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ⵜⴰⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ
Afrique
Africa
ⵜⴰⴽⴰⵔⴹⴰ ⵏ ⵜⴰⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ
ⵜⴰⵊⵓⵎⵎⴰ 30,370,000 ⴽⵎ²
ⵜⴰⵖⵔⴼⵜ (2016) 1,225,080,510[1] ⵏ ⵉⵎⵣⴷⴰⵖ.
ⵜⴰⵏⵥⵥⵉ 36.4/ⴽⵎ²
ⴰⴼⴰⵔⵙ ⴰⵎⴰⴷⴷⴰⵢ ⵓⵙⵜⵉⵢ (ⴰⵙⵎⴰⵡⴰⵏ)
• ⴰⵙⴳⴳⴰⵙ 2017 3.3 ⵜⵔⵉⵍⵢⵓⵏ ⴷⵓⵍⴰⵔ
ⴰⵙⵎⵖⵔⴼ ⵉⴼⵔⵉⴽⵉⵢⵏ
ⵜⵉⵎⵓⵔⴰ 54

ⵜⴰⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜⴰⵎⵏⵥⴰⵡ ⵢⵓⵎⵥⵏ 6% ⵏ ⵜⴰⵙⵏⴰ ⵏ ⵡⴰⴽⴰⵍ ⵢⴰⵎⵥ 20% ⴳ ⵜⴰⵙⵏⴰ ⵏ ⵡⴰⴽⴰⵍ ⵢⵓⵎⴰⵏⵏ (ⵜⴰⵏⵏⴰ ⵅⴼ ⵓⵔ ⵉⴽⴽⵉ ⵢⵉⵍⵍ). ⵜⴰⵊⵓⵎⵎⴰ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵜⵓⵡⴹ ⴰⵔ 30 415 873 ⴽⵎ² ⵏⵜⵜⴰⵜ ⴷ ⵜⴳⵣⵉⵔⵉⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ, ⴰⵢⵏⵏⴰ ⵜⵜ ⵢⵓⵊⵊⴰⵏ ⴰⴷ ⵜⴳ ⵜⵉⵙ ⴽⵔⴰⴹⵜ ⴳ ⵓⵎⴰⴹⴰⵍ (ⵎⴽ ⵏⴳⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⴷ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵎⵏⵥⴰⵡ). ⵙ 1,225,080,510[1] ⵏ ⵉⵎⵣⴷⴰⵖ, ⵜⴳⴰ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⵜⵉⵙ ⵙⵏⴰⵜ ⴳ ⵡⵓⵟⵟⵓⵏ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵣⴷⴰⵖ ⴷⴼⴼⵉⵔ ⵜⴰⵣⵉⵜ, ⵜⵉⵍⵉ ⴷⵉⴳⵙ 16,4% ⵏ ⵉⵎⵣⴷⴰⵖ ⵏ ⵓⵎⴰⴹⴰⵍ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⴰⵙ ⵏ 2016. ⴰⵎⵏⵥⴰⵡ ⴰⴷ ⵉⴳⵍⵢ ⵜ ⵉⴷ ⵢⵉⵍⵍ ⴰⴳⵔⴰⴽⴰⵍ ⴳ ⵓⴳⴰⴼⴰ, ⴰⴱⴰⴷⵓ ⵏ ⵙⴰⵡⵉⵙⵢⵉⵍⵍ ⴰⵣⴳⴳⵯⴰⵖ ⴳ ⵓⴳⴰⴼⴰ ⴰⴳⵎⵓⴹⴰⵏ, ⴰⴳⴰⵔⴰⵡ ⴰⵀⵉⵏⴷⵉ ⴳ ⵓⵏⵥⵓⵍ ⴰⴳⵎⵓⴹⴰⵏ ⴷ ⵓⴳⴰⵔⴰⵡ ⴰⵏⴰⵟⵍⴰⵙ ⴳ ⵓⵜⴰⵔⴰⵎ.

ⵜⵉⵎⵓⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ[edit]

