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Wp/tzm/ⴷⵔⵉⵙ ⴰⵣⴰⵎⵉ ⵉⴷⵔⵉⵙⵉ

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ⴷⵔⵉⵙ ⴰⵣⴰⵎⵉ ⵉⴷⵔⵉⵙⵉ, ⵉⵍⵓⵍ ⴰⵙⵙ ⵏ 16 ⵛⵓⵜⴰⵏⴱⵉⵔ 1966 ⴳ ⴼⴰⵙ. ⵖ 3 ⵏ ⵡⴰⵙⵙ ⵏ ⵓⵙⵉⵏⴰⵙ ⵢⴰⵏⵢⵓⵔ 2012 ⵉⴳ ⵉⵜ ⵓⴳⵍⵍⵉⴷ ⵎⵓⵃⵎⵎⴷ ⵡⵉⵙ ⵚⴹⵉⵚ ⴷ ⴰⵏⵖⵍⴰⴼ ⴰⵏⵙⵎⵉⴳⴰⵍ ⵏ ⵓⵎⴰⵡⴰⵙ ⵏ ⵜⴷⵎⵙⴰ ⴷ ⵜⵥⵕⴰⴼ ⴷ ⵓⵎⵉⴹⴰⵏ.

ⵎⴰⵙⵙ ⴰⵣⴰⵎⵉ ⴷⵔⵉⵙ ⵖⵓⵔⵙ ⵜⵉⵏⵉⴳⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵖⵓⵔⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵜⴰⵜⵜⵓⵢⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵓⵙⵉⵏⴰⴳ ⵏ ⵜⴷⴱⵍⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵙⵙⵏⵜⵉⵢⵉⵏ ⵙⴳ ⵜⵙⴷⴰⵡⵜ ⵏ ⴱⴰⵔⵉ 1 ⴱⴰⵏⵜⵉⵢⵓⵏ-ⵙⵓⵔⴱⵓⵏ (2006) ⴷ ⵜⵏⵉⴳⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵖⵓⵔⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵏⵥⵕⴰⴼⵉⵏ, ⵜⵉⴷⴰⵎⵙⴰⵏⵉⵏ ⴷ ⵜⵏⴰⵣⵔⴰⴼⵉⵏ ⵙⴳ ⵎⴰⵔⵙⴰⵢ.

  • ⴷⵉ 2001, ⵢⵓⵎⵣ ⵜⵉⵏⵉⴳⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵖⵓⵔⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⴷⴰⵎⵙⴰⵏⵉⵏ ⵣⵉ ⵓⵖⵉⵡⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵙⵙⵏⴰⵡⵉⵏ ⵜⵓⵣⵔⵉⴼⵉⵏ, ⵜⵉⴷⴰⵎⵙⴰⵏⵉⵏ ⴷ ⵜⵏⴰⵎⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ ⵣⵉ ⵜⵙⴷⴰⵡⵜ ⵎⵓⵃⵎⵎⴷ 5-ⴰⴳⴷⴰⵍ ⵏ ⵔⴱⴰⵟ, ⵏ ⵜⵏⵉⴳⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵢⵉⵎⵉⵔ ⴰⵏⴰⴼⵍⵍⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵉⵏⵎⵍ ⵜⴰⵏⴰⵎⵓⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵜⴷⴱⵍⵜ (ⵔⴱⴰⵟ, 1997) ⴷ ⵜⵏⵉⴳⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵖⵓⵔⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵜⴰⵜⵜⵓⵢⵉⵏ ⵖ ⵜⴽⵔⵓⵔⴰ ⵣⵉ ⵜⵙⴷⵡⴰⵜ ⴱⵡⴰⵜⵢⵉ (ⴼⵔⴰⵏⵙⴰ, 1990).
  • ⴷⵉ 1989, ⵉⴽⵙⵉ ⵍⵍⵉⵙⴰⵏⵙ ⵖ ⵜⴽⵔⵓⵔⴰ ⵣⵉ ⵓⵖⵉⵡⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵙⵙⵏⴰⵡⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵙⴷⵡⴰⵜ ⵙⵉⴷⵉ ⵎⵓⵃⵎⵎⴷ ⴱⵏ ⴰⴱⴷⵍⵍⴰⵀ ⵏ ⴼⴰⵙ ⴰⵡⴰⵔⵏ ⵉ ⵙⵉⵏ ⵉⵙⴻⴳⴳⵓⵙⴰ, ⵡⴰⵎⵉ ⵉⴽⵙⵉ ⵜⵉⵏⵉⴳⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵖⵓⵔⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵙⴷⴰⵡⴰⵏⵉⵏ (ⴼⵉⵣⵉⴽ-ⵛⵉⵎⵉ) ⵣⵉ ⵓⵖⵙⵓⵔ ⴷ ⵉⵊ.
  • ⵎⴰⵙⵙ ⴷⵔⵉⵙ ⴰⵣⴰⵎⵉ ⵉⴷⵔⵉⵙⵉ ⵜⵓⵖⴰ ⵜ ⵖ ⵡⴰⵟⵟⴰⵕ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵔⴰⵖⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵎⴰⵙⵙⴰⵢⵉⵏ ⵖ ⵜⵎⴰⵡⴰⵙⵜⴰ ⵏ ⵜⴷⵎⵙⴰ ⴷ ⵜⵥⵕⴰⴼ.
  • ⵎⴰⵙⵙ ⴷⵔⵉⵙ ⴰⵣⴰⵎⵉ ⵉⴷⵔⵉⵙⵉ ⵢⵓⵡⵍ, ⵖⵓⵔⵙ ⵙⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵔⵡⴰ.