Wp/shi/Tafriqt

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Tafriqt
Africa (orthographic projection).svg
Tajumma 30 415 873 km2
Imzdaɣ 1 348 000 000 hab. (2020)
Tanẓẓi 44 hab./km2
Timizar 54
Tutlayin Gr 1250 ar 3000 n tutlayin
Iẓdi n usgar UTC−1 (Cap-Vert)
UTC+4 (Maurice)
Tiɣrmin mqqurnin Cairo . Lagos . Kinshasa . Johannesburg . Luanda . Khartoum . Dar es Salaam . Abidjan . Alexandria . Nairobi . Cape Town . Kano . Dakar . Tigmmi Tumlilt . Addis Ababa

Tafrikt (neɣ Tafriqt) d yiwen seg yimenẓawen umi mechur (yettwassen) yisem deg umaḍal. Acku, medden ur tt-ssinen ara dima s wayen yelhan. Aṭas n medden deg umaḍal ur nessin ara ɣef Tefrikt amur ameqran, ttxayalen-tt d akal anda ay yugar ccwal, imgura (war) akk d imenɣan, d akal kan anda ay ttmettaten igerdan si laẓ yernu gten (tuqqten) deg-s waṭṭanen, d akal n lqella n cci anda medden akk d igellilen.

Maca Tafrikt maci ala d anect-a. Tafrikt tteččur d igduden, d agaraw, d ilel (sea) n yegduden neɣ n yemdanen (human), yal yiwen s tutlayt-is, s yedles d umezruy-is. Ar ass-a werɛad ssinen imassanen akk tutlayin ay ttmeslayen di Tefrikt, neɛ mazal ay tent-ɣrin merra akken iwata (ilaq) ad yeli. Ar ass-a, werɛad ur ssinen ara imassanen ansayen (traditions) d yidelsan n yegduden merra ay izedɣen Tafrikt, werɛad ur d-lqiḍen ara seg-sen akk ayen inwamken (imaɛnen), tamussni-nsen d wayen yeffren deg yidelsan-nsen. Ass-a, mi akka ara tkeccem tetrara ɣer yal amkan, ɣer yal axjiḍ deg umaḍal, aṭas seg yegduden n Tefrikt ara yesruḥuyen ansayen d yidelsan-nsen, yernu yessefk ɣef yimassanen ad rren tamuɣli/ d wallaɣ-nsen ɣer waya uqbel ma yezri ukud.

Tafrikt tefka-d aṭas i tudert n wemdan, ama s tmussni-yines, ama s wayen ay tesɛa d cci d teɣawsiwin, ama d akal, ama d imdanen. Ass-a, ur yessefk ara ad qqnen (medlen) medden allen-nsen ɣef waya. Xas ma yella lbaṭel-nni yettwaxedmen deg Yefriqiyen, di tallit n tehrest (colonisation) iɛedda, yekfa, medden yessefk ad walin Tafrikt ad as-rren tajmilt i Tefrikt u ad tt-walin s wallen nniḍen, yessefk ad gren tamawt i wayen d-tefka i ddunit d umaḍal, i ddur ay telṭeb deg umezruy n umaḍal u ad gren tamawt diɣ i wayen ara d-tettak Tefrikt ass-a akk d yigerwaj ay d-mazal ffren deg-s.

Igdudn n Tfriqt[edit | edit source]

Igduden n Tefrikt ṭṭuqten (ggten) macci d kra, seg Yimaziɣen ɣer Yimaṣriyen n wass-a, arraw n Yimaṣriyen iqburen, ɣer Yinubiyen d Yityupiyen, ɣer Yiwulufen d Yizuluten. Ulac amkan ur neɣmir (neccur) ara di Tefrikt. Qrib yal tamurt tesɛa timerwin (dizaines) n yegduden, merra sɛan tutlayin-nsen, ansayen d yidelsan-nsen d waṭas n tɣawsiwin nniḍen ara yelmed fell-asen umaḍal neɣ igduden-is merra.

