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Asmḍl n Sidi Ḥmad u Musa

Taẓrwalt (s taɛrabt: تزروالت‎, s tafransist: Tazeroualt) tga yan udɣar amzray illan ɣ Sus ɣ iffus n Lmɣrib, lli tn ikkan ɣ mad izrin tamazirt tasimant ɣ tasut tis sa d mraw. Tettuynbaḍ zɣ tamaẓunt nns Iliɣ ɣ idrarn n Waṭlas mẓẓiyn.[1] Ḥ tizi lliḥ akk tmqqur tgldit n Taẓrwalt, tɣʷi zɣ agaru aṭlanti ar tsga n Tuwat lli illan ɣilad ɣ iggi wakal adzayri, tnbḍ yat tsga bahra imqqurn ɣ tiniri.

Amnaḍ amzray

Iga Ḥmad u Musa argaz lli d akk izwarn is ibda ssulala n Taẓrwalt, ikka tt inn iga yan amarabut u tmazirt n Sus lli d iluln ɣ tuẓẓumt n tasut tis smmus d mraw d istaqrra ḍffir maya ɣ tsga n Taẓrwalt, ɣinn a'ḥ d isnulfa zzawit d yiwid timiḍiwin n imḍfarn, nna dars ittackan fad ad lmdn tɣawsiwin izdin d ddin nnsn.[2] Iṭṭf ɣ-akud-ann Ḥmad u Musa tazdayt ifulkin d iṣulṭaniyn Isaɛdiyn lli tn ikkan ɣ tnbaḍt d adɣar nns d atig nns ɣ ddin tujja-tt ad iḥafḍ f lmakana nns. Lliḥ d immut, adɣar lli ɣ ittuymḍal urgaz ad iga zund lḥjj.

Amzruy

Tamazirt n Lmɣrib ɣ usggwas n 1660

Ḥ usggʷas n 1603, ɣ jjwayh n tẓallit n tukzin, rad immut uṣulṭan asaɛdiy Aḥmad Almansur, lli tn ikkan yan ɣ igldan lli bahra istawhman ɣ Isaɛdiyn, fkan as akk yism n Manṣur Dahbi acku ikka tt inn agudi n wurɣ ɣ uzmz nns, d kkan tt inn snat tiqṣiṣin f mad ijran aylliḥ immut,[3] tay-zwarn ar ttini masd yuḍn s tmaḍunt n Tasrka nḥ Ṭṭaɛun sliḥ d immut, tis-snat ar ttini mas tmɣart nns Ɛica d yiwis Mulay Zidan ad as igan ssm fad att nɣin. Ɣilad rad ibdu urggay gr tarwa n Aḥmad Almansur f tnbaḍt[4], d rad ibḍu Lmɣrib s:

  • Awanak n Fas, inbḍ st iwis Lmamun,
  • Awanak n Mrrakc, inbḍ st iwis Zidan.

D tsgiwin yaḍni rad gisnt tnbḍ Zzawaya d imɣarn n tqbilin. Mn bɛd ɣayad kullu, rad baynt kigan n tgldiwin, tilli akk gisnt istawhmann gan-tn:

  • Awanak n Ccbaniyin, lli ra st inbḍ Lḥajj Krrum Ccbani,
  • Awanak n Lɛyyaci, lli ra st inbḍ Muḥammad Lḥajj Ddyati,
  • Awanak n Tafilalt, lli ra st inbḍ Muḥammad Bn Ccrif Lɛalawi.
  • Ɣ tmazirt n Sus rad yili Abu Ḥassun Smlali, agldun wis kraḍ n awanak n Iliɣ, lli rad tg tagldit n Taẓrwalt

