Wy/tr/Avrupa

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Eyfel Kulesi Paris

Avrupa Asya'dan Atlantik'e ve Afrika kıtasından Kuzey kutbuna kadar 10,180,000 km2 (3,930,000 kare mil) genişliğinde bir alanı kapsar. Avrupa ülkelerini yılda 480 milyondan fazla kişi ziyaret eder ve bu ziyaretler dünya turizminin yarısından biraz daha fazla turizm pazar payı demektir. Dünya genelinde en çok ziyaret edilen 10 ülke arasında, 7 Avrupa ülkesi bulunmaktadır. Avrupa'da iyi derecede korunmuş kültürel mirasları, etkileyici altyapıyı, henüz birkaç saat geçmeden birbirinden farklı kültürleri görebilirsiniz. Üstelik tüm bunları açık sınırlardan faydalanarak daha kolay gerçekleştirirsiniz. Ancak bu durum her defasında farklı sözcük grupları öğrenmenizi gerektirir. Bu kara parçası yüzölçümü ile dünyanın ikinci en küçük kıtası olmasına rağmen, ülkelerdeki yaşam kültürleri arasında derin farklılıklar bulunmaktadır

Bölgeler[edit]

Avrupa'nın her bir bölgesi ayrı ayrı kendi kimliği, dil ve kültürüne sahip ülkelerden oluşur. Aşağıda ülkeler bölgelerine göre kabaca sınıflandırılmıştır:

Wy/tr/Malta Wy/tr/Kuzey Afrika Wy/tr/Orta Doğu Wy/tr/Orta Asya Wy/tr/Fransa Wy/tr/Benelüks Wy/tr/İspanya Wy/tr/İtalya Wy/tr/Balkanlar Wy/tr/Kafkasya Wy/tr/Ukrayna Wy/tr/Beyaz Rusya Wy/tr/Yunanistan Wy/tr/Kıbrıs Wy/tr/Türkiye Wy/tr/Orta Avrupa Wy/tr/Baltık devletleri Wy/tr/Britanya ve İrlanda Wy/tr/İskandinavya Wy/tr/Kaliningrad Wy/tr/RusyaEurope regions.png
Balkanlar (Arnavutluk, Bosna-Hersek, Bulgaristan, Hırvatistan, Kosova, Makedonya, Moldova, Karadağ, Romanya, Sırbistan, Transdinyester)
Balkanlar harika doğası, büyüleyici kültürü, etkileyici manastırları, çalkantılarla dolu tarihi, kaleleri, izlemesi ayrı bir keyif olan göllerin bolca serpiştirildiği büyük dağ ve güzel ormanlar ile iyi bir seyahat tercihidir.
Baltık devletleri (Estonya, Letonya, Litvanya)
Üç geniş kıyı şeridi bulunan bölgenin muhteşem plajları ve büyüleyici ülkeleri bulunur. Ortaçağdan kalma eski kasabalar en güzel doğal manzaraları oluşturur. Estonya ve Finlandiya'nın dilsel ve kültürel bağları bulunmaktadır.
Benelüks (Belçika, Lüksemburg, Hollanda)
Bu ülkelerin gezginlere sunabileceği pek çok olanak bulunmaktadır. Hollanda'nın takunya, peynir, lale ve yel değirmenleri ressamlarda daha fazla liberal tutum oluşturduğu bilinir. Belçika Ardenleri'nin inişli çıkışlı tepeleri de gezilmeye değerdir. Lüksemburg güzel ve tarihi kentleri ile çok dilli bir ülkedir.
Britanya ve İrlanda (Guernsey, İrlanda, Man Adası, Jersey, Birleşik Krallık)
İngiltere gezginler üzerinde büyüleyici geçmişi ve dinamik yapısı ile daha büyük ufuklar açar. Burada modern kültür ve göçmen kültürleri iç içe geçmiştir. İrlanda'nın karakteristik gelenek ve görenekleri ise görülmeye değer farklılıktadır.
Kafkasya (Ermenistan, Azerbaycan, Gürcistan)
Kafkasya Karadeniz ve Hazar Denizi'nden itibaren Avrupa ve Asya arasında uzanan bir dağ silsilesi üzerine kuruludur. Kafkasya gezginler için yoğun, sıcak, samimi ve güvenli bir gezi bölgesidir. İnanılmaz manzaralar, antik kiliseler, katedraller ve manastırların büyüsü sizi burada karşılar.
Orta Avrupa (Avusturya, Çek Cumhuriyeti, Almanya, Macaristan, Lihtenştayn, Polonya, Slovakya, Slovenya, İsviçre)
Doğu ve batıya yayılan Orta Avrupa Germen kültürü ve Slav kültürü bu bölgede birleşir. Kudretli Alp'lerde sayısız tarihi kasaba, masal gibi kaleler, bira, ormanlar ve dağlar, bozulmamış tarım alanlarına ev sahipliği yaparlar.
Fransa ve Monako
Fransa ve Monako dünyada en popüler turizm alanları olup, coğrafi olarak ta Avrupa'nın en farklı ülkeleridir. İlgi çekici turistik yerlerinden bazıları; Paris, Fransız Riviera'sında bulunan Atlantik sahilleri, Alpler'in kış sporu tatil köyleri, Loire Valley Bölgesinde bulunan kaleler, Brittany, Normandiya ve Dordogne bölgeleri ise kırsal manzaralar içerir. Aynı zamanda ülke gastronomi (özellikle şarap ve peynir), tarih, kültür ve moda ile tanınır.
Yunanistan, Türkiye ve Kıbrıs
Avrupa'da güneş saati en fazla olan ülkeler bu coğrafyada toplanmıştır. Doğu Akdeniz plaj müdavimleri için, Türkiye ise geniş tarihi kültürü ile tarih severler için cennettir.
İber Yarımadası (Andorra, Cebelitarık, Portekiz, İspanya)
İber ülkeleri zengin ve özgün kültürleri, canlı şehirleri, güzel doğası ve samimi nüfusu ile harika yerler içerir.
İtalyan Yarımadası (İtalya, Malta, San Marino, Vatikan Şehir Devleti)
Roma, Floransa, Venedik ve Pisa kulesi birçok gezginin öncelikli güzergahları arasındadır. Ancak bunlar İtalya'nın gezilebilir yerlerinden sadece bir kaçıdır. İtalya diğer birçok ülkeden daha fazla iç içe geçmiş bir tarih ve kültüre sahiptir.
Rusya, Ukrayna ve Beyaz Rusya
Rusya, Ukrayna ve Beyaz Rusya doğusunda bulunan Pasifik Okyanusuna kadar yayılan geniş alanlara sahiptir. Ukrayna'nın Karadeniz sahil beldelerindeki Odessa, Lviv ve Kiev sunabileceği çok farklı şeylerle bölgenin önde gelen güzel şehirlerindendir. Avrupa'nın kuzeyindeki Rusya ise son diktatör ülke olarak anılmaya devam edilecektir.
İskandinavya (Danimarka, Faroe Adaları, Finlandiya, İzlanda, Norveç, İsveç)
Dağları, gölleri, buzulları, gayzerleri, şelaleleri ve volkanları ile muhteşem sahneler sunmaktadır. Finlandiya'da, kullanılan dil ise kültür olarak İskandinav dillerinden farklıdır.
Ayrıca bkz.: Avrupa mikro ülkeleri


Politik olarak, bazı ülkeler Avrupa Birliğine dahildirler ve ortak bir siyasi çerçevede hareket ederler. Tüm Avrupa devletlerini birleştirme ve uluslar arasılaştırma çabaları ise her dönem olduğu gibi devam etmektedir. Ancak Avrupa'da çeşitli bölge ve ülkeler için Avrupa Birliği üyeliği farklı anlamlara gelmektedir. Bu kapsamda ülkelerin değişkin fikirleri de bulunmaktadır. Rusya, Türkiye ve Kafkasya'nın bazı parçaları, bazen farklı kültür, tarih ve coğrafyaları nedeniyle Avrupa'nın değil de, Asya'nın bir parçası olarak kabul edilirler.