Tafrikt ugafa[edit | edit source]

Deg Ugafa n Tefrikt, imezdaɣen ineṣliyen d Imaziɣen, d nitni ay d amur ameqran deg yimezdaɣen n Tmazɣa, xas ma yella aṭas deg-sen ass-a la ttmeslayen taɛrabt neɣ/ akk d Tefransist. Imaziɣen egan-d tilas i wakal d ameqran, yewwet seg wemda n Siwa, deg Utaram (lɣerb) n Maṣer alamma alamma d Targa Zewwaɣen d Muritanya, ɣef yiri n ugaraw Aṭlasi. Yuɣ lḥal, d Imaziɣen ay d agdud n Tefrikt awḥid ay d-iḥerren anect-agi n wakal, imi amur ameqran deg yegduden ifriqiyen nniḍen, tikwal sɛan kan akal d amecṭuḥ, tikwal bitt, cerken-t akk d yegduden nniḍen. Imaziɣen ttumḍanen d agdud n yiri (race) amellal, xas ma yella nettaf gar-asen aṭas n yimibriken d yiberkanen. Aṭas n Yimaziɣen ay d-mazal la ttmeslayen tamaziɣt, yernu deg yiseggasen-agi ineggura, aṭas n trebbaɛ timaziɣin ay d-yennulfan i wakken ad wwtent u ad ḥerzent tutlayt-nsent. Xas ma yella tantalyin (dialectes) ay ttmeslayen Yimaziɣen mxallafent si tama ɣer tayeḍ, maca kkant-d akk seg yiwen n uẓar, seg yiwet n tutlayt, yernu yeshel ɣef waṭas n trebbaɛ timaziɣin ad msefhament wagar-asent s tutlayt-nsent, xas ma yella mxallafent tentalyin-nsent. Imaziɣen mazal ṭṭfen deg waṭas n wansayen (lɛaddat), ladɣa wid yettidiren di Merruk akk d Uneɣruf (Sahara), d acu kan, ass-a, aṭas n wansayen imaziɣen ay yellan ɣef (af) yiri n nnger, la ten-ttağğan medden yernu ur d asen-ttgen ara azal d leqder. Nnig waya, ula d tutlayt tamaziɣt la tettuɣal ɣer deffir deg waṭas n tmiwa n Tmazɣa, medden la tt-ttağğan, ilmeẓyen ur a ttlemmden ara, dɣa yessefk ad yettwaxdem kra n leqdic s uɣiwel i lmend n ussukkes n tutlayt di tmiwa-ya.

Akal n Yimaziɣen, seg wakken meqqer aramma ay yewweḍ ɣer wul n Tefrikt. D Imuhaɣ neɣ Imucaɣ ay d tarbaɛt n Yimaziɣen ay yesɛan akal meqqren akk, xas akken ur ṭṭuqqten ara. Akal-nsen d Aneẓruf (Idurar n Tasili, n Ayer di Niger, atg.), yernu imi ay zgan leḥḥun, ttruḥun nitni d lmal-nsen seg wemkan ɣer wayeḍ, wwḍen ɣer waṭas n tmiwa di Tefrikt. Imuhaɣ xulḍen aṭas n yegduden ifriqiyen ay ten-id-iqerben, nitni fkan-asen u wwin-d aṭas seg-sen. Ass-a, nezmer ad naf Imuhaɣ di Niger d Mali, am wakken ay nezmer ad naf kra n trebbaɛ-nsen di Čad, Burkina Faso akk d Nigeria. Deg wenẓul n Uneẓruf (Niger akk d Mali), aṭas n yegduden ifriqiyen ay yettidiren ɣer tama n Yimuhaɣ, nezmer ad d-nebder seg-sen Ibambaraten, Ifularen akk d Yisarakuliyen. Kra seg yegduden-agi kessen lmal am Yimuhaɣ, di lweqt i deg wiyaḍ xeddmen tafellaḥt. Yuɣ lḥal, akal n wenẓul n Uneẓruf ɛeddan deg-s yisafen, d aya ay t-yerran d agilal, meḥsub yelha i tfellaḥt. Nnig waya, isafen n tama-yagi ldin diɣ iberdan i waṭas n yegduden i wakken ad xeddmen tanezzawt (ttjara), ad znuzun u ad ttaɣen d yegduden merra ay ten-id-iqerben. Idyulaten n Burkina Faso, Côte ḍIvoire akk d Senegal d yiwen seg yegduden n Tefrikt Taɣerbit ay yettwassnen s tnezzawt.