ⵜⴰⵎⵓⵔⵜ ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵥⵓⵏⵜ
ⴷⵣⴰⵢⵔ ⴷⵣⴰⵢⵔ
ⵍⵉⴱⵢⴰ ⵟⴰⵔⴰⴱⵍⵓⵙ
ⵎⵉⵚⵔⴰ ⵜⴰⵇⴰⵀⵉⵔⵜ
ⵎⵓⵔⵉⵜⴰⵏⵢⴰ ⵏⵡⴰⴽⵛⵓⵟ
ⴰⵏⴳⵓⵍⴰ ⵍⵓⵡⴰⵏⴷⴰ
ⴱⵉⵏⵉⵏ ⴱⵓⵔⵜⵓ ⵏⵓⴼⵓ
ⴱⵓⵜⵙⵡⴰⵏⴰ ⴳⴰⴱⵓⵔⵓⵏ
ⴱⵓⵔⴽⵉⵏⴰ ⴼⴰⵙⵓ ⵡⴰⴳⴰⴷⵓⴳⵓ
ⴱⵓⵔⵓⵏⴷⵉ ⴱⵓⵊⵓⵎⴱⵓⵔⴰ
ⴽⴰⵎⵉⵔⵓⵏ ⵢⴰⵡⵓⵏⴷⵉ
ⵉⵖⴼ ⴰⵣⴳⵣⴰⵡ ⴱⵔⴰⵢⴰ
ⵜⴰⴳⴷⵓⴷⴰ ⵏ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵏⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙⵜ ⴱⴰⵏⴳⵉ
ⵜⵛⴰⴷ ⵏⵊⴰⵎⵉⵏⴰ
ⵜⵉⴳⵣⵉⵔⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵢⵢⵓⵔ ⵎⵓⵔⵓⵏⵉ
ⴰⴼⵜⴰⵙ ⵏ ⵡⵓⵥⵔ ⵢⴰⵎⵓⵙⵓⴽⵔⵓ
ⴽⵓⵏⴳⵓ ⵜⴰⵎⴰⴳⴷⵓⵜ ⴽⵉⵏⵛⴰⵙⴰ
ⵊⵉⴱⵓⵜⵉ ⵊⵉⴱⵓⵜⵉ
ⴳⵉⵏⵢⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⵙⵙⴳⴷⵓⵜ ⵎⴰⵍⴰⴱⵓ
ⵉⵔⵉⵜⵉⵔⵢⴰ ⴰⵙⵎⴰⵔⴰ
ⵉⵜⵢⵓⴱⵢⴰ ⴰⴷⴷⵉⵙ ⴰⴱⴰⴱⴰ
ⴳⴰⴱⵓⵏ ⵍⵉⴱⵔⵓⴼⵉⵍ
ⴳⴰⵎⴱⵢⴰ ⴱⴰⵏⵊⵓⵍ
ⴳⴰⵏⴰ ⴰⴽⵔⴰ
ⴳⵉⵏⵢⴰ ⴱⵉⵙⴰⵡ ⴱⵉⵙⴰⵡ
ⴳⵉⵏⵢⴰ ⴽⵓⵏⴰⴽⵔⵉ
ⴽⵉⵏⵢⴰ ⵏⴰⵢⵔⵓⴱⵉ
ⵍⵉⵙⵓⵟⵓ ⵎⴰⵙⵉⵔⵓ
ⵍⴰⵢⴱⵉⵔⵢⴰ ⵎⵓⵏⵔⵓⴼⵢⴰ
ⵎⴰⴷⴰⴳⴰⵙⴽⴰⵔ ⴰⵏⵜⴰⵏⴰⵏⴰⵔⵉⴼⵓ
ⵎⴰⵍⴰⵡⵉ ⵍⵉⵍⵓⵏⴳⵡⵉ
ⵎⴰⵍⵉ ⴱⴰⵎⴰⴽⵓ
ⴰⵎⵔⵔⵓⴽ ⵔⴱⴰⴹ
ⵎⵓⵔⵉⵙ (ⵜⴰⵎⵓⵔⵜ) ⴱⵓⵔ ⵍⵡⵉⵙ
ⵎⵓⵣⴰⵎⴱⵉⴽ ⵎⴰⴱⵓⵜⵓ
ⵏⴰⵎⵉⴱⵢⴰ ⵡⵉⵏⴷⵀⵓⴽ
ⵏⵉⵊⵉⵔ ⵏⵢⴰⵎⵉ
ⵏⵉⵊⵉⵔⵢⴰ ⴰⴱⵓⵊⴰ
ⵜⴰⴳⴷⵓⴷⴰ ⵏ ⴽⵓⵏⴳⵓ ⴱⵔⴰⵣⴰⴼⵉⵍ
ⵔⵡⴰⵏⴷⴰ ⴽⵉⴳⴰⵍⵉ
ⵙⴰⵡⵟⵓⵎⵉ ⴷ ⴱⵔⴰⵏⵙⵉⴱ ⵙⴰⵡⵜⵓⵎⵉ
ⵙⵉⵏⵉⴳⴰⵍ ⴷⴰⴽⴰⵔ
ⵙⵉⵛⵍ ⴼⵉⴽⵜⵓⵔⵢⴰ
ⵙⵉⵔⴰⵍⵢⵓⵏ ⴼⵔⵉⵜⴰⵡⵏ
ⵚⵓⵎⴰⵍⵢⴰ ⵎⵓⵇⴷⵉⵛⵓ
ⵜⴰⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⵏ ⵓⵏⵥⵓⵍ ⴱⵔⵉⵜⵓⵔⵢⴰ
ⵙⵓⴷⴰⵏ ⵅⴰⵔⵟⵓⵎ
ⴰⵏⵥⵓⵍ ⵏ ⵙⵓⴷⴰⵏ ⵊⵓⴱⴰ
ⵙⵡⴰⵣⵉⵍⴰⵏⴷ ⵍⴱⴰⵎⴱⴰ
ⵟⴰⵏⵥⴰⵏⵢⴰ ⴷⵓⴷⵓⵎⴰ
ⵟⵓⴳⵓ ⵍⵓⵎⵉ
ⵓⴳⴰⵏⴷⴰ ⴽⴰⵎⴱⴰⵍⴰ
ⵜⵓⵏⵙ ⵜⵓⵏⵙ
ⵥⴰⵎⴱⵢⴰ ⵍⵓⵙⴰⴽⴰ
ⵣⵉⵎⴱⴰⴱⵡⵉ ⵀⴰⵔⴰⵔⵉ