Şehirler[edit]

  • Amsterdam — kanallar, Rembrandt, esrar ve kırmızı fenerler, sosyal özgürlükçü tutumların üssü
  • Barselona — Akdeniz kıyısında Gaudi'nin kozmopolit evi
  • Berlin — 1990 yılından bu yana yeniden birleşen Almanya'nın başkenti. Şehir Soğuk Savaş sırasında 45 yıl boyunca iki ayrı şehir haline gelmişti. Ancak Berlin duvarının yıkılmasının ardından şehir hızlı bir gelişme göstererek, uluslararası bir kültür merkezi haline geldi
  • İstanbul — Doğu ve Batıdaki iki büyük kıtayı birleştiren ve kaynaştıran büyüleyici bir coğrafyada bulunan şehir
  • Londra — İngiltere'nin canlı ve gerçekten çok kültürlü başkenti
  • Moskova — Avrupa'nın en büyük kenti, gece hayatı ve ikonik Kremlin sarayı ile ünlü
  • Paris — Seine kıyısındaki romantizmin başkenti
  • Prag — Vltava Nehrine yayılmış meşhur köprüleri ile büyülü bir şehir
  • Roma — Geçmişi 2700 yıl öncesine dayanan sonsuz şehir


Diğer gezilebilecek yerler[edit]

El Hamra Sarayı (Endülüs, İspanya)
  • El Hamra Sarayı — bir kısmı kale, diğer bir kısmı saray, bir kısmı bahçe ve kısmen şehir yönetim alanı, Granada'ya bakan çarpıcı bir ortaçağ kompleksi
  • Alpler — kayak / snowboard ve dağcılık için çok popüler dağ. En yüksek zirvesi ise Mont Blanc
  • Cinque Terre — resminin yapılmasına değecek, beş köyü bağlayan muhteşem bir milli park
  • Białowieża Ormanı — Avrupa ovasının ortasına yayılmış, muazzam ilkel ormandan kalan son ve en büyük parça
  • Blue Lagoon — kışın dondurucu soğuklarda dahi sıcaklığı 40 C° civarındaki olan jeotermal spa
  • Meteora — altı doğal kumtaşı kaya sütunlar üzerine inşa edilmiş Doğu Ortodoks manastırı
  • Neuschwanstein Şatosu — Almanya Bavyera Alpleri'nde tanınmış masal kalesi
  • Plitvice Gölleri — büyük bir orman kompleksi ile çevrili güzel turkuaz renkli göl
  • Stonehenge — Salisbury Ovası üzerinde bulunan tanınmış Neolitik ve Tunç Çağına ait taş anıt


Anlayın[edit]

Tarihçe[edit]

Rönesansın doğum yeri olar Floransa, şaşırtıcı derecede kültürel bir mirasa sahiptir

Yazılı Avrupa kültürüne ilişkin ilk somut işaretler Antik Yunanistan'da bulunabilir. Homeros ( MÖ 800 ?), Hesiodos ( MÖ 753 ) ve Kallinos ( MÖ 728 ) Avrupa'nın bilinen en ünlü eski şairleridir. Romalıların modern Roma'yı MÖ 800 ile 1000 yılları arasında iskan ettiğini düşünüyor olabilirsiniz. Fakat günümüz arkeologları MÖ 753 yıllarında kurulduğunu düşünmektedirler.

Hristiyanlık Avrupa'da MS 300 (A.D.) lü yıllarda yayılmaya başladı. MS 500 civarında İspanya Kuzey Afrika'daki berberi müslümanlar tarafından işgal edildi.

Avrupa Birliği

Coğrafya[edit]

Europe makes up the western one fifth of the Eurasian landmass. It's bounded by bodies of water on three sides: the Arctic Ocean to the north (the Nordkapp being its most northerly point), the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The Mediterranean Sea is a popular beach destination because of its climate. Europe's eastern borders are ill-defined and have been moving eastwards throughout history. Currently, the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Caspian and Black Seas and the Bosporus Strait are considered its eastern frontier, making Istanbul the only metropolis in the world on two continents. Cyprus is also considered a part of Europe.

Europe is a geographically diverse continent. Europe's highest point is Russia's Mt. Elbrus in the Caucasus Mountains, which rises to 5,642 m (18,510 ft) above sea level. Western Europe's highest point is the Mont Blanc in the Alps with 4,810 m (15,771 ft) above sea level. Other important mountain ranges include the Pyrenees between France and Spain and the Carpathians that run through Central Europe to the Balkans. Most regions along the North and Baltic Seas are flat, especially the Low Countries, Northern Germany and Denmark. The coasts of the North and Baltic Seas feature hundreds of miles of sandy beaches and resorts, albeit in colder climates.

Europe's longest river is the Volga, which meanders 3,530 km (2,193 mi) through Russia, and flows into the Caspian Sea. The Danube and the Rhine formed much of the northern frontier of the Roman Empire, and have been important waterways since pre-historic times. The Danube starts in the Black Forest in Germany and passes through the capital cities Vienna, Bratislava, Budapest, and Belgrade before emptying in the Black Sea. The Rhine starts in the Swiss Alps and caused the Rhine Falls, the largest plain waterfall in Europe. From there, it makes up the French-German border border flowing through Western Germany and the Netherlands. Many castles and fortifications have been built along the Rhine, including those of the Rhine Valley.

İklim[edit]

Europe's climate is temperate. It is milder than other areas of the same latitude (e.g. northeastern U.S.) due to the influence of the Gulf Stream. However, there are profound differences in the climates of different regions. Europe's climate ranges from subtropical near the Mediterranean Sea in the south, to subarctic near the Barents Sea and Arctic Ocean in the northern latitudes. Extreme cold temperatures are only found in northern Scandinavia and parts of Russia in the winter.

Average annual precipitation diverges widely in Europe. Most rainfall takes place in the Alps, and in a band along the Adriatic Sea from Slovenia to the west coast of Greece. Other regions with plenty of rainfall include the northwest of Spain, the British Isles and western Norway. Bergen has the most amount of rainfall in Europe with 235 rainy days a year. Most rain takes place in the summer, due to westerly winds from the Atlantic that hit the British Isles, the Benelux, western Germany, northern France and southwestern Scandinavia.

The best time to visit Europe is in the summer. In August, the British Isles, Benelux, Germany and northern France have average highs of around 23-24°C, but these temperatures cannot be taken for granted. That's why in the summer many flights go from northern to southern Europe as northerners flee the rain and possible lower than average temperatures. The Mediterranean has the highest amount of sun-hours in Europe, and the highest temperatures. Average temperatures in August are 28°C in Barcelona, 30°C in Rome, 33°C in Athens and 39°C in Alanya along the Turkish Riviera. A general rule is that the further south and east one goes, the warmer it becomes.

Winters are relatively cold in Europe, even in the Mediterranean countries. The only areas with daily highs around 15°C in January are Andalucia in Spain, some Greek Islands, and the Turkish Riviera. Western Europe has an average of around 4-8°C in January, but temperatures drop below freezing throughout the winter. Regions east of Berlin have particularly cold temperatures with average highs below freezing. Russia is an exceptional case as Moscow and Saint Petersburg have average highs of -5°C and lows of -10°C in January. Some activities are best done in the winter, such as winter sports in the Alps. The highest peaks of the Alps have perpetual snow.