Tafriqt Umalu[edit | edit source]

Di lɣerb, igduden ay yettidiren ɣef yiri n Ugaraw Aṭlasi lhan-d s waṭas d ṣṣyada n yiselman. Imuriṭaniyen (laṣel-nsen d Imaziɣen) d yegduden n yiri n lebḥer n Senegal ttwassnen s ṣṣyada. Di Tefrikt Taɣerbit llant waṭas n tmura yesɛan tiẓegwa timeqranin. D acu kan, tiẓegwa n Tefrikt ɛemrent. Zik, igduden ay izedɣen tiẓegwa-yagi llan la ttidiren s ṣṣyada n yiɣersiwen d tukksa n wayen ay d-yettak wakal. Ass-a, aṭas deg yegduden-agi ay yeǧǧan aya. Di tmiwa-yagi diɣ, igduden Ifriqiyen sbedden-d aṭas n tgeldiyin (royaumes), yernu asmi ay bdan la d-ttawḍen Wurufiyen ɣer Tefrikt, di lqern wis 15, aṭas si tgeldiyin-agi ay yellan la xeddment tanezzawt (ttjara) d Wurufiyen. Tageldit n ɣana (ay d-sbedden Wacantiyen) tella tettwassen s ddheb-yines, yernu aṭas n tgeldiyin tifriqiyin n tama-yagi ay yellan la znuzuyent aklan (ay d-ttaṭṭafent si tmiwa nniḍen) i Wurufiyen i wakken ad ten-awin ad ten-sxedmen di Marikan. Yuɣ lḥal, amur ameqran deg yiberkanen yellan ass-a di Marikan laṣel-nsen si Tefrikt Taɣerbit.

Tafriqt

Tafriqt Usamer[edit | edit source]

Di Tefrikt Tacerqit, llan waṭas n yegduden ay yettmeslayen tutlayin tisamiyin d tutlayin tikuciyin. Tutlayin tisamiyin d tawacult n tutlayin i deg nezmer ad naf taɛrabt d tutlayin yettemcabin ɣur-s, am tɛebrit (hébreu) neɣ tafiniqit n zik. D acu kan, menɣir taɛrabt (ay ttmeslayen di tmura am Ssudan, Ǧibuti d Iritirya), tutlayin tisamiyin n Tefrikt nezmer ad d-nebder seg-sent tamharit d ttigrinyat (ttmeslayen-tent di Ityupya d Iritirya). Igduden n tmiwa-yagi, xas d iberkanen (neɣ d imibriken), maca ḍebɛen, imi lejdud-nsen, di laṣel, llan d imellalen ay ixelḍen d iberkanen. Igduden-agi daɣen lhan-d d tfellaḥt akk d tkessawt, yemxallaf wacu xeddmen ɣef leḥsab n wakal i deg ttidiren. Wid yettmeslayen tutlayin tikuciyin ttidiren di tama tameṭṭarfut n Tefrikt tacerqit, tama-nni umi qqaren Iccew n Tefrikt, u ad naf gar-asen Iṣumaliyen, ay d-yelhan ladɣa s tkessawt n wakraren.

Di Tefrikt Talemmast akk d ccerq n Tefrikt Tasebgast (équatoriale), llan yizaɣaren d imeqranen yernu d izegzawen. Imezdaɣen n tmiwa-ya lhan-d d tkessawt n yezgaren. Agdud yettwassnen s tkessawt-agi d Imasayen n Kenya d Tanzanya. Imasayen ttwassnen s lqedd-nsen aɛlayan d uceṭṭiḍ-nni azewwaɣ ay settwen, itteṣṣer-iten si tgecrar alamma d idmaren. Aṭas n Yimasayen ay d-mazal la ttidiren tudert-nni n zik, teddun d yezgaren-nsen deg yizaɣaren-nni anda ay d-mazal la ttidiren waṭas n yiɣersiwen iweḥciyen. Maca Imasayen uɣen tanumi d yiɣersiwen-agi, yernu ula d izmawen ttagaden-ten, ur ttqerriben ara ɣer lmal-nsen.

Kenya akk d Tanzanya sɛant akal igerrzen i tfellaḥt, yernu amur ameqran seg yegduden n tmiwa-yagi ttidiren seg wayen ay d-yettak wakal. Ikikuyuten d yiwen wegdud n Kenya, zik llan sɛan aṭas n wakal, ḥerren-t-id s yiɣil-nsen, yernu llan sɛan ddewla teǧhed. Asmi ay d-wwḍen Yebriṭaniyen ɣer Kenya, di tgara n lqern wis 19, kksen-asen akal-nsen, ama i nitni, ama i yegduden nniḍen. Yuɣ lḥal, igduden-agi, arraw n wakal, gguman ad ssusmen u gan ṭṭrad meqqren i wakken ad ssuffɣen imsehres (colonisateur) si tmurt-nsen. Igduden yettidiren ɣef yiri n Ugaraw Ahendi (océan Indien), si tama-nsen, čudd tudert-nsen ɣer lebḥer (am wid-nni Tefrikt Taɣerbit), maca nnig waya, igduden-agi ttwassnen s ttjara-nsen taqdimt akk d Waɛraben. Amur ameqran deg yimezdaɣen n tefsirin (côtes) n Tefrikt Tacerqit d Inselmen, yernu ttmeslayen yiwet n tutlayt umi qqaren taswaḥilit, yis-s ay ttemsefhamen ula akk d yegduden ifriqiyen nniḍen. Yuɣ lḥal, taswaḥilit d tutlayt taɣelnawt di Kenya akk d Tanzanya, yernu nezmer ad d-nini dakken tuɣal d tutlayt tagraɣlant i yes ttemsefhamen waṭas n yegduden di Tefrikt Tacerqit d Tefrikt Tasebgast (équatoriale).

Tafrikt Tasebgast[edit | edit source]

Ul n Tefrikt Tasebgast yella zik yeččur d tiẓegwa. Timiwa-yagi ttwassnent s Yefɣulen. Wigi d imezdaɣen ineṣliyen n tmiwa-yagi. Xas ma yella zik, tamurt-nsen meqqret (tiẓegwa n Tefrikt Talemmast, Zaïre, Kamirun, atg.), ass-a, ciṭṭaḥ kan maḍi ay d-yeqqimen deg-sen, imi aṭas n lumur ay ten-icewwlen. Ifɣulen d imecṭaḥ, ur ttimɣuren ara. Imeqranen deg-sen sɛɛan azal n lmitra d wezgen di teɣzi. Maci d aḍḍan ay uḍnen, wanag akka kan ay tga ccetla-nsen. Zik, medden llan ttewḥacen-ten imi ay d imeẓyanen yernu ttidiren kan di tẓegwa, anda ay ttṣeggiden ayen tetten. Ass-a, idles-nsen atan la inegger yernu yessefk ad d-rren medden lwelha-nsen ɣur-sen.