Ɣ tasut tis sa d mraw miladya, xklli sa ittini argaz axatar Muxtar Asusi ɣ udlis n "Iliɣ qadiman wa ḥaditan" mas d isusiyn rmin zɣ thmic d ṭṭuɣyan lli tn kkan isaɛdiyn ar tnt skarn ɣ tmazirt. Mqqar ikka tt inn dar tiqbilin n Sus yan ḍḍawr bahra istawhman ɣ waqqlay n isaɛdiyn s tnbaḍt d ubnnu n tgldit nnsn, zayd f ɣayad, Lmɣrib ɣ-akud-ann yutt ljafaf ur llin waman isggʷasn d tuckad ula tmaḍunt Tasrka nḥ Ṭṭaɛun ula nttat, d ur ufan tiqbilin matn ittawsn bac ad ffɣn zɣ tmukrist ad acku ɣ-akud-ann tkka tt inn tgldit n isaɛdiyn trwi d urt d yaɣ ur tsala i tɣawsiwin ad,[5] ur fllasn tkʷti. Ɣ iffus akk n Lmɣrib, kulci ɣilad ssn tsga n Iliɣ nḥ Taẓrwalt s yism n Zzawit n Sidi Ḥmad u Musa, lli gis ittilin yan unmuggar asgdan imqqurn kraygat usggʷas ɣ tigira n wayyur wis tam. Rad nurri imikk s tɣʷṛḍin s uzmz n Aḥmad Almansur s yan imjri nẓḍar ad nini ikka tt inn zund yat ccarara imẓẓiyn d yiwin kigan n tɣawsiwin yaḍn fad ad tbayn tagldit n Taẓrwalt.

Xklli s yad ittussan, ikka tt inn dar Sidi Ḥmad u Musa smmus n ifrxan, gr smmus ad n ifrxan ikka tt inn yan iga s yism Ɛli, wad iggʷran srsnt ɣ Lḥbs s lamr n uṣulṭan Aḥmad Almansur Adahbi ɣ trudant, urd acku iskr kra mac isawl hlli f tmmara d ḍḍuruf icqqan nna s tn kkan tqbilin n Sus ar tn tddrn s ssbab n ljafaf d timuḍan d laẓ, mac ur tt irḥm Almansur Adahbi d ittḥbs ɣ trudant aylliḥ immut. d ikka tt inn Ɛli Bn Ḥmd u Musa ittussan dar middn s ttadayyun nns d ikka tt inn argaz iɛdln, ddnb nns iga tt yusi ssiɛr n tmazirt nns d isawl f tmukrisin nns d isawl f middn nns lli itmttatn s laẓ d tmaḍunt. Imjri y'ad rad ibadl agudi n tɣawsiwin ɣ tannayt n isusiyn s mad izdin d tgldit n isaɛdiyn, d tlla yat timjrit ittussan yaḍn ar ttinin mas tdda yat tmɣart ad tcki yan lqayd dar Almansur Adahbi, lliḥ dars tkcm tẓra ma tn ikka ar tt iskar acku ikka tt inn icqqa bahra d ar itnbaḍ s yat tɣarast icqqan,[6] sliḥ tnna " Kkiḥ tt inn ar tɛjjabḥ i waman manka s tn ikka ranqan fi aljadawili ... Aylliḥ ẓriḥ uɣbalu nns, ssnḥ izd aman ad tn ikkan irkʷi zɣ waẓur nns " , zɛma ṣṣulṭa y'ann icqqan lli tn kkan lqqiyad n Almansur Adahbi ar sis swurrin d middn tkkad dars acku nttan ad asnt imlan.[7] Isusiyn rad gisnt iɣama lḥal acku ɣ tizwiri nttni ad ibddn d isaɛdiyn lliḥ bḥra bdan aylliḥ lkmn i tnbaḍt d awsntn bac ad tẓẓu f ibrtqqizn lli d ithjamn zɣ tsga n yill, micc bɛd mayad kullut tnkrtn, d tmukrist iga tt mas tkka tt inn tmaẓunt nnsn taẓ bahra i sus ad tt igan d Mrrakc. Rad immt Almansur Adahbi d rad tcttet tgldit n isaɛdiyn, ɣid rad inkr Brahim yan ɣ tarwa mẓẓiyn n Sidi Ḥmad u Musa ad iskr tagrawla ɣ tmazirt n Sus d ratt bayɛn tiqbilin tisusiyin d ar ttinin mas kkan tt inn imḍfarn nns ar tzayadn s tmlifat ass f wass. Rad lkmn inɣmisn ad Mulay Zidan lli rad yazn 3000 ajundi bac ad mmaɣn d tgrawla n Brahim Bn Muḥammad ɣ Sus, macc ijundiyn ad rurn (rwln) acku ur asn fkan tiɣraḍ d ur asn tlkm tirmt mad cttan. Issn ɣ-akud-ann Mulay Zidan mas ṣafi tfta y'as ula nttat, zund ukan tsgiwin yaḍnin d rad yiri ad yasi urɣ d lmujawharat nns lli tn ikkan iṣulṭaniyn ar tn tḥḍun ɣ ammas n zzawaya, acku tkka tt inn aktar amanan, macc ratt iṣbq Brahim Bn Muḥammad d rad yasi ttarawat ad lliḥ rad ihjm f zzawaya y'ad slawan akk ɣ Mrrakc, rad immt amɣar n tgrawla tasusiyt Brahim Bn Muḥammad yan ɣ tarwa n Sidi Ḥmad u Musa d rad ifl tnbaḍt i Lḥsn Bn Ɛli, iwis n xalis nit, mn bɛd mnnu rad yack agldun lli akk ittussan n tgldit n Taẓrwalt lli t igan Ɛli Bn Muḥammad Budmiɛa, ittufka y'as yism ad acku tkka tt inn dars yat tiṭṭ ar tmṭṭi bzzaf. Ɛli Bn Muḥammad Budmiɛa lli igan Abu Ḥassun Asmlal xklli s ittussan ɣ umzruy, ur tucki lmubayaɛa nns s yat tɣarast irxan acku kkan tt inn tarwa n Sidi Ḥmad u Musa mmaɣn d ingr-atsn f manwa gisn a rad yamẓ tnbaḍt, ɣ mayggʷran msasan fllas bac att bayɛn, d tmazirt lli akk izwarn att bayɛn gan ayt Ifran n waṭlas mẓẓiyn, aylliḥ d munn imɣarn d ccuyux n tqbilin d id butussna d ixatarn dar timḍlt n jddis Sidi Ḥmad u Musa ɣ ammas n zzawit n Taẓrwalt d skrn as lmubayaɛa rasmyan. Ɣikkad as rad tbdu yat tgzzumt tamaynut ɣ awanak n Iliɣ bac ad tg tagldit imqqurn.[8]