The Network of European Meteorological Services has a useful website [1] providing up-to-date information for extreme weather, covering most of the EU countries.

Ülkeler[edit]

Europe is a continent of many wildly different countries. A subset of these countries are in the slow and painful process of coming together as the European Union (EU).

Not all EU countries have adopted the euro (€), the European Union single currency (see Buy), while a few countries outside the EU have adopted it. Likewise, most — but not all — EU members and a few non-EU countries have joined the Schengen agreement, which abolished border controls between them (see Get in). Here is a handy reference table, up to date as of 2009:

Country Symbol Currency EU member Schengen
implemented
Time zone³ Eurail InterRail
Albania AL, .al ALL n n CET n n
Andorra AND, .ad EUR n n5 CET n n
Armenia ARM, .am AMD n n +4 n n
Austria A, .at EUR 1995 y CET y y
Belarus BY, .by BYR n n EET n n
Belgium B, .be EUR 1958 y CET y y
Bosnia and Herzegovina BIH, .ba BAM n n CET n y
Bulgaria BG, .bg BGN 2007 n EET y y
Croatia HR, .hr HRK n CET y y
Cyprus CY, .cy EUR 2004 n CET n n
Czech Republic CZ, .cz CZK 2004 y CET y y
Denmark DK, .dk DKK 1973 y CET y y
Estonia EST, .ee EUR 2004 y EET n n
Finland FIN, .fi EUR 1995 y EET y y
France F, .fr EUR 1958 y CET y y
Germany D, .de EUR 1958 y CET y y
Greece GR, .gr EUR 1981 y EET y y
Hungary H, .hu HUF 2004 y CET y y
Iceland IS, .is ISK n y WET n n
Ireland IRL, .ie EUR 1973 n WET y y
Italy I, .it EUR 1958 y CET y y
Latvia LV, .lv LVL 2004 y EET n n
Liechtenstein FL, .li CHF n y CET n n
Lithuania LT, .lt LTL 2004 y EET n n
Luxembourg L, .lu EUR 1958 y CET y y
Macedonia MK, .mk MKD n¹ n CET n y
Malta M, .mt EUR 2004 y CET n n
Moldova MD, .md MDL n n EET n n
Monaco MC, .mc EUR n n5 CET n n
Montenegro MNE, .me (.yu) EUR n CET n7 y
Netherlands NL, .nl EUR 1958 y CET y y
Norway N, .no NOK n y CET y y
Poland PL, .pl PLN 2004 y CET n7 y
Portugal P, .pt EUR 1986 y WET y y
Romania RO, .ro RON 2007 n EET y y
Russia RU, .ru (.su) RUB n n MSK4 n n
San Marino RSM, .sm EUR n n5 CET n n
Serbia SRB, .rs (.yu) RSD2 n1 n CET n7 y
Slovakia SK, .sk EUR 2004 y CET n y
Slovenia SLO, .si EUR 2004 y CET y y
Spain E, .es EUR 1986 y CET y y
Sweden S, .se SEK 1995 y CET y y
Switzerland CH, .ch CHF n y CET y y
Turkey TR, .tr TRY n EET n y
Ukraine UA, .ua UAH n n EET n n
United Kingdom GB, .uk GBP 1973 n WET n y
Vatican City V, .va EUR n n5 CET n n

¹ Official EU applicant countries.

³ Winter time. In summer (last Sunday in March to Saturday before last Sunday in October): WET → WEST (UTC+0 → +1), CET → CEST (+1 → +2), EET → EEST (+2 → +3)

4 Russia uses multiple time zones. EET in Kaliningrad Oblast, MSK (UTC+4) in Moscow, up to UTC+12 on Chukotka and Kamchatka.

5 Officially not a Schengen member, but Schengen visa holders are generally allowed entry.

6 Independence disputed, claimed by Serbia.

7 Certain EuRail passes cover these countries (and only the Germany-Poland pass covers Poland), but the general 21-country pass does not.

Gidebilmek[edit]

Schengen Area

Şengen Bölgesi üye ülkeleri: Avusturya, Belçika, Çek Cumhuriyeti, Danimarka, Estonya, Finlandiya, Fransa, Almanya, Yunanistan, Macaristan, İzlanda, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Litvanya, Luksemburg, Malta, Hollanda, Norveç, Polanya, Portekiz, Slovakya, Sloveya, İspanya, İsveç, and Svitzerland.

Rules for entering Europe depend on where you are going. EU/EFTA citizens can travel freely throughout the continent (except Russia, Belarus and the Caucasus), so the following applies only to non-EU/EFTA citizens.

If you are entering a Schengen country and you plan to visit only other Schengen countries, you need only one Schengen visa. Only the nationals of the following non-EU/EFTA countries do not need a visa for entry into the Schengen Area: Albania*, Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Bosnia and Herzegovina*, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Japan, Macedonia*, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Montenegro*, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, San Marino, Serbia*/**, Seychelles, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan*** (Republic of China), United States, Uruguay, Vatican City, Venezuela, additionally persons holding British National (Overseas), Hong Kong SAR or Macau SAR passports.

These non-EU/EFTA visa-free visitors may not stay more than 90 days in a 180 day period in the Schengen Area as a whole and, in general, may not work during their stay (although some Schengen countries do allow certain nationalities to work - see below). The counter begins once you enter any country in the Schengen Area and is not reset by leaving a specific Schengen country for another Schengen country, or vice-versa. However, New Zealand citizens may be able to stay for more than 90 days if they only visit particular Schengen countries - see [2] for the New Zealand Government's explanation.

If you are a non-EU/EFTA national (even if you are visa-exempt, unless you are Andorran, Monégasque or San Marinese), make sure that your passport is stamped both when you enter and leave the Schengen Area. Without an entry stamp, you may be treated as an overstayer when you try to leave the Schengen Area; without an exit stamp, you may be denied entry the next time you seek to enter the Schengen Area as you may be deemed to have overstayed on your previous visit. If you cannot obtain a passport stamp, make sure that you retain documents such as boarding passes, transport tickets and ATM slips which may help to convince border inspection staff that you have stayed in the Schengen Area legally.

Note that

  • while British subjects with the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British Overseas Territories citizens connected to Gibraltar are considered "United Kingdom nationals for European Union purposes" and therefore eligible for unlimited access to the Schengen Area,
  • British Overseas Territories citizens without the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British subjects without the right of abode in the United Kingdom as well as British Overseas citizens and British protected persons in general do require visas.

However, all British Overseas Territories citizens except those solely connected to the Cyprus Sovereign Base Areas are eligible for British citizenship and thereafter unlimited access to the Schengen Area.

Further note that

(*) nationals of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia need a biometric passport to enjoy visa-free travel,

(**) Serbian nationals with passports issued by the Serbian Coordination Directorate (residents of Kosovo with Serbian passports) do need a visa and

(***) Taiwan nationals need their ID number to be stipulated in their passport to enjoy visa-free travel.


The 90 days visa-free stay applies for the whole Schengen area, i.e. it is not 90 days per country as some assume. Citizens of the above countries who wish to travel around Europe for longer than 90 days must apply for a residency permit. This can be done in any Schengen country, but Germany or Italy are recommended, because many other countries require applicants to apply from their home countries.

Non-Schengen countries, on the other hand, maintain their own immigration policies. Consult the country article in question for details. If you wish to visit a non-Schengen country and return to the Schengen area, you will need a multiple-entry visa. Bulgaria, Romania, Ireland, and the United Kingdom are EU members, but they are not part of the Schengen Area. To add confusion Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Iceland and Norway are not EU members but part of the Schengen area.

The implications of this are simple: countries in the EU maintain similar customs controls. Therefore, you do not need to pass through customs when travelling to a non-Schengen EU country, but you may need to pass through immigration controls. The converse is true for non-EU Schengen countries: you must pass through customs, but not immigration.

Uçak ile[edit]

The largest air travel hubs in Europe are, in order, London (LON: LCY, LHR, LGW, STN, LTN, SEN), Frankfurt (FRA, HHN), Paris (CDG, ORY), Madrid (MAD), and Amsterdam (AMS) which in turn have connections to practically everywhere in Europe. However, nearly every European city has direct long-distance flights at least to some destinations elsewhere, and other smaller airports can make sense for specific connections: for example, Vienna (VIE) has a very good network of flights to the Middle East and Eastern Europe, while Helsinki (HEL) is the geographically closest place to transfer if coming in from East Asia.

Tren ile[edit]

The Trans-Siberian Railway from Beijing and Vladivostok to Moscow is a classic rail journey. Also after the finalized construction of a railway link between Kazakhstan and China, the Historic Silk Road is becoming increasingly popular with adventurers, trying to beat down a new path, this new Almaty - Urumqi service runs twice per week, and Almaty is easily reached from Moscow by train. Other options include several connections to the middle east, offered by the Turkish Railways (TCDD) [3]. There are weekly services from Istanbul via Ankara to Tehran in Iran, and Damascus in Syria, as well as a sketchy service to Baghdad.

Gemi ile[edit]

It is still possible, but expensive, to do the classic transatlantic voyage between the United Kingdom and the United States. The easiest option is by the historic, and only remaining Ocean Liner operator, Cunard Line [4], but expect to pay 1000-2000 USD for the cheapest tickets on the 6 day voyage between Southampton and New York done around 10 times per year in each direction. If your pockets are not deep enough for this price range, your only other options of crossing the North Atlantic are pretty much limited to Freighter travel.

Most major cruise ships that ply the waters of Europe during summer (June - September) also do cruises in Latin America and Southeast Asia for the rest of the year. That means those ships have a transatlantic journey twice per year, at low prices when you consider the length of the trip (at least a week). These are often called positioning cruises. MSC has several ships from the Caribbean to Europe at April and May.

There are several lines crossing the Mediterranean, the main ports of call in North Africa is Tangier in Morocco and Tunis in Tunisia (See Ferries in the Mediterranean for more details), but there is also a little known option of going via Cyprus where you can use Louis Cruises crossings to Port Said in Egypt and Haifa in Israel as a regular ferry service. Keep in mind though, that you can only do this on routes out of Cyprus, and it requires special arrangements - Varianos Travel in Nicosia seem to be the only tour agency offering this option.

Get around[edit]

There are virtually no border controls between countries that have signed and implemented the Schengen Agreement, except under special circumstances during major events. Likewise, a visa granted for any Schengen Agreement signatory country is valid in all other countries that signed and implemented the treaty. Be careful: not all EU members have signed the Schengen treaty, and not all Schengen treaty countries are members of the European Union. See the table above for the current list.

Airports in Europe are thus divided into "Schengen" and "non-Schengen" sections, which effectively act like "domestic" and "international" sections elsewhere. If you are flying from outside Europe into one Schengen country and continuing to another, you will clear passport control in the first country and then continue to your destination with no further checks. However, if travelling within the Schengen Area to or from one of the Schengen countries outside the EU, customs controls are still in place.

Travel to and from a Schengen Agreement country to any other country will result in the normal border checks. Note that, regardless of whether you traveling within Schengen or not, at some airports, airlines will still insist on seeing your ID card or passport.

As an example of the practical implications on the traveller:

  • Travel from Germany to France (both EU, both Schengen): no controls
  • Travel from Germany to Switzerland (both Schengen, Switzerland not in EU): customs checks, but no immigration control
  • Travel from France to the United Kingdom (both EU, UK not in Schengen): immigration control, but no customs check
  • Travel from Switzerland to the United Kingdom: immigration and customs checks

Tren ile[edit]

Main article: Rail travel in Europe
A German high-speed ICE train

Especially in Western and Central Europe, the trains are fast, efficient and cost-competitive with flying. High-speed trains like the Italian Frecciarossa,the French TGV, the German ICE, the Spanish AVE and the cross-border Eurostar and Thalys services speed along at up to 320 km/h (200 mph) and, when taking into account travel time to the airport and back, are often faster than taking the plane. The flip side is that tickets bought on the spot can be expensive, although there are good discounts available if you book in advance or take advantage of various deals. In particular, the Inter Rail (for Europeans) and Eurail (for everybody else) passes offer good value if you plan on traveling extensively around Europe (or even a single region) and want more flexibility than cheap plane tickets can offer.

The most extensive and most reliable train travel planner for all of Europe is the one belonging to the German railways (DB), which can be found here in English.

Uçak ile[edit]

EU Passenger Rights

European Union (EU) Regulation 261/2004 of 17. February 2005 [5] gives certain rights to passenger on all flights, schedule or charter and flights provided as part of a Package Holiday. It only applies to passengers flying from an EU airport by whatever carrier, or from an airport outside the EU to an EU airport on an EU carrier.

Denied Boarding

If:

  • you have a valid ticket
  • you have a confirmed reservation
  • you have checked in by the deadline given to you by the airline

Then you are entitled to a compensation, which is:

  • €250 if the flight is shorter than 1500 km
  • but only €125 if it is delayed less than 2 hours
  • €400 if the flight is between 1500 km and 3500 km
  • but only €200 if it is delayed less than 3 hours
  • €600 if the flight is longer than 3500 km
  • but only €300 if it is delayed less than 4 hours
  • and a refund of your ticket (with a free flight back to your initial point of departure, when relevant)
  • or alternative transport to your final destination.

The airline also have to cover the following expenses:

  • two telephone calls or emails, telexes or faxes
  • meals and refreshments in reasonable relation to the waiting time.
  • hotel accommodation if you are delayed overnight.

Usually they will give you a prepaid phone card, and vouchers for a restaurant and a hotel.

Refund for delayed flight

If your flight is delayed 5 hours or longer you can get a refund of your ticket (with a free flight back to your initial point of departure, when relevant).

All flights within and from the European Union limit liquids, gels and creams in hand baggage to 100 mL/container, carried in a transparent, zip-lock plastic bag (1L or less). The bag must be presented during security checks and only one bag per passenger is permitted.

Ucuz havayolları[edit]

Main article: Discount airlines in Europe

Dozens of budget airlines allow very cheap travel around Europe, often much cheaper than the train or even bus fares for the same journey, Currently the cheapest flights are offered by low cost airlines such as AirBerlin, Germanwings, EasyJet, Tuifly, Ryanair and WizzAir. All of these flights should be booked on the internet well in advance, otherwise the price advantage may become non-existent. Always compare prices with major carriers like British Airways, Air France-KLM or Lufthansa! Only in very few cases prices are higher than € 80 on any airline when booking a month or more ahead of time (except on very long routes e.g. Dublin - Istanbul). You should also make sure where the airport is located, since some low cost airlines name very small airports by the next major city, even if the distance is up to two hours drive by bus (e.g. Ryan- and Wizzair's Frankfurt-Hahn, which is not Frankfurt/Main International).

Otobüs ile[edit]

For very long distances, travelling by bus may actually be more expensive than traveling by plane. However, bus travel is generally advantageous for shorter trips, trips on short notice, if wish to see the countryside you are traveling through, if you have heavy luggage, or if you are a proponent of Ecotourism.