Timizar n Tafriqt[edit | edit source]

Timizar n Tafriqt n ugafa[edit | edit source]

Tamazirt d ucnyal nns Tajumma ( km² ) Imzdaɣ ( 2016 - CIA World factbook ) Tanẓẓi ( s km² ) Tamaẓunt
Flag of Algeria.svg Dzayr 2 381 741 39 542 166 16,6 Dzayr
Flag of Egypt.svg Miṣra 1 001 450 88 487 396 88,3 Taqahirt
Flag of Libya.svg Libya 1 759 540 6 411 776 3,6 Ṭarablus
Flag of Morocco.svg Lmɣrib 710,850 36,471,769 50 Rrbaṭ
Flag of Tunisia.svg Tuns 163 610 11 037 225 67,4 Tuns
- Idɣarn ittuyḥasabn f Uruppa ɣ Tafriqt n ugafa :
Flag of the Canary Islands.svg Tigzirin tiknariyin ( Ṣbanya ) 7,492 2,154,905 226 Las Palmas, Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Flag of Madeira.svg Madyira ( Brtqqiz ) 797 245,000 307 Funchal
Flag Ceuta.svg Sbta ( Ṣbanya ) 20 85,107 3,575
Flag of Melilla.svg Mlilya ( Ṣbanya ) 12 85,116 5,534

Timizar n Tafriqt tangmuḍt[edit | edit source]

Tamazirt d ucnyal nns Tajumma ( km² ) Imzdaɣ ( 2016 - CIA World factbook ) Tanẓẓi ( s km² ) Tamaẓunt
Flag of Burundi.svg Burundi 27,830 6,373,002 229.0 Bujumbura
Flag of the Comoros.svg Igumamn n Iqumurn 2,170 614,382 283.1 Muruni
Flag of Djibouti.svg Djibuti 23,000 472,810 20.6 Djibuti (tamdint)
Flag of Eritrea.svg Iritiriya 121,320 4,465,651 36.8 Asmara
Flag of Ethiopia.svg Ityubya 1,127,127 67,673,031 60.0 Adis Ababa
Flag of Kenya.svg Kinya 582,650 31,138,735 53.4 Nayrubi
Flag of Madagascar.svg Madagaskar 587,040 16,473,477 28.1 Antananaribu
Flag of Malawi.svg Malawi 118,480 10,701,824 90.3 Lilungwi
Flag of Mauritius.svg Agumam n Muricyus 2,040 1,200,206 588.3 Bur Luwi
Flag of Mozambique.svg Muzambik 801,590 19,607,519 24.5 Mabutu
Flag of Rwanda.svg Rwanda 26,338 7,398,074 280.9 Kigali
Flag of Seychelles.svg Sicil 455 80,098 176.0 Fikturya
Flag of Somalia.svg Sumalya 637,657 7,753,310 12.2 Mugadicu
Flag of Tanzania.svg Tanzanya 945,087 37,187,939 39.3 Duduma
Flag of Uganda.svg Uganda 236,040 24,699,073 104.6 Kambala
Flag of South Sudan.svg Sudan n iffus 619,745 8,260,490 13 Juba
Flag of Sudan.svg Sudan 1,861,484 30,894,000 17 Xartum
- Idɣarn ittuyḥasabn f Uruppa ɣ Tafriqt tangmuḍt :
Flag of France.svg Réunion (Fransa) 2,512 743,981 296.2 San-Deni
Flag of Mayotte (local).svg Mayut (Fransa) 374 170,879 456.9 Mamužu
Flag of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.svg Ikaliwn n iffus d Intarktiwn ( Fransa ) 439,781 100 Saint Pierre

Timizar n Tafrikt n wammas[edit | edit source]