Abu Ḥassun Asmlal, xklli sa ttinin ayt umzruy, ikka tt inn iga yan ufrux d aɛrrin iṣḥan iṭṭaf lɛaḍalat d dars lhiba d lkarizma, ɣayad rad ibayn ɣ tabrat tamzwarut lli rad yazn i Yaḥya Bn Ɛbdallah Bn Sɛid Lḥaḥi lli tn ikkan ɣ awanak n Iḥaḥan ɣ trudant, tabrat ann ikka tt nn gis tahdid ibayn bzzaf " Ya a ssi Lḥaḥi ad yi tḍfrt d ad yi tbayɛt, nḥ rad ackḥ ad utḥ innak " d rad as irar Lḥaḥi macc ljawab nns yuratt s tmdyazt inna y'as " Irayi ad as gḥ asmg ... Is ur idr is irwas fiqtuhu majdan? , Ira yus n Mus ad ig agllid s dduɛa ... wa lam yasum fi sayfihi fi ttala hada? ". ira s ljawab ad as yini mas ira ad yili imnɣi gr awanak n Iliɣ illan ddu tnbaḍt n Abu Ḥassun Asmlal, d awanak n Iḥaḥan ddu tnbaḍt n Yaḥya Bn Ɛbdallah Bn Sɛid Lḥaḥi. Mn bɛd imnɣi s wawal, mmaɣn iwunak ad s sin ɣ ssaḥt, d ku twal yan gisn ar itrbaḥ. Yiwid Yaḥya Bn Ɛbdallah Bn Sɛid Lḥaḥi idɣarn n Ida Uknsus d Wlad Jrrar ɣ nnawaḥi n Tiznit, macc dɣya sliɣtn isurri Abu Ḥassun Asmlal, imikk s imikk yiwid Abu Ḥassun Asmlal idɣarn n Yaḥya Bn Ɛbdallah Bn Sɛid Lḥaḥi adt igan d Tarudant d Agadir ula nttat ar iwtta n Imi n Tanut lli tn ikkan ddu tnbaḍt n uṣulṭan Zidan macc ɣinn a'ḥ ibidd usmɣur nns, ar ttinin id bu umzruy mas mlad is izuyd imikk s lgddam rad yawi ula tsga n Iḥaḥan d Lḥuz ḥtta nttat acku aṣulṭan Zidan ibda ar itrwal s tsga n ugafa tjra y'as yat tmjrit ɣ uftas n Agadir nttat atid isrmin, ikra yan lbaṭu afransawi dar yan uqubṭan iga s yism Jon Filip Du Kastyan, d ikka tt inn lbaṭu y'ann ibidd x ufttas n Ugadir lli tn ikkan dars yism n Santa Kruz fad ad sis irur s Fransa dar Lwis wis kraḍ d mraw lli y'as inna ɣar ackd dari, macc uqubṭan n lbaṭu y'ann lliɣ d iẓra uṣulṭan Zidan asaɛdiy icarji urɣ d lmujawharat d idlisn ɣ lbaṭu iṭmɛa irur iflt bla n taryalt.[9]