ⵜⴰⵙⵏⴰⵥⵓⵔⵜ[edit]

ⴳⴳⵓⵜⵏⵜ ⵜⵓⵔⴷⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵖⴼ ⵓⵙⴰⵍⴰ ⵏ ⵢⵉⵙⵎ ⵏ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ. ⵉⵍⵍⴰ ⵎⴰ ⴰⴷ ⵉⴼⴽⴰⵏ ⵉⵙⵎ ⴰⴼⵔⵉ (Afri) ⵉ ⵢⵉⵎⵣⴷⴰⵖ ⵏ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⵏ ⵓⴳⴰⴼⴰ ⴳ ⵓⵜⴰⵔⴰⵎ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵙⵉⴼ ⵏ ⵓⵏⵉⵍ, ⴷ ⴳ ⵓⵏⴰⵎⴽ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴰⵎⴰⵜⵓ ⵉⵜⵜⵓⴼⴽⴰ ⵉ ⵢⵉⴽⴰⵍⵉⵡⵏ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⵉⵍⵍⴰⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵏⵥⵓⵍ ⵏ ⵢⵉⵍⵍ ⴰⴳⵔⴰⴽⴰⵍ (ⵍⵉⴱⵢⴰ ⵜⴰⵣⴰⵢⴽⵓⵜ).[2][3] ⵉⴽⴽⴰ ⵢⵉⵙⵎ ⴰⴼⵔⵉ ⵉⵣⴷⵉ ⴷ ⵜⴳⵓⵔⵉ ⵜⴰⴼⵉⵏⵉⵇⵜ Afar (ⴰⴼⴰⵔ) ⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⵙⵙⵓⵎⴽⵏ "ⴰⴳⴹⵔⵓⵔ"[4] ⵎⴰⵛⴰ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⴰⵙ 1981 ⵓⵎⴰⵏⴻⵏⵜ ⴷ ⴽⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵔⴷⵉⵡⵉⵏ[5] ⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⵜⵜⵉⵏⵉⵏ ⵎⴰⵙ ⴷ ⵉⵙⵎ ⴰⴼⵔⵉ ⵉⴽⴽⴰ ⴷ ⵜⴰⴳⵓⵔⵉ ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ ⵉⴼⵔⵉ (ⴰⵎⴰⴳⵓⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ : ⵉⴼⵔⴰⵏ) ⵙ ⵡⴰⵙⵙⴰⵖ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴷ ⵉⵎⵣⴷⴰⵖ ⵏ ⵢⵉⴼⵔⴰⵏ.[6] ⵜⴰⴳⵓⵔⵉ ⴰⴷ ⵏⵉⵜ[6] ⴷⴰ ⵜⵜ ⵏⵜⵜⴰⴼⴰ ⴳ ⵢⵉⵙⵎ ⵏ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵡⵙⵉⵜ ⴱⴰⵏⵓ ⵢⴰⴼⵔⴰⵏⴷⵣⴰⵢⵔⵍⵉⴱⵢⴰ, ⵢⴰⵜ ⵜⵡⵙⵉⵜ ⵙⴳ ⵢⴼⵔⴰⵏ (ⵜⴻⵜⵜⵡⴰⵙⵙⵏ ⴰⵡⴷ ⵙ ⵉⴼⵔⴰⵏ) ⴳ ⵓⴳⴰⴼⴰ ⵓⵜⵔⵉⵎ ⵏ ⵍⵉⴱⵢⴰ.[7]

ⴷⴷⵓ ⵓⵏⴱⴰⴹ ⵏ ⵉⵔⵓⵎⵉⵢⵏ, ⵜⴳⴰ ⵇⴰⵔⵟⴰⵊ ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵥⵓⵏⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵙⴳⴰ ⵏ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⵜⴰⵔⵓⵎⵉⵢⵜ ⵏⵏⴰ ⵢⵓⵎⵥⵏ ⴰⵡⴷ ⵉⴼⵜⵜⴰⵙⵏ ⵏ ⵍⵓⴱⵢⴰ ⵜⴰⵜⵔⴰⵔⵜ, ⴷⴼⴼⵉⵔ ⵜⵉⵔⵥⵉ ⵏ ⵉⵇⴰⵔⵟⴰⵊⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵎⴳⴰⵔⵓ ⴰⴱⵓⵏⵉⴽ ⵡⵉⵙⵙ ⴽⵔⴰⴹ ⴳ 146 ⴷⴰⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵍⴰⵍⵉⵜ.[8] ⴰⵎⵎⴰ -ⴽⴰ (-ca) ⵏⵖ -ⵉⴽⴰ (-ica), ⵉⴳⴰ ⴰⴹⴼⵉⵔ ⴰⵡⵍⴰⵜⵉⵏ (Latin suffix) ⵙ ⵓⵏⴰⵎⴽ ⵏ ⵡⴰⴽⴰⵍ ⵏⵖ ⵜⴰⵎⵓⵔⵜ.

ⵜⵓⵔⴷⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵢⴰⴹⵏ ⵖⴼ ⵓⵙⴰⵍⴰ ⵏ ⵢⵉⵙⵎ ⵏ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ
  • ⴳ ⵜⴰⵙⵓⵜ ⵜⴰⵎⵣⵡⴰⵔⵓⵜ, ⵉⵙⵙⵍⴽⵏ ⵓⵎⵙⵏⵎⵣⵔⵓⵢ ⵓⴷⴰⵢ ⴼⵍⴰⴼⵢⵓⵙ ⵊⵓⵣⵉⴼⵓⵙ (Ant. 1.15) ⵎⴰⵙ ⴷ ⵉⴷⴷⴰ ⵢⵉⵙⵎ ⵙⴳ ⵉⴼⵉⵔ (Epher), ⵢⴰⵏ ⵙⴳ ⵡⴰⵢⴰⵡⵏ ⵏ ⵉⴱⵔⴰⵀⵉⵎ, ⵏⵏⴰ ⵎⵓ ⵣⵓⴳⵏ ⵡⴰⵢⴰⵡⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵖⵔ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ.
  • ⴳ ⵜⴰⵙⵓⵜ ⵜⵉⵙⵙ ⵙⴰⵜ, ⵉⵙⵓⵎⵔ ⵉⵣⵉⴷⵓⵔ ⵏ ⵉⵛⴱⵉⵍⵢⴰ ⴳ ⵓⴷⵍⵉⵙ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵉⵥⵓⵔⴰⵏ (Etymologiae XIV.5.2) ⵎⴰⵙ ⴷ ⵉⴷⴷⴰ ⵢⵉⵙⵎ ⵏ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⵙⴳ ⵜⴳⵓⵔⵉ ⵜⴰⵡⵍⴰⵜⵉⵏⵜ (ⴰⴱⵔⵉⴽⴰ / Aprica), ⴰⵏⴰⵎⴽ ⵏⵏⵙ ⵉⴼⴼⵓⴽ (ⵜⵍⵍⴰ ⴳⵉⵙ ⵜⴰⴼⵓⴽⵜ).
  • ⵉⵏⵏⴰ ⵎⵉⵛⵉⵍ ⴼⵔⵓⵢⵜ 1976[9] ⵎⴰⵙ ⴷ ⵉⵙⵎ ⴰⵡⵍⴰⵜⵉⵏ ⵉⵇⵇⵏ ⵙ ⵜⴳⵓⵔⵉ africus (ⴰⴼⵔⵉⴽⵓⵙ) "ⴰⴹⵓ ⵏ ⵓⵏⵥⵓⵍ", ⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⴳⴰⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴰⵍⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⴱⵔⵢⴰⵏⵜ (Umbrian), ⵉⴳ ⵓⵏⴰⵎⴽ ⵏⵏⵙ ⴰⵎⵣⵡⴰⵔⵓ ⴰⴹⵓ ⴱⵓ ⵓⵏⵥⴰⵔ (rainy wind).

ⴰⵎⵣⵔⵓⵢ[edit]

ⵜⴰⵔⴰⴽⴰⵍⵜ[edit]

ⵜⴰⵡⵍⴰⴼⵜ ⵏ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⴳ ⵡⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙ, ⵙ ⵓⵙⴰⵜⵉⵍⵉⵜ

ⵜⴳⴰ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⵜⴰⵍⵍⵉ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⵎⵇⵇⵓⵔⵏ ⴳⵔ ⴽⵔⴰⴹ ⵉⴱⵓⴷⵉⴷⵏ ⵉⵏⵥⵓⵍⴰⵏⵏ ⵎⵇⵇⵓⵔⵏⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵜⴰⵖⴰⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵡⴰⴽⴰⵍ. ⵉⴱⴹⴰ ⵜⵜ ⵢⵉⵍⵍ ⴰⴳⵔⴰⴽⴰⵍ ⵖⴼ ⵜⵓⵔⵓⴼⵜ, ⵜⵣⴷⵢ ⴷ ⵜⴰⵣⵉⵜ ⴳ ⵓⴳⴰⴼⴰ ⴰⴳⵎⵓⴹⴰⵏ ⵙ ⵓⴱⴰⴷⵓ ⵏ ⵙⵓⵡⵉⵙ ⵏⵏⴰ ⵎⵉ ⵜⵍⵍⴰ ⴳ ⵜⵉⵔⵓⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ 163 ⴽⵉⵍⵓⵎⵉⵜⵔ.[10] (ⴷⴳ ⵜⵔⴰⴽⴰⵍⵜ, ⴷⴰ ⵜⴻⵜⵜⵓⵙⵎⵉⵍ ⵜⵎⴳⵣⵉⵔⵜ ⵙⵉⵏⴰ ⵜⴰⵡⵎⵉⵚⵔⵜ ⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⵍⵍⴰⵏ ⴳ ⵓⴳⵎⵓⴹ ⵏ ⵙⵓⵡⵉⵙ ⴷ ⴰⴳⵣⵣⵓⵎ ⵙⴳ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ)[11] ⵜⵜⵢⵏ ⵉ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⵉⴼⵜⴰⵙⵏ ⵙ ⵜⵖⵣⵉ ⵏ 26.000 ⴽⵉⵍⵓⵎⵉⵜⵔ.

ⵙⴳ ⵜⵜⵎⵉ ⵏ ⵉⵡⵜⵜⴰ ⵏ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⴳ ⵓⴳⴰⴼⴰ, ⵔⴰⵙ ⴱⵏ ⵙⴰⵇⵇⴰⵜⵓⵏⵙ (37°21' ⴰⴳⴰⴼⴰ) ⴰⵔ ⵜⵜⵎⵉ ⵏ ⵉⵡⵜⵜⴰ ⴳ ⵓⵏⵥⵓⵍ, ⴽⵉⴱ ⴰⴳⵓⵍⵀⴰⵙⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⵏ ⵓⵏⵥⵓⵍ (34°51'15 ⴰⵏⵥⵓⵍ), ⵉⵍⵍⴰ ⵓⵣⴰⵔⵓ ⵏ 8,000 ⴽⵉⵍⵓⵎⵉⵜⵔ (5,000 ⵎⵉⵍ);[12] ⴷ ⵙⴳ ⵜⵜⵎⵉ ⵏ ⵉⵡⵜⵜⴰ ⴳ ⵓⵜⴰⵔⴰⵎ, ⵉⵖⴼ ⴰⵣⴳⵣⴰⵡ (34°51'15" ⴰⵜⴰⵔⴰⵎ) ⴰⵔ ⵜⵜⵎⵉ ⵏ ⵉⵡⵜⵜⴰ ⴳ ⵓⴳⵎⵓⴹ, ⵔⴰⵙ ⵀⴰⴼⵓⵏⵚⵓⵎⴰⵍ (51°27'52" ⴰⴳⵎⵓⴹ), ⵉⵍⵍⴰ ⵓⵣⴰⵔⵓ ⵏ 7,400 ⴽⵉⵍⵓⵎⵉⵜⵔ (4,600 ⵎⵉⵍ).[13]

ⵜⴳⴰ ⴷⵣⴰⵢⵔ ⵜⴰⵎⵓⵔⵜ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⵎⵇⵇⵓⵔⵏ ⴳ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⵉⴷⵖ ⵜⵍⴽⵎ ⵜⵊⵓⵎⵎⴰ ⵏⵏⵙ 2,381,741 ⴽⵉⵍⵓⵎⵉⵜⵔ ⴰⵎⴽⴽⵓⵥ, ⵜⴹⴼⵔ ⵜⵜ ⵉⵏⵏ ⵙⵓⴷⴰⵏ ⵙ 1,865,813 ⴽⵉⵍⵓⵎⵉⵜⵔ ⴰⵎⴽⴽⵓⵥ, ⴰⵎⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⵓⵔⵜ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⵎⵥⵥⵉⵢⵏ ⵜⴳⴰ ⵜⵜ ⵙⵉⵛⵍ ⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⴳⴰⵏ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵡⴰⵔⴽⴰⴱⵉⵍ ⴳ ⵓⴼⵜⴰⵙ ⴰⴳⵎⵓⴹⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ.[14] ⵜⴳⴰ ⴳⴰⵎⴱⵢⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⵓⵔⵜ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⵎⵥⵥⵉⵢⵏ ⴳ ⵓⴳⵏⵙ ⵏ ⵡⴰⴽⴰⵍ ⴰⴷⵙⵍⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ.

ⵜⴰⴷⵎⵙⴰ[edit]