Tamazirt d ucnyal nns Tajumma ( km² ) Imzdaɣ ( 2016 - CIA World factbook ) Tanẓẓi ( s km² ) Tamaẓunt
Flag of Angola.svg Angula 1,246,700 10,593,171 8.5 Luwanda
Flag of Cameroon.svg Kamirun 475,440 16,184,748 34.0 Yawandi
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg Tagduda n Tafrikt Tanammast 622,984 3,642,739 5.8 Bangi
Flag of Chad.svg Tcad 1,284,000 8,997,237 7.0 N'Djamina
Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg Tagduda n Kungu 342,000 2,958,448 8.7 Brazavil
Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg Tagduda Tamagdayt n Kungu 2,345,410 55,225,478 23.5 Kinshasa
Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg Ginya n tuẓẓumt 28,051 498,144 17.8 Malabo
Flag of Gabon.svg Gabun 267,667 1,233,353 4.6 Libruvil
Flag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg São Tomé d Brincibi 1,001 170,372 170.2 São Tomé

Timizar n Tafriqt n iffus[edit | edit source]

Tamazirt d ucnyal nns Tajumma ( km² ) Imzdaɣ ( 2016 - CIA World factbook ) Tanẓẓi ( s km² ) Tamaẓunt
Flag of Botswana.svg Butswana 600,370 1,591,232 2.7 Gaborone
Flag of Lesotho.svg Lesotho 30,355 2,207,954 72.7 Maseru
Flag of Namibia.svg Namibia 825,418 1,820,916 2.2 Windhoek
Flag of South Africa.svg Tafriqt n Unẓul 1,219,912 43,647,658 35.8 Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Pretoria
Flag of Eswatini.svg Swaziland 17,363 1,123,605 64.7 Mbaban
Flag of Zambia.svg Zambya 752,614 11,862,740 16 Lusaka
Flag of Zimbabwe.svg Zimbabwi 390,580 11,392,629 29 Harare

Timizar n Tafriqt n tagut[edit | edit source]

Tamazirt d ucnyal nns Tajumma ( km² ) Imzdaɣ ( 2016 - CIA World factbook ) Tanẓẓi ( s km² ) Tamaẓunt
Flag of Benin.svg Binin 112,620 6,787,625 60.3 Purtu-Nuvu
Flag of Burkina Faso.svg Burkina Fasu 274,200 12,603,185 46.0 Wagadugu
Flag of Cape Verde.svg Isk n Vird 4,033 408,760 101.4 Praya
Flag of Côte d'Ivoire.svg Aftas n Ivoir 322,460 16,804,784 52.1 Abidjan, Yamusukru
Flag of The Gambia.svg Gambya 11,300 1,455,842 128.8 Banjul
Flag of Ghana.svg Ɣana 239,460 20,244,154 84.5 Akra
Flag of Guinea.svg Ɣinya 245,857 7,775,065 31.6 Kunakri
Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg Ɣinya-Bisaw 36,120 1,345,479 37.3 Bisaw
Flag of Liberia.svg Libirya 111,370 3,288,198 29.5 Munruvya
Flag of Mali.svg Mali 1,240,000 11,340,480 9.1 Bamaku
Flag of Mauritania (1959–2017).svg Muritanya 1,030,700 2,828,858 2.7 Nwakcut
Flag of Niger.svg Nigir 1,267,000 10,639,744 8.4 Niyami
Flag of Nigeria.svg Nijirya 923,768 129,934,911 140.7 Abuja
Flag of Senegal.svg Sinigal 196,190 10,589,571 54.0 Dakar
Flag of Sierra Leone.svg Siralyun 71,740 5,614,743 78.3 Freetown
Flag of Togo.svg Tugu 56,785 5,285,501 93.1 Lumi
- Idɣarn ittuyḥasabn f Uruppa ɣ Tafriqt n tagut :
Flag of Saint Helena.svg Sant Hilina ( Ingliz ) 410 7,317 17.8 Jamistun

Iɣbula[edit | edit source]

Imnẓawn
Africa (orthographic projection).svg
Tafriqt
Americas (orthographic projection).svg
Marikan
Antarctica (orthographic projection).svg
Antarktika
Asia (orthographic projection).svg
Asya
Europe (orthographic projection).svg
Urupa
Oceania (orthographic projection).svg
Usyanya