Eurolines [6] connects over 500 destinations, covering the whole of Europe and Morocco. Eurolines allows travelling from Sicily to Helsinki and from Casablanca to Moscow. Eurolines buses make very few stops in smaller cities, and is generally only viable for travel between large cities.

Eurolines offers several types of passes [7]. Each individual journey must be booked in advance of its departure date/time. That means that, depending on availability, you may or may not be able simply arrive at the bus terminal and board any available bus. The pass works well for travelers who either prefer only to see major cities, or who intend to use the pass in conjunction with local transportation options. Pass-holders can travel between the following cities: Amsterdam, Madrid, Barcelona, Marseille, Berlin, Milan, Bordeaux, Montpellier, Bratislava, Munich, Brno, Nantes, Brussels, Oslo, Bucharest, Paris, Budapest, Perpignan, Cologne, Prague, Copenhagen, Riga, Dublin, Rome, Edinburgh, Siena, Florence, Stockholm, Frankfurt, Strasbourg, Gdańsk, Stuttgart, Geneva, Tallinn, Gothenburg, Toulouse, Hamburg, Venice, Kraków, Vienna, Lille, Vilnius, London, Warsaw, Lyon, Zurich

Touring [8] (German variant of Eurolines), Sindbad[9] (Polish), Lasta [10] (from Serbia), Linebus [11] (Spanish) and National Express[12] (from the UK) are other options.

Gemi[edit]

Main articles: Baltic Sea ferries, Ferries in the Mediterranean, Ferry routes to British Mainland

The Baltic sea has several lines running between the major cities (for example Gdańsk, Stockholm, Helsinki, Tallinn, Riga etc.). Most ships are very large, parallelling Caribbean cruise liners in size and in service.

In the Atlantic, Smyril Line [13] is the only company sailing to the rather remote North Atlantic islands; Iceland and the Faroe Islands It sails from Denmark, which also host numerous lines to Norway and Sweden. From the British isles a huge number of lines still cross the English channel to France, despite the opening of the channel-tunnel. And there are also numerous services to Denmark, the Benelux and even across the Biscay to Spain. Further south there is a weekly service from Portimão to the Canary Islands via the remote volcanic Madeira island.

In the Mediterranean Sea a large number of ferries and cruise ships operate between Spain Italy and Southern France. And across the Italian peninsular ferries also ply across the Adriatic sea to Croatia and Greece, with Bari as the main terminal (out of many).

And finally The Black Sea also has several ferries plying across it's waters, albeit service can be fairly sketchy at times. Poti, Istanbul and Sevastopol are the main ports, but nearly all the Black Sea ports has a ferry going somewhere, but rarely anywhere logical - i.e. often along the coast.

There are also various ferries on the larger lakes and for crossing rivers. Furthermore, there are several regularly running cruise-lines on the larger rivers like the Rhine, Danube and the Volga. And boating excursions within Europe, particularly along the scenic rivers and between many of the islands in the Mediterranean, are an excellent way to combine travel between locations with an adventure along the way. Accommodations range from very basic to extremely luxurious depending upon the company and class of travel selected. Another famous line is the Hurtigruten cruise-ferries which sails all along Norway's amazing coastline and fjords.

Araba[edit]

The ease of driving on the continent varies greatly, and as a general rule east and west of the old iron curtain are two different worlds. Western Europe for the most part have good road conditions and an extensive and well developed highway network, whereas Eastern Europe are still working hard on the great backlog left behind from communist days. During vacations, especially during summer and Christmas vacations, driving on the motorways (highways) can be hellish, particularly in Germany (listen for the word Stau in the automated traffic broadcasts).

Trafik kuralları[edit]

There are no uniform speed limits across the union, the fabled limitless German autobahn is now limited to mostly rural sections. The majority of motorways/freeways have a 110-130 kph (70-80 mph) speed limit, while the limit on undivided highways varies between 80 and 100 km/h (50-65 mph). For North Americans, a major difference is the left lane on motorways, which are not the "fast lane" you're used to, but rather the "passing lane", it's illegal to overtake on the right, so you should only occupy the outer lane when you are overtaking someone; stay there, and you will have other vehicles tailgating while flashing their lights in annoyance and traffic police eager to fine you. Remember to use turn signals when changing lanes.

Except for priority streets (check the symbol in the table) there is a general duty to give way to traffic from your right in crossings and intersections that are not marked, and other drivers have every expectation you adhere to this. This also applies to unmarked T-intersections, unlike in North America England, Australia, Japan and most other places where the ending road should normally yield to the through road even if unmarked. But in the ubiquitous roundabouts (circles) you find everywhere across the continent, cars already in the circle give way to incoming drivers (coming from their right) unless there is a yield sign in front of the roundabout. Finally, don't do right turns on red lights (unless for example, in Germany the light features a green right arrow sign, in which case right turning right on red is permitted, but important to note, only after coming to a dead stop first, otherwise a $120 fine can be charged despite you having arrived in the country that day), it's illegal, and because it's not common practice, also dangerous.

Markings and signs are similar throughout Europe but variations in design and interpretations exist so it may be very practical to research each country individually before you travel. In Germany there are so many signs that even the Minister of Traffic showed on television that he was not exactly sure what they all meant. Several signs are strung one after the other on the same pole and are in some way related to each other.

Avoid large cities if you are not used to driving in Europe. Most city centres were built long before the introduction of automobiles, and were not meant to cope with the levels of traffic common these days. So for the most part it may be a slow, frustrating and potentially dangerous experience, and even then, finding a parking spot can potentially take a long time and cost several Euros when you find it. Streets in the old city centres also tend to be very narrow and difficult to drive on. In addition, Instead park on the outskirts of town, where it is often free, and use the, usually extensive public transit system instead. If you are renting, try to "work around having a car" while visiting large cities.

  • Age: Almost everywhere, especially in the EU, you need to be 18 years old to drive, even supervised, and in countries with Learning schemes, it's usually an exhaustive procedure to get a permit, and rarely applicable to foreign citizens anyway. Exceptions include Portugal, Ireland and the UK.
  • Equipment
    • A warning triangle is compulsory nearly anywhere, and so is using it in case of breakdowns. An alcohol testing device is now mandatory in France (even for non-alcoholics).
    • Hi-Visibility (reflective) vests are compulsory in Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Portugal and Spain and gaining popularity elsewhere.
    • Headlamp Adjusters are also compulsory equipment in most countries, but in the U.K. and Ireland only if you are driving a continental car.
  • Paperwork
    • Original Registration Document is compulsory
    • Motor vehicle insurance certificate is compulsory
    • A black and white, 1-3 letter country identity sticker is compulsory for cars without EU license plates.
    • International driving permit, while it's not compulsory for certain nationalities in some European countries, it's cheap, and could potentially save you from nasty incidents with authorities.

If you plan to rent a car to drive around Europe, it often makes sense to check the rates in different countries rather than just hire a car in the country of arrival. The price differences can be substantial for longer rentals, to the extent that it can make sense to adjust your travel plans accordingly i.e. if you plan on travelling around Scandinavia by car, it will often be much cheaper to fly into Germany and rent a car there. Compared to North America, you should be prepared for smaller, but more efficient cars, and most of them have manual transmission, so don't expect an automatic without requesting one while placing your order (and often paying extra).

In any case driving in Europe is an expensive proposition, petrol (gas) prices hover around €1.30-1.60 per litre ($7–8 per US gallon) in much of Europe, while often somewhat cheaper in Russia. Rentals are around 2-3 more expensive than in North America. Highway tolls are very common, city centre congestion charges increasingly so, and even parking can work up to €50 ($70) per day in the most expensive cities. Driving can be an enjoyable and feasible way to see the countryside and smaller cities, but few Europeans would rent a car on for a vacation to a city such as Paris, Brussels or Amsterdam.

Bisiklet[edit]

European cycle route network Eurovelo [14] consists of 14 routes linking virtually every country on the continent. Some of these routes are not finished but plans are to have 60,000 km of bike lanes, now around 45,000 km are in place.

Eurovelo 6 [15] - Rivers Route.

Otopstop[edit]

Hitchhiking is a common way of travelling in some parts of Europe, especially in former eastern bloc countries. It can be a pleasant way to meet lots of people, and to travel without spending too many euros. Don't forget to check out the tips for hitchhiking.

Note that in the former eastern bloc, you may run into language problems while hitchhiking, especially if you speak only English. It is not advisable to hitchhike in former Yugoslavia, for example between Croatia and Serbia, because you could run into real big problems with nationalists. Between Croatia and Slovenia it's usually not a problem. In Moldova and Ukraine, it's better to take a train or bus. In western Europe, especially in the Netherlands and Germany, it can be weary and tedious to hitch-hike.

Talk[edit]

English proficiency varies greatly across the continent, but tends to increase the further north you get, in the Benelux and particularly Scandinavia almost everyone is able to communicate in English with varying degrees of fluency, while in the south and east you'll often be out of luck, especially outside major cities. German-speaking areas are also good bets. Speaking one of the Romance languages will likely help you a great deal in Portugal, Spain, France, Italy and Romania, while the same is true if you speak one of the Slavic languages in the East.

If you need assistance, look for someone young, under the age of 40 or even better under the age of 30, as this greatly increases your chances of locating an English speaker, although in Scandinavia English is spoken by nearly everyone regardless of age, and many older German,- or Dutch speakers know some English as well. Alternatively hotel staff can be another option, especially in areas where few locals speak English, even if you don't stay at their hotel.

Hiring a tour guide will also help you overcome the language barrier so arrange for one while preparing a trip, especially if you're travelling in groups.

See[edit]

Colosseum in Rome

The all too common concept of trying to "do Europe" is pretty unrealistic, and will most likely, if not ruin your vacation, then at least make it less enjoyable. While it is true that Europe is compact and easy to get around with efficient infrastructure set up everywhere, as previously mentioned, it also has more preserved history packed into it than virtually anywhere else. There are more than 400 world heritage sites on the continent, and that is just the very tip of the iceberg. So instead of running a mad dash through Europe in an attempt to get the ritual photos of you in front of the Colosseum, the Eiffel Tower, Big Ben etc. over and done with, the key is prioritize, pick 2-3 sights you really want to see per week, and plan a route from that, there are likely to be some amazing, world class sights and attractions, that you haven't even thought about, somewhere in between two given cities, and finding those will - in all likelihood - be infinitely more rewarding than following the beaten down post card route.

Tarihi ve kültürel yerler[edit]

Europe was home to some of the world's most advanced civilisations, which has led to an astonishing cultural heritage today. Ancient Greece has been credited with the foundation of Western culture, and has been immensely influential on the language, politics, educational systems, philosophy, science, and arts of the European continent. Ancient Greek structures are scattered over Greece and Turkey, including Delphi, Olympia, Sparta, Ephesus, Lycia and of course the Parthenon in Athens.

Ancient Greece was followed by the Roman Empire, one of the greatest civilisations in the world that took hold of large swathes of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. Visiting Roman ruins in Rome is a no-brainer, with the magnificent Colosseum, Pantheon and the Roman Forum. Many Roman ruins can also be found in Spain, such as the remains at Merida, Italica, Segovia, Toledo and Terragona. With 47 sites, Italy has the most UNESCO World Heritage Sites of any country in the world, directly followed by Spain with 43.

Demiryolu[edit]

Planlar[edit]

Yapabilecekleriniz[edit]

Müzik[edit]

Despite an ever growing competition from the United States and nations with new found wealth, Europe is still the spiritual home of classical music and Opera, and the various European capitals are home to some amazing 'old world' opera houses, where the hundreds of years of history, often enhances the experience into something otherworldly. But if opera singers give you a headache, and you would much rather head-bang, fear not, Europe has more music festivals than your liver will ever hold up to; the Roskilde Festival [16] in Roskilde, Sziget fesztivál [17] in Budapest and finally reigning champion Glastonbury [18] weighing in at 195.000 drunk souls, are widely considered the 3 big ones, but many other ones are not the slightest bit small. Alternatively, there is the revival Woodstock festival in Poland, [19] while it doesn't boast the star-studded line-up of some commercial festivals, is great for those who want to do it on the cheap (there is no ticket to buy) and attracted 700,000 music fans in 2011. Furthermore, there is the "Donauinselfest" which takes place every year in Vienna, and is said to be Europe's biggest free open-air event.

Spor[edit]

Perhaps no other field has seen stronger European integration than sports, most professional sports has Europe wide leagues in place, and nearly every sport has a bi-annual European Championship.

  • Football If you are already a football fan the game hardly gets any better than watching your favourite team battle it out against the world's greatest football clubs in the Champions League [20] or the Europa League [21]. Games in the pan European leagues usually takes place mid-week to allow for games in the national leagues to take place during the weekend. For the popular teams the tickets are often sold out weeks in advance.
  • Basketball The pan European Euroleague [22] is the highest tier of professional basketball in Europe, featuring teams from 18 different European countries and some of the best basketball you'll find outside the NBA. The regular season runs Oct-Jan and play-offs takes place between Jan-May.
  • Handball Also sees an annual pan European tournament, the Champions League [23] taking place every year. While the sport is little known outside Europe, it's one of the most popular sports on the continent. Two teams with seven players each pass and bounce a ball to throw it into the football-style goal of the opposing team.
  • Cycling Is another sport the enjoys much wider popularity in Europe, than virtually the rest of the world. Hundreds of competitions takes place every year, but the 3 unrivalled events of the year is the Tour de France [24], the Giro d'Italia [25] and the Vuelta a España [26], where thousands of thousands of spectators line up along the often hundred kilometre plus routes. The whole season is managed in a league like format called the Protour [27].

Kayak[edit]

Skiiing with the iconic Matterhorn as the backdrop

Europe is home to some fantastic ski resorts; the Alps are home of some of the best ski resorts in the world, and there are more here then anywhere else. Austria and Switzerland, contain hundreds of resorts alone. Other Alpine ski destinations include, France, Italy, Slovenia, Germany (Bavaria) and even tiny Liechtenstein. The largest area is Les Portes du Soleil [28], made up of 13 linked ski resorts in Switzerland and France, boasting over 650 km of marked runs.

But the fun doesn't stop in the Alps; The Scandinavian Mountains features some of the worlds most civilized and family oriented Skiing areas, but the lower altitude also means it's a trade-of for shorter runs - Åre is the biggest, while way up north Riksgränsen [29] allows skiing well into the summer. Scotland is home of 5 ski resorts, Nevis Range [30] has the highest vertical drop at 566 meters, while Glenshee [31] is the largest. A surprising option is Sierra Nevada in Spain, fairly large, just hours drive from the Mediterranean coast, and with a season often running into May - you can ski in the Morning, and chill on the beach in the afternoon. To the North the Pyrenees shared with France and Andorra also offers excellent skiing in up to 2,700 meters (8,000 ft) altitude, Domaine Tourmalet [32] is the largest resort in the area with over 100 km of pistes.