  CEN-SAD
  COMESA
  EAC
  ECCAS
  ECOWAS
  IGAD
  SADC
  UMA

ⵎⵇⵇⴰⵔ ⴳⴳⵓⵜⵏ ⵉⵙⵓⴳⴰⵎ ⵉⴳⴰⵎⴰⵏⵏ ⴳ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ, ⵜⵙⵓⵍ ⵜⴳⴰ ⵜⴰⴷ ⴱⴰⵀⵔⴰ ⵉⵥⵍⴹⵏ ⴷ ⵜⵎⴳⴳⴰⵔⵓⵜ ⴳ ⵜⵏⴼⵍⵉⵜ ⵜⴰⵡⴼⴳⴰⵏ ⴳ ⵔ ⵉⵎⵏⵥⴰⵡⵏ ⵏ ⵓⵎⴰⴹⴰⵍ. ⵙⴳ ⵉⵙⵔⴰⴳⵏ ⵏ ⵓⵢⴰ ⵍⵍⴰⵏⵜ ⵜⵎⵓⴹⴰⵏ ⵉⵏⵇⵇⴰⵏ ⴷ ⵉⴼⵉⵔⵓⵙⵏ (ⵍⵓⵎⵔ ⵉⴼⵉⵔⵓⵙⵏ ⵏ ⵎⴰⵍⴰⵔⵢⴰⵙⵉⴷⴰ), ⵜⵉⵏⴱⴰⴹⵉⵏ ⵉⴳⵓⴼⵙⴰⵏ ⵏⵏⴰ ⵉⵙⴽⴰⵔⵏ ⵉⴱⴽⴽⵉⴹⵏ ⵉⵎⵉⵣⵉⵜⵏ ⵎⴳⴰⵍ ⵉⵣⵔⴼⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵓⴼⴳⴰⵏ, ⴰⵍⴰⵢ ⵏ ⵉⵙⵡⵉⵔⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵇⴱⴱⴰⵏⵉⵜ, ⵉⵎⵏⵖⴰⵏ ⴳⵔ ⵜⵡⵙⵉⵜⵉⵏ[15].ⵜⵓⵡⵢ ⴷ ⵜⴰⵏⴰⴹⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵏⴼⵍⵉⵜ ⵜⴰⵡⴼⴳⴰⵏⵜ ⵏⵏⴰ ⴷ ⵜⵙⵙⵓⴼⵖ ⵜⵎⴰⴷⴷⴰⵙⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵜⵜⵉⵡⵉⵏ ⵉⵎⵓⵏⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⴰⵙ 2003 ⵎⴰⵙ ⴷ ⵙⵉⵎⵔⴰⵡ ⴷ ⵙⵎⵎⵓⵙⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵓⵔⴰ ⵍⵍⴰⵏⵉⵏ ⴳⵔ ⵜⵙⴽⵯⴼⴰⵍ 151 ⴷ 175 ⴳⴰⵏⵜ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⵜⵉⵡⵔⵉⴽⵉⵏ.[16]

ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ[edit]

ⵎⵏⵏⴰⵡ ⵉⵙⵓⵜⴰⴳ ⵙⵙⴽⵏⴻⵏ ⵎⴰⵙ ⵍⵍⴰⵏⵜ ⵡⵓⴳⴳⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵢⵉⴼⴹ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ ⵜⵜⵓⵙⴰⵡⴰⵍⵏⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ (ⵢⵓⵏⵉⵙⴽⵓ ⵜⵙⵙⵓⵜⴳ ⴰⵜⵜⴰⵢ ⵏ ⵙⵉⵏ ⵉⴼⴹⵏ).[17] ⵜⵓⴳⵜⵜ ⵏⵏⵙⵏⵜ ⴳⴰⵏⵜ ⵜⵉⵡⴼⵔⵉⴽⵉⵏ ⵙ ⵓⵙⴰⵍⴰ, ⵉⵍⵍⵉⵏⵜ ⵜⵉⵏⵏⴰ ⵎⵓ ⵉⴳⴰ ⵓⵙⴰⵍⴰ ⵏⵏⵙⵏⵜ ⵙⴳ ⵜⵓⵔⵓⴼⵜ ⵏⵖ ⵜⴰⵣⵉⵜ. ⵜⴳⴰ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⴰⵎⵏⵥⴰⵡ ⴰⴳⵜⵏⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢ ⵎⵇⵇⵓⵔⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵎⴰⴹⴰⵍ, ⴷ ⴰⵢⵜ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⵓⵔ ⴷⴰ ⵙⴰⵡⴰⵍⵏ ⵖⴰⵙ ⵎⵏⵏⴰⵡⵜ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵡⴼⵔⵉⴽⵉⵏ, ⵎⴰⵛⴰ ⴰⵔ ⵙⴰⵡⴰⵍⵏ ⴰⵡⴷ ⵢⴰⵜ ⵏⵖ ⵎⵏⵏⴰⵡⵜ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ ⵙⴳ ⵜⵓⵔⵓⴼⵜ. ⵍⵍⴰⵏⵜ ⴽⴽⵓⵥⵜ ⵜⵡⴰⵛⵓⵍⵉⵏ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⴰⵏⵉⵏ ⵎⵇⵇⵓⵔⵏⵉ ⴳ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ :

  • ⵜⴰⵡⴰⵛⵓⵍⵜ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⴰⵏⵜ (Afroasiatic) ⵍⵍⴰⵏⵜ ⴷⴳⵙ ⵡⴰⵜⵜⴰⵢ ⵏ 240 ⵏ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ ⴷ 285 ⵎⵍⵢⵓⵏ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵙⵙⵉⵡⵍⵏ ⴳ ⵢⵉⵙⴽ ⴰⵡⴼⵔⵉⴽ, ⴰⴳⴰⴼⴰ ⵏ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ, ⵙⴰⵃⵉⵍ, ⴷ ⵓⵏⵥⵓⵍ ⵓⵜⵔⵉⵎ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵣⵉⵜ.
  • ⵜⴰⵡⴰⵛⵓⵍⵜ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⴰⵏⵜ (Nilo-Saharan) ⵜⵓⵎⵢ ⵓⴳⴳⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵉⴹⵉ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ, ⴷⴰ ⵜⵏⵜ ⵙⴰⵡⴰⵍⵏ 30 ⵎⵍⵢⵓⵏ ⵏ ⵓⵎⴷⴰⵏ ⴳ ⵜⵛⴰⴷ, ⵉⵜⵓⴱⵢⴰ, ⴽⵉⵏⵢⴰ, ⵏⵉⵊⵉⵔⵢⴰ, ⵙⵓⴷⴰⵏ, ⵙⵓⴷⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵓⵏⵥⵓⵍ, ⵓⴳⴰⵏⴷⴰ, ⴷ ⵓⴳⴰⴼⴰ ⵏ ⵟⴰⵏⵥⴰⵏⵢⴰ.
  • ⵜⴰⵡⴰⵛⵓⵍⵜ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⴰⵏⵜ (Niger-Congo) ⵜⵙⵎⵓⵏ ⵜⵓⴳⵜⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⴷⴷⵓ ⵜⵏⵣⵔⵓⴼⵜ (Sub-Saharan Africa). ⴳ ⵎⴰ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵥⵍⵉⵏ ⵙ ⵡⵓⵟⵟⵓⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ, ⵜⴳⴰ ⵜⵡⴰⵛⵓⵍⵜ ⴰ ⵜⴰⵍⵍⵉ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⵎⵇⵇⵓⵔⵏ ⴳ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ, ⵏⵖ ⴷ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⴳ ⵓⵎⴰⴹⴰⵍ.
  • ⵜⴰⵡⴰⵛⵓⵍⵜ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⴰⵏⵜ (Khoisan) ⴷⴳⵙ ⴰⵜⵜⴰⵢ ⵏ ⵙⵎⵎⵓⵎⵔⴰⵡⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ, ⴷⴰ ⵜⵏⵜ ⵙⴰⵡⴰⵍ 400.000 ⵏ ⵓⵎⴷⴰⵏ ⴳ ⵓⵏⵥⵓⵍ ⵏ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ.[18] ⵜⵓⴳⵜⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ ⴳ ⵜⵡⴰⵛⵓⵍⵜ ⴰⴷ ⵍⵍⴰⵏⵜ ⴳ ⵉⵎⵉⵣⵉ ⵏ ⵡⴼⵓⴹ.

ⴷⴼⴼⵉⵔ ⵜⵉⴳⵉⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵓⵙⴷⵓⵔⵔⵉ, ⵙⵙⵏⵚⴱⵏⵜ ⴰⴽⴽⵯ ⵜⵎⵓⵔⴰ ⵏ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⴱⵕⵕⴰⵏⵉⵢⵉⵏ ⴰⵎ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵎⴰⴷⴷⵓⴷⵉⵏ, ⵎⵇⵇⴰⵔ ⵎⴽⴰⵏⵏ ⵍⵍⴰⵏⵜ ⵎⵏⵏⴰⵡ ⵜⵎⵓⵔⴰ ⵙⵙⵎⵖⵔⵏⵜ ⵜⵓⵜⵍⴰⵢⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵡⴼⵔⵉⴽⵉⵏ (ⵣⵓⵏ ⴷ: Swahili, Yoruba, Igbo and Hausa). ⴳ ⵡⴰⵟⵟⴰⵙ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵓⵔⴰ, ⵜⴰⵏⴳⵍⵉⵣⵜⵜⴼⵕⴰⵏⵙⵉⵙⵜ ⴰⵔ ⵜⵜⵓⵙⵎⵔⴰⵙⵏⵜ ⵉ ⵓⵎⵙⴰⵡⴰⴹ ⴳ ⵢⵉⴳⴰ ⵓⵏⴱⵉⵣ ⴰⵎ ⵜⴰⵏⴱⴰⴹⵜ, ⵜⴰⵙⵖⵏⵣⵉⵜ, ⴰⵙⵙⵍⵎⴷ ⴷ ⵜⵖⵎⵙⴰ.

ⴰⵙⴳⴷ[edit]