Lliɣ d yumẓ Abu Ḥassun Asmlal tanbaḍt n tmazirt n Sus kullut, rad izri s tsga n Drɛa tafilalt usggwas n 1638 s ljic nns d ra st iɣʷi mn bɛd 3 isggwasn n imnɣi, d rad yamẓ Muḥammad Bn Ccrif Lɛalawi ɣ lḥbs d ɣid a'ɣ rad tg awanak n Iliɣ tagldit n tidt acku rad inbḍ Abu Ḥassun Asmlal iffus n Lmɣrib kullut ar Timbuktu iffus n tiniri d rad isayṭr f iɣarasn n tsbbabt d rad tg tagldit n Taẓrwalt ammas n tsbbabt imqqurn acku kigan n udayn imɣrabiyn rad gis staqrrn d rad asn ttuybna yat lknist nnsn ɣ tsga lli rad tḍr mn bɛd.

Tagldit n Taẓrwalt uckan as liɛtirafat dar tmizar mqqurnin ɣ-akud-ann acku tkka tt inn tṣḥa tadamsa nns ula tasbbabt nns sul tkka tt inn dars yat taẓḍurt taɛskrit.

Ẓr ula

Tiɣbula

  1. Colonel Léopold-Victor Justinard, Un petit Royaume Berbère: « le Tazeroualt, un saint berbère Sidi Ahmed Ou Moussa », Librairie orientale et américaine, 1954.
  2. H. de Castries, Notice sur la région de l'oued Draa, in Bulletin de la société de géographie, 1880, tome XX, p. 500.
  3. Conrad Malte Brun, , Paris, Furne et Cie éditeurs, 1852, p. 649.
  4. Oskar Lenz, , Paris, Librairie Hachette et Cie, 1886, chap. XI (« Voyage au pays de Sidi-Héscham »), p. 341.
  5. François Bulloz, fondateur, «  », Revue des Deux Mondes,‎ 1898, p. 379 tome 149
  6. Justinard, Léopold Victor; Institut des hautes-études marocaines (1954). Un petit royaume berbère, le Tazeroualt: Un saint berbère, Sidi Ahmed Ou Moussa. G.-P. Maisonneuve.
  7. Abitbol, Michael (1988). "Maraboutism and state formation in Southern Morocco". In Shmuel Noah Eisenstadt; Michael Abitbol; Naomi Chazan (eds.). The Early State in African Perspective: Culture, Power, and Division of Labor. Leiden: E. J. Brill. pp. 134–147. ISBN 978-90-04-08355-4.
  8. Messier, Ronald A.; Miller, James A. (2015-06-15). The Last Civilized Place: Sijilmasa and Its Saharan Destiny. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-76667-9.
  9. Sus Alɛalima - Tagldit n Taẓrwalt ( Mamlakat Taẓrwalt ) - Ep 2 [Ẓr ɣ Yurtub]

Tinidlisn

  1. Timbouctou: voyage au Maroc, au Sahara et au Soudan; auteur Dr Oskar Lenz, traduit de l'allemand par Pierre Lehautcourt; 1886; Librairie Hachette et Cie Paris
  2. Dictionnaire universel d'histoire géographie Bouillet 1878: description de Sidi-Hescham
  3. Voyages autour du monde et naufrages célèbres par le capitaine G. Lafond; Administration des librairies 1844 Paris
  4. De la domination turque dans l'ancienne régence d'Alger par Louis Joseph F. Walsin Esterhazy, capitaine d'artillerie, Librairie de Charles Gosselin 1840 Paris
  5. Le Maroc, Géographie- organisation politique, de René Jules Frisch, 1895, cité dans le "Rapport relatif aux aspects culturels de la régionalisation", paragraphe "histoire de la tradition régionale marocaine" établit en 2013 par l'Ires

Ɣr uggar

  • Muḥammad al-Mukhtār Sūsī (1966). Īlīgh qadīman wa-ḥadīthan. al-Rabāṭ: al-Maṭbaʻah al-Mulkīyah.
  • Pascon, Paul (1984). La maison d'Iligh et l'histoire sociale du Tazerwalt. SMER.