Puerto de la Ragua, Sierra Nevada (Spain)

Eastern Europe is seeing increasing popularity since prices are much lower than elsewhere on the continent, the downside is that facilities are not as expansive or modern as elsewhere in Europe, but things are rapidly improving. Slovenia is cheap alternative in the uber-expensive Alps, Kranjska Gora is the largest resort in the country. The Carpathian mountains with the highest runs at almost 2200 meters (7200 ft) is another popular area; Poiana Brasov (Romania, 20 km, 11 lifts [33]) Zakopane (Poland, 30 km, 20 lifts [34]) and Jasna (Slovakia, 29 km, 24 lifts [35]) are the largest and most popular areas in the respective countries.

Doğal Parklar[edit]

There are more than 360 national parks [36] on the continent, which is not a surprise since Europe is the world's second-most densely populated continent. Many parks are small, some less than a single km², but there are also some expansive national parks to explore. The Vatnajokull National Park on Iceland is the largest, covering around 12,000 km² (7,500 sq miles), and the fascinating national parks of the Arctic Svalbard are not far behind, while Yugyd Va National Park in the Russian Urals is largest on the mainland itself. In total the national parks of Europe encompass an area of around 98,000 km² (37,000 sq miles).

Açık hava etkinlikleri[edit]

Avrupa'da birçok şehir bisiklete binme için mükemmeldir. Ayrıca kanyonlar içerisinde rafting yapabilirsiniz.

Satın alma işlemi[edit]

Eurozone (light-blue unilaterally adopted the euro)
noframe


The euro (Symbol: €; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the common currency of many countries of the European Union. One euro equals 100 cents; sometimes referred to as 'euro cents' to differentiate them from their US and other counterparts. Established in 1999 and introduced in cash form on January 1, 2002, the euro removes the need for money exchange. As such it is not only a boon to pan-European business, but of course also to travellers.

It is interesting that each member nation has a unique design at the back of the euro coins minted in their country. Rest assured that regardless of the origin of the designs at the back, the euro coins are legal tender anywhere throughout the euro zone.

The euro has not been adopted by all EU countries. Those countries which have replaced their own national currencies are commonly called the Eurozone. By law, all EU countries (except Denmark and the United Kingdom) have to eventually adopt the euro.

Outside the EU, Kosovo and Montenegro have unilaterally adopted the euro, but all other countries still retain their own currencies. Euros are widely accepted in European countries outside the Eurozone, but not universally, and at shops and restaurants the exchange rate is rarely in your favor. (Many hotels, though, price and accept payment in euros.) Money changers will generally give good to excellent exchange rates for the euro, and in a pinch they will be accepted by nearly everybody.

Do not accept any of the obsolete currencies. While several countries' banks will still change them into euros, it's a lot of hassle and there is no guarantee that this will be possible everywhere or on short notice. You should also expect to leave your personal information with the bank as a precaution against money laundering.

ATM'ler[edit]

Avrupa'da, otomatik vezne makineleri bulunmaktadır. Çeşitli Avrupa Banka kartları ve kredi kartları kabul edilmektedir. Ancak, yabancı ülke para birimi veya yabancı ülkelerden para çekimi (genellikle çekilen miktarın yüzdesi kadar ve birkaç euro masraf alınır) için ücret farkı ödemeye hazırlıklı olmalısınız. Makineleri kullanmadan önce üzerlerinde bulunan etiket ve bildirimleri okumalısınız.

Avrupa'da bulunan ATM'lerin tuş takımlarında genellikle harf bulunmamaktadır. Ayrıca 4 basamaktan daha uzun PIN'ler sorun oluşturabilir.

Kredi kartları[edit]

Credit card acceptance is not as universal as in the United States, especially in Eastern Europe, but growing steadily. Some countries mandate that merchants check your ID for purchases of as little as €50, and many shops will insist on ID for any credit card transaction.

An increasing number of European countries, notably the UK, France, the Netherlands, Belgium and the Nordic countries, have moved to a chip and PIN system, where credit cards all have a chip built in and you have to punch in your PIN code instead of signing a receipt. Any store that displays Visa, MasterCard, Amex etc. logos is required to accept "traditional" sign-and-swipe cards, so be persistent if they initially refuse, although you may need to escalate to the manager. (With most terminals, swiping your card and simply waiting 20 seconds without entering the PIN will cause them to print out the signing slip.) However, with self-service like gas pumps and ticket vending machines, you may be out of luck.

Exchange[edit]

With 50 intricately linked countries and 28 currencies squeezed into an area roughly the size of Canada or China, the planet's largest diaspora due to the continent's colonial ties with virtually the entire world, and more tourism arrivals than anywhere else, currency exchange is a fact of life in Europe, and the market is probably better established than anywhere else in the world, and readily available nearly everywhere. Banks will nearly without exception exchange all European currencies, and within the European Union banks will accept nearly any currency that is legally traded abroad. Specialized currency exchange companies are also widespread, especially in major tourist destinations, and are often slightly cheaper than banks. However, with ATM's accepting all major credit and debit cards available everywhere, many visitors simply withdraw money electronically to get as close to the real exchange rate as possible.

Peşin ve takist ödeme[edit]

The EU is generally expensive for most visitors.

When buying souvenirs, it costs substantially less to purchase from smaller stalls than the stores affiliated with to larger establishments.

As for dining, most service items that are complimentary in your home country (e.g. water, bread) may not be so in the continent.

However most goods and services offered in the region are required to include value added tax (VAT) in their published prices, especially the large print. The VAT is refundable if you are a non-resident and intend to export the good you purchased outside the EU, just make sure you request for a voucher from the store and show them to customs at your exit point. To be safe, be on the lookout for a VAT refund sticker at the door or window of the store.

Yemek[edit]

İçme[edit]

Traditional alcohol belts in Europe; red indicates wine, brown indicates beer, and blue indicates vodka or other spirits

Europeans generally have liberal attitudes towards drinking, with the notable exception of Scandinavia (excluding Denmark). The legal drinking age varies between 16-18 in most countries, often with differentiated limits for beer and spirits. In most places drinking in public is both legal, and a common warm weather activity, and police are more likely to give you a warning and send you on your way to bed, than issue fines for drunken or rowdy behaviour. Except on the British Isles, the nightclubs rarely get going until past midnight, head for the bars and restaurants to find people until then.

Şarap[edit]

Europe is by far the biggest wine producing region in the world, France is the biggest and most famous, but 5 of the 10 largest wine exporters are European Nations; France is followed by Italy, Spain, Germany and Portugal, and nearly all European nations have wine production of some scale. Wine production was started 4000 years ago by the Minoan civilization in present day Greece, and was spread across Europe by the Phoenicians and later the Romans. Unlike other regions, European wine producers place much more emphasis on tradition and terroir than on the grape variety, and wines in Europe will typically be labelled by region rather than by its grape, e.g. Chardonnay, unlike the common practice elsewhere. This is because European wine producers claim that their long history have allowed them to adapt production techniques to the unique conditions of their particular region, and things like the soil composition for a region also has much influence on the taste of the wine. Some of the best and most famous wine regions of Europe includes Bordeaux, whose name is as synonymous with its wines as the large city. Another famous French region producing excellent wines is Burgundy (Bourgogne) around the city of Dijon, it produces both red and whites - the most famous ones, often referred to as Burgundies, are red wines made from Pinot Noir or white wines made from Chardonnay grapes. Further north, the Alsace region close to the Germany, and Mosel across the border - grown on some of the continents most dramatic wineyards on very steep hills, are above all known for their excellent white wines. Further to the south, Tuscany in Italy is famous for its Chianti wines made from Sangiovese grapes, while La Rioja is arguably the most popular, and certainly among the best, Spanish wine regions.

In fact, many wine names indicate the place where the wine comes from, with EU laws forbidding use of the name unless it is from a specific place. Examples include Champagne, which has to come from the Champagne region of France, Port which has to come from Porto, Portugal, Sherry which has to come from Jerez de la Frontera, Spain, as well as Tokaji which has to come from Tokaj, Hungary.