ⴼⵍⵙⵏ ⴰⵢⵜ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⵙ ⵎⵏⵏⴰⵡ ⵉⵙⴳⴷⴰⵏ,[19] ⵎⴰⵛⵛ ⵉⵎⵔⴰ ⴰⴷ ⵉⵜⵜⵓⵙⴽⵔ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵓⵙⵉⵟⵟⵏ ⵉ ⵢⵉⵏⴼⵍⴰⵙ ⵏ ⴽⵔⴰⵢⴳⴰⵜ ⴰⵙⴳⴷ, ⴰⵛⴽⵓ ⵓⵔ ⴷⴰ ⵜⵜⵉⵔⵉⵏⵜ ⵜⵏⴱⴰⴹⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵎⵓⵔⴰ ⴳ ⵎⵎⵔⴽⵙⵏ ⵉⵙⴳⴷⴰⵏ.[20] ⵉⵍⵍⴰ ⴳ ⵜⴳⵔⵓⵎⵙⵏⴰ ⴰⴷⵍⵉⵙ ⵏ ⵓⵎⴰⴹⴰⵍ ⵎⴰⵙ ⴷ ⴰⵙⴳⴷ ⴰⵏⵙⵍⵎ ⴰⴷ ⴱⴰⵀⵔⴰ ⵢⵓⴹⵔⴻⵔⵏ ⴳ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ, ⵉⴹⴼⵔ ⵜ ⵓⵙⴳⴷ ⴰⵎⴰⵙⵉⵃ. ⵢⵉⵍⵉ ⴳ ⵜⴳⵔⵓⵎⵙⵏⴰ ⵜⴰⴱⵔⵉⵟⴰⵏⵉⵜ ⵎⴰⵙ ⴷ 45% ⵏ ⵉⵎⵣⴷⴰⵖ ⵏ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⴳⴰⵏ ⵉⵏⵙⵍⵎⵏ , ⴳⵉⵏ ⵉⵎⴰⵙⵉⵃⵉⵏ 40% ⴷ ⴷⴷⴰⵡ 15% ⴳⴰⵏ ⵉⴷ ⵡⴰⵔ ⴰⵙⴳⴷ ⵏⵖ ⴷ ⵉⵎⴹⴼⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵉⵙⴳⴷⴰⵏ ⵉⵡⴼⵔⵉⴽⵏ. ⵢⵉⵍⵉ ⵢⴰⵏ ⵡⵓⵟⵟⵓⵏ ⵉⴷⵔⵓⵙⵏ ⵏ ⴰⵢⵜ ⵜⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⴳⴰⵏ ⵉⵀⵉⵏⴷⵓⵙⵏ, ⵉⴱⴰⵀⴰⵢⵏ, ⴷ ⵡⵓⴷⴰⵢⵏ.

ⵥⵔ ⴰⵡⴷ[edit]

ⵉⵙⴰⵖⵓⵍⵏ[edit]

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  2. (ⵙ ⵜⵍⵉⵎⴰⵏⵜ)Georges, Karl Ernst (1913–1918). "Afri". In Georges, Heinrich. Ausführliches lateinisch-deutsches Handwörterbuch (8th ed.). Hannover. Retrieved 20 September 2015…
  3. (ⵙ ⵜⵏⴳⵍⵉⵣⵜ) Lewis, Charlton T.; Short, Charles 1879. Afer A Latin Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
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  6. 6.0 6.1 (ⵙ ⵜⵏⴳⵍⵉⵣⵜ) Geo. Babington Michell, "The Berbers", Journal of the Royal African Society, Vol. 2, No. 6 (January 1903), pp. 161–94.
  7. (ⵙ ⵜⵏⴳⵍⵉⵣⵜ) Edward Lipinski, Itineraria Phoenicia, Peeters Publishers, 2004, p. 200. ISBN 90-429-1344-4
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  9. (ⵙ ⵜⵏⴳⵍⵉⵣⵜ) in Revue de Philologie 50, 1976: pp. 221–38.
  10. ⴷⵔⴰⵢⴷⵉⵍ, ⴰⵍⵉⵙⴷⴰⵢ & ⴱⵍⵉⴽ ⵊⵉⵔⴰⵍⴷ. (1985) ⵜⴰⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ ⵏ ⵓⴳⴰⴼⴰ ⴷ ⵓⴳⵎⵓⴹ ⴰⵏⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙ, ⵜⴰⵎⵙⵉⴳⴳⵣⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵙⴷⴰⵡⵉⵜ ⵓⴽⵙⴼⵓⵔⴷ ⴳ ⵉⵡⵓⵏⴰⴽ ⵉⵎⵓⵏⵏ ISBN 0-19-503538-0.
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  12. ⵡⵉⵏ ⵉⴼⴰⵏⵣ. (1924) ⵜⴰⴼⵔⵉⴽⵜ, ⴽⵍⴰⵔⵉⵏⴷⵓⵏ ⵉ ⵜⵖⵎⵙⴰ
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  14. ⵀⵓⵡⵔ ⴱⵉⵏ. (2002) ⵜⴰⴳⵔⵓⵎⵙⵏⴰ ⴽⵉⵏⴳⴼⵉⵛⵔ ⵙⴳ ⵢⴰ ⴰⵔ ⵢⴰⵣ ⵜⵉⴳⵎⵎⵉ ⵏ ⵓⵥⵔⴰⴳ ⴽⵉⵏⴳⴼⵉⵛⵔ. ⵜⴰⵙⵏⴰ 11 ISBN 0-7534-5569-2.
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  18. "Khoisan Languages". The Language Gulper. 27 ⵉⵏⵏⴰⵢⵔ 2017.
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  20. "Rising Muslim Power in Africa Causing Unrest in Nigeria and Elsewhere". Normitsu Onishi. The New York Times Company. 09-03-2009