articles may change, move, or be deleted, unlike References.

Links to online sources should be listed after the optional Related news section, Sources using the wiki markup ==Sources==. Bullet-point each source using a *. Do not leave blank lines between sources - this is for technical reasons relating to how the wiki markup is converted into HTML code.

Linking sources[edit]

Use links to online sources, and include important relevant information about the source.

The important information when citing a source includes the author of the article (a person or organization), the title of the source, who it is published by, and when it was published.

There exists template code which may help you in formatting the information, {{Wn/hi/Source | url=Web site address | title=Article title | author=Name of author | pub=Name of Publication or Source | date=Date as Month DD, YYYY}}. Simply copy and paste the template into your story text, and replace the text after the equals sign in each template variable assignment. If you do not know a variable, for example the author's name, include the variable name but leave it blank. (|author= ) Example:

*{{Wn/hi/Source|url=http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2005-02/15/content_2579436.htm
| title=Second US missile defense test fails
|author=
|pub=Xinhua
|date=February 15, 2005}}
would appear as

Note, that Month, DD, YYYY should always be used for all dates in sources regardless of how the source cites the date. Do not use leading zeroes on dates between one and nine, and the day of the week should never be included.

Citing syndicated (wire agency) content[edit]

Many stories are provided by wire news agencies (e.g. the Associated Press (AP), Reuters, All Headline News (AHN), AFP or United Press International (UPI) that syndicate their content through other media outlets. Although the wire news agency writes the story, the carrying news media exercises editorial control in deciding whether or not to publish a story. Therefore, a report written by the Associated Press that appears in The Guardian should be credited as follows: the Associated Press as the author, and the Guardian as publisher.

Whenever possible, choose the wire agency's site if the agency publishes its own stories. If this is not possible, try to pick a site that you think will have the story available online for the longest time, if you have more than one choice.

Articles from news sites which are initially from a wire service should have the wire service added to the author's name, or just the wire service if no author is given. For example, "author=Anne Gearan, AP".

Numbered annotations[edit]

Academic-style numbered annotations are also acceptable, but discouraged. These may be created using wiki markup [URL], where the web site URL is copy-and-pasted, between two square-brackets. This should follow a space after the main text, and the sentence's period follows the citation, eg

The policy itself has no time limit, and is reviewed on "a weekly basis" [१].

Occasionally both the publication is mentioned and a specific link is provided.

...the Office of Fake Statistics estimates the cost of living has risen 3.75% in the past year [२].

From a point of view of retaining readers attention on the Wikinews site, sources in a separate section are preferred.

References section[edit]

References sections are strongly discouraged as an encyclopedic feature.

You should still cite the source fully, even if you cannot give a URL.

  • Books should be cited with Author, Title, Publisher, copyright or publication year, and ISBN if known.
  • Articles in periodicals should be cited with Author, Title of article, Name of the periodical, the year, volume and issue number, and the page number(s) of the article. Preference should be given to listing any weekly or monthly publication in the sources section.

An example:

  • Tony Stubblebine "Regular Expression Pocket Reference" O'Reilly and Associates, © 2003 ISBN 0-596-00415-X
  • Elizabeth M. Saewyc "Nursing Theories of Caring: A paradigm for adolescent nursing practice" Journal of Holistic Nursing 2000, vol. 18 #2, pp 114-128

If there is no online example of the reference you are looking at, a relevant selection of the reference may be quoted in the notes ([[Article name/Notes]]) and a link provided in the references section.

Related news section[edit]

Events may produce a variety of articles on Wikinews with different angles or cover different aspects of the events or current events may benefit from being directed to a past story or two on a similar topic. Articles with a strong regional or topical focus may be related to many other articles on Wikinews as well. A useful tool for news readers is to include a selection of recent wikinews articles related to the event, region, or topic of your article.

Such should be in a bulleted list, and placed in reverse chronological order, i.e. with the most recent on top. Using the Wikinews template as so:

*{{Wn/hi/Wikinews|title=Massive star cluster found in Milky Way|date=March 26, 2005}}

And here it is in use:

Related news

External links section[edit]

Sites listed in the external links are not endorsed by Wikinews, and Wikinews is not responsible for them. Wikinews cannot control what is kept on the pages linked to, either, and there is always a risk a linked-to site might place inappropriate or irrelevant material on the page linked to, or redirect browsers to a different inappropriate or irrelevant page. For these reasons, external links should not be included without good reason.

Link to a central, relevant page, not multiple pages on a single website. Use a small number of external links which are representative of various points of view; do not create comprehensive link lists.

Detailed style issues[edit]