Bira[edit]

While wine is the most popular alcohol in Southern Europe, beer is the national drink for much of Northern Europe. Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and the Czech Republic make some of the finest brews in Europe and maybe the world. Visitors from many countries, especially those from East Asia or North America will find that European lagers have a richer stronger taste, and often a higher alcohol content than found at home.

  • In Europe as elsewhere, the most popular beers are lagers, also known as Pilsner after the Czech city of Pilsen that originated the style.
  • The United Kingdom, Ireland and partly the Belgian abbey breweries, on the other hand have strong brewing traditions in ale, which is brewed using quickly fermenting yeast giving it a sweet and fruity taste.
  • Wheat beers are very popular in Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands, and come in many varieties of their own. Traditional German hefeweizen is unfiltered and cloudy, while kristall is filtered and looks much like lager. Belgian witbiers like Hoegaarden are often gently flavored and popular in summer, sometimes with a slice of lemon on the side. And in a class of their own are spontaneously fermented lambics, which are very sour and not to everyone's taste!
  • Stout (porter) is a British and Irish speciality, with Guinness available around the continent. Made from roasted malts, stout is dark and strong in both taste and alcohol content, hence the name.

Most European nations have a national brand; like Carlsberg, Heineken or Stella, sold most everywhere - but the really good beers are often the smaller brands, which doesn't try to appeal to everyone. In recent years microbreweries have had a huge revival shooting up everywhere around the continent. If you really want to indulge, try one of the October fests, held in many German cities, the most famously Munich (where they start drinking already in late September!).

Another northern European favorite is cider, most commonly brewed from apples and sold both bottled and on tap in pubs. Taste and alcohol content can vary widely, from dense, cloudy and strong (8% or more) to light, weak (under 4%) and occasionally even artificially flavored.

Spirits[edit]

Like elsewhere on the planet; Vodka, Rum and Gin is available everywhere. Scandinavia (except Denmark), Eastern Europe and Russia especially have an affection for Vodka, and if you've so far only tried the usual suspects like Smirnoff or Absolut; you should try the Vodka there, you may just end up surprised at how tasty the stuff can actually be. Elsewhere, most regions have a local speciality that local drinking comrades will happily fill in you, and eagerly wait for your funny faces when your throat and taste-buds screams in agony. Most likely it will be Slivovitz (also called Rakia) in South-eastern Europe and the Balkans (especially in Serbia), a strongly tasting and fruity brandy, usually made from plums. Other forms of brandy, made from grapes instead, such as traditional Brandy, Cognac or Port wine are popular in the UK and South-western Europe. Greece and Italy makes the popular Ouzo/Sambuca which along with the related, resurgent Absinthe, is made from star anise and sugar, giving it a liquorice like taste - watch for the many party fire tricks related to those drinks. In northern Europe you'll likely be served Schnapps (or Snaps, Aquavit), usually made from fermented hops or potatoes accented by traditional herbs like dill or sloe, be careful, it suddenly kicks in without much warning. Finally, it will hardly come as a surprise to many that Whiskey (or Whisky) is popular with the Scots and Irish. While all these drinks have strong regional roots, you'll generally find one or two types of each, in virtually any bar on the continent.

Uyku[edit]

Lodging cultures in Europe differ significantly by country, but most people across the continent sleep in hotels. Most medium-sized towns at least have one hotel, and usually have a couple of them in different price ranges. Rooms are generally expensive: they usually go for about €90-300 per night, and prices even exceed that if you're staying in one of the top-end hotels that most major cities have. These hotels usually feature quite some amenities, including a TV, telephone, breakfast, etc. Some countries, such as France, also have roadside hotels that are somewhat similar to motels in the United States.

Because of the relatively high cost of lodging, hostels are popular among younger backpackers. All major cities have them, but they are difficult to find outside the typical tourist places. At around €15-30 per night, hostels are significantly cheaper than hotels. Quality varies widely across the continent. Hostels in eastern Europe are much cheaper and of a much lower quality than those in the western part.

There are also plenty of quirky means to stay. In Sweden you can sleep in a hotel made completely out of ice; Greece and Turkey have hotels in sandstone or rock caves; and Sveti Stefan in Montenegro is an island village that has been entirely converted into an accommodation.

Güvende kalmak için[edit]

For emergencies you can dial 112 in any EU member nation as well as most other European countries - even when it is not the primary number for emergency services. All 112 alarm centrals within the EU are legally required to be capable of patching you through to an English speaking operator. 112 can be dialled from any GSM phone, even locked phones or ones without a SIM installed.

The biggest risks to your safety in Europe like in any major tourist area are pickpockets and muggings. Using common sense and being aware of your surroundings can help to greatly reduce the risk of these occurrences. Remember alcohol is an integral part of many European cultures but overuse can lead to violence and poor judgment! In general, bars and pubs are not a place where alcohol causes these problems in Europe but it can end up being a big problem on the roads.

Most European countries have very low levels of violence compared to the United States. The main issues are drug use and gang related violence which are most prone in Britain and France, but it's virtually unheard of for any tourists to be involved in such issues. The few "trouble areas" that should be avoided are the run-down suburbs of certain urban areas (particularly in Europe's largest cities) and some places in eastern and southern Europe do have much higher violent crime rates, and can be very dangerous for non locals, but these areas shouldn't be of interest to the average tourist. Central and Western Europe are generally the safest regions.

Europe may be very urban and densely populated in general but as always when traveling in rural and forested / mountainous areas take the proper precautions. All it takes is one wrong turn down a ski piste and you are stranded. Time to take out the cell phone. Did you bring one?

For more information see Common scams which contains many Europe-specific scams.

Sağlıklı kalın[edit]

Avrupada çoğu restoran üst düzey hijyen standartlarına sahip olduğu için ve ülkelerin çoğunda musluk suyu içilebildiği için ziyaretlerde özel bir önlem gerekmez. Ancak, bu konularda daha detaylı bilgilere ulaşmak, acil yardım, ecza yönetmelikleri ve dişçilik standartları hakkında bilgi edinmek için lütfen ilgili ülkenin 'Güvenli kalın' bölümüne bakın.

AB/AEA vatandaşları Avrupa Sağlık Sigortası Kartı (EHIC) başvurusu yapmalılar, bu kart devletinizin sağladığı sağlık hizmetlerini Avrupa Birliği'ne ek olarak, Norveç, İsviçre ve Lihtenştaynda, ziyaret ettiğiniz ülkede ikamet edenlerle aynı koşullarda indirimli veya ücretsiz olarak almanızı sağlayacaktır. Eğer ülkenizde ücretsiz sağlık hizmetine alıştıysanız, unutmayın ki bazı ülkeler tedavi için ödeme almaktadır, bu ücret sizden de talep edilebilir. Ayrıca unutmayın ki EHIC seyahat sigortası anlamına gelmez; özel sağlığı, dağdan kurtarma operasyonu veya ülkenize nakili kapsamaz. Yurt dışına tedavi amaçlı seyahatinize müsade etmez.

AB/AEA vatandaşı değilseniz, seyahat sigortası yaptırmayı unutmayın, bazı ülkeler ücretsiz acil yardım sağlayabilir fakat devamındaki tedavi ve nakil süreci sijzen sorumluluğunuzdadır, ayrıca bazı ülkeler tüm masrafları sizin karşılamanızı isteyebilir - AB vatandaşı olmayanlar için evrensel sağlık hizmeti efsanesi ücretsiz tedavi anlamına gelmez.

İletişim[edit]

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