Wp/shi/Gerolano Cardano

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Gerolano Cardano
Girolamo Cardano. Stipple engraving by R. Cooper. Wellcome V0001004.jpg
Tameddurt
Talallit Pavie, 24 Ctember 1501
Taɣlent duché de Milan
Lmut Roma, 20 Ctember 1576
Tawja
Baba-s Fazio Cardano
Tiɣri
Alma mater université de Pavie
université de Padoue
Doctoral students Ludovico Ferrari
Tutlayin Talatint
Inelmaden
Tawuri
Tawuri aflsuf, amusnak, Amsnallun, Amsnulfu, personnel médical, Amsnitri, Ajnyuṛ, ṭṭbib d Amsngam
Adɣar n twuri Padova, Milano, Pavie, Bologne d Roma
Imɛellmen université de Bologne
université de Pavie
Influenced by Archimède
Taflest
Asgd Tamzdayt takatulikt
Gerolamo Cardano

Gerolamo (neɣ d Girolamo, neɣ d Geronimo) Cardano (Taṭalyanit : [dʒeˈrɔlamo karˈdano]; Tafṛansist : Jérôme Cardan; Talatinit : Hieronymus Cardamus; 24 cutanbir 1501 - 21 cutanbir 1576) ikka-t-nn iga yan ugtusnak awṭalyan, ur as-yufi ad yadef s tesdawit n imejjayen acku ilul d acenti, mac waxxa imk-ann imures sul ɣ uɣaras nns zund umejjay, yura f tussna uggar n 200 twuriwin.

Ijgugel s tsugar nns d uyenna s ikka ar ittrara taynit ɣ mennaw n igran; zund umusnak, amejjay, amesnudder, amusnaw n tfizikt, amsekrar, amesnitri, afilusuf, amara d uqemmaṛ. Ittyawssan s umata s mas t-nn-ikka iga yan zeɣ imusnaken akkʷ nna mi txater tezrirt ɣ tleslalit, yan zeɣ wudmawen izalanen ɣ ussersel n "probabilité" d umessidef amezwar n "coefficients binomiaux" d "théorème binomial" s umaḍal awtaram, d zeɣ dar-s ad d-ikka uglam amezwaru n tawla Typhoïde. Isnulfa-d mennawt n tɣawsiwin, ad gisent naf "Cardan grille", taqcuct n Baguenaudier d usergel bu tuddsa. Isker awed kra n twafutin ɣ waljiber, issumer-d itsent tɣarasin ma s ferrun tagdiwin "quartic" d "cubic".

Ikka-t-nn Cardano ɣ umata n tikkal ar ittqemmar s war tnebbaḍt, yan ɣ idlisen nns, Liber de ludo aleae (Adlis f wuraren n wannaz), da gi-s issidif tazrawt tanegrawant akkʷ izwaren n "probabilité" d yan ugezzum iqqnen s uɣendef ula netta. Yura-t ɣ wattayen n 1564, mac ittufsar i tikkelt izwaren ḍart tmettant nns, ɣ 1663.

Tizwiri n tudert nns d usegmi[edit | edit source]

Tin tudert tanimant, 1821

Ilul-d ɣ Pavya Lumbardya zund ucenti n Fazio Cardano, yan urgaz dar tekka yat tmefkit ɣ tusnakt, iswuri zund unezzarfu d umestan, tesmun-t-id d Leonardo Da Vinci yat tiddukkla idusen. Yura Cardano ɣ tesknudert nns tanimant f yemma-s Chiara Micheri, mas teswa mennaw n isafaren n uɣray bac ad t-tesḍer; "f uyenna s iyi-tenna yemma, ldin-i-d ɣ udis nns s" violence", ɛlayen ad mmteɣ", dat n ad ilul s imikk, ikka-t-nn ccil f yemma-s ad temmuti zeɣ Milan s Pavya afad ad terwel i ubayyuṛ "peste", iddeɣ si-s mmuten tarwa nns yaḍnin s kṛaḍ-nnsen.

Ikcem-d Cardano ɣ 1520 s tesdawit n Pavya mgal tirat n baba-s nna as-iran tiɣuriwin n uzref, ḍart yat temẓi nna mi ixub waḍu, ikturen s tmuḍan ur smidnin, d usegmi iceqqan n bu tɣennant igan baba-s, yufa-nn Gerolano ixf nns ɣ tayri n tfelsuft d tussna. Ammas n girra tawṭalyant n 1526-1521, sbezzizen iduba n Pavya f tesdawit ad tergel tifliwin nns ɣ 1524. Ikemmel Cardano tiɣri nns ilemma ɣ tesdawit n Padwa, mani ɣ sul yumeẓ taduktuṛat nns ɣ tesnijjit aseggʷas n 1525. Ur t-tujji tmamekt nns tamnalant igan bizarre ad bahra isker imeddukkal, d ula asiggel n twuri; yut gi-s tamara deffir mayd kullu ismed tɣuriwin nns. Yuzen Cardano tuttriwin nns n wadaf s tɣiwanit n imejjayen ɣ Milan mennawt n tikkal, mac ur t jju qeblen s tmentilt n tsellit nns ixcnen d tlalit nns irkan zund ucenti, meqqar imk-ann, kkan-t-nn ayt tɣiwant-ann n imejjayen ar bedda di-s ttemciwiren ɣ kraygatt tamsalt, f wudem n tɣist nns ur issinen tuccḍa.

Tizwiri n (carrière) nns zund umejjay[edit | edit source]

Ira yad-lli Cardano ad ixdem tasnijjit nns ɣ yat temdint imeqquren igan tanesbaɣurt zun d Milan, mac ur as-tettufka turagt i tmeskert nns, imk-ann ma f iɣtes ad izdeɣ tiɣremt n Sakkulugu, ɣ ixdem tesnijjit nns bla kra n turagt. Itahel dinna Lucia Banderini ɣ 1531, yuru di-s kṛaḍ irban dat tmettant nns ɣ 1546, ad ten-igan d Giovanni Battista (1543), Chiara (1537) d Aldo Urbani (1543). Yura sul Cardano ḍart yat tizi f wussan-nna; mas gi-sen izzri tumert s timmad nns.

Iɣʷi-d Cardano s twisi n idsen iristuqraṭiyen yat tesɣent ɣ uselmed n tusnakt ammas n Milan. Deffir mayd yumeẓ turagt nns tasejjant, ixdem tusnakt d tesnijjit s yat tikkelt, jjin f ufus nns imuḍan bahra stawhemmanin, yaɣul ilemma s tmentilt-a iga yan zeɣ idukturen akkʷ nna s da ttellin midden ammas n Milan, is d akkʷ yufa ɣ 1536 ad ifel tawuri nns n uselmed, d meqqar jju ur isbidd tararit nns n taynit s tusnakt, telkem-d ccenɛet nns ɣ iger asejjan kra n isekʷfal attuynin, urmen akkʷ iristuqraṭiyen ad t-ssaggugen f Milan. Yura sul Cardano ḍart yat tizi mas yuga ɣ wakud-ann iskanen d-kkanin igelliden n Danimark d Franṣa, d ula tagellidt n Skuṭlanda.

Tusnakt[edit | edit source]

Tafrist n Cardano illan ɣ tinmel n tusnakt d tesnaddadt, Taɣiwant n St Andrews.

Ittyawssan Cardano s mas iga umusnak akkʷ izwaren s usemres anegrawan n wuṭṭunen uzdiren, ifser-d s uzday ɣ udlis nns n 1545 Ars Magna, afessay n Scipione del Ferro i tagda "cubic" d ufessay n unelmad nns Lodovico Ferrari i tagda "quartic". Ilkem-t-id ufessay n yat tmackut iẓlin n tagda "cubic" {x^{3}+ax+b=0} zeɣ dar Niccolo Fontana Tartaglia ɣ 1539, nna as-inna i umata ḍart yat tizi mas as-iggulla Cardano ur tt-immala i awed yan, isenker di-s s tmentilt-ad yan umcubbek iɣezzifen f talɣa n tedyazt, mac izwar ufessay n Ferro win Fontana. Idegga ɣ ufaser nns s uyenna mi qqaren ɣil-ad uṭṭunen isugnanen, waxxa yad-lli ur igzi imenzayen-nnsen nna d iglem ggʷ uzemz nns awṭalyan Rafael Bombelli i tikkelt tamezwarut. Issidef-d "Coefficient binomial" d "Théorème binomial" ɣ udlis nns igan s uzwel Nuser "proportions" imaynutnin "Opus novum de proportionibus."

Iseggʷasen nns imeggura d tmettant nns[edit | edit source]

Sin ɣ tarwa n Cardano — Giovanni Battista d Aldo Urbano — gulan-nn tgiriwin timezdarin. Giovanni Battista, amenzu d umayuf nns, ittwazref s tubbya n yixf ɣ 1560, acku inɣa tamɣart nns s irin ḍart mayd yufa tarwa nns s kṛaḍ-nnsen ur akkʷ gin winnes. Aldo Urbano ittublan s tqemmaṛt, igdel fell-as baba-s tukkust ɣ 1569 acku ikka-t-nn da as-ittakʷer idrimen nns.

Immuti Cardano zeɣ Pavya s Bulunya, zeɣ yat tesga; acku ifles s mas d-ikka uɣtas n "exécution" n Giovanni nns tazrirt n taẓit nns d tmerselt takadimikt ammas n Pavya, d tusmin nna as-usin imidawen nns f isemduten nns ussnanin, d iddeɣ t-rublen altu s tumliwin n wunufen ignusanen d inelmaden nns.

Ittyamaẓ Cardano dar "Inquisition" ɣ 1570 s itsent tmental tirussinin, ittubezzaz fell-as ad izzri yan mennaw n wayyuren ɣ ubniq d ad d-isḍer tasɣent-ann nns n uselmed. Immuti s Ṛuma, yumeẓ gi-s yat "annuity" ar timḍelt zeɣ dar ubaba Gregory wiss-13 (deffir mayd yuga ubaba Pius wiss-semmus tuttra nns), ismed ilemma dinna taskendurt nns tanimant.

Ittyawqbal ɣ tɣiwant tageldant n imejjayen, ikemmel waxxa imk-ann f tezrawin nns tifelsufiyin s uzday d temskirt nns n tesnijjit ar tamettant nns ɣ 1576.

Iɣbula[edit | edit source]

  • Cardano, Girolamo, Astrological Aphorisms of Cardan. Edmonds, WA: Sure Fire Press, 1989.
  • Cardano, Girolamo, The Book of My Life. trans. by Jean Stoner. New York: New York Review of Books, 2002.
  • Cardano, Girolamo, Opera omnia, Charles Sponi, ed., 10 vols. Lyons, 1663.
  • Cardano, Girolamo, Nero: an Exemplary Life Inckstone 2012, translation in English of the Neronis Encomium.
  • Dunham, William, Journey through Genius, Chapter 6, 1990, John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0-471-50030-5. Discusses Cardano's life and solution of the cubic equation.
  • Ekert, Artur, "Complex and unpredictable Cardano". International Journal of Theoretical Physics, Vol. 47, Issue 8, pp. 2101–2119. arXiv e-print (arXiv:0806.0485).
  • Giglioni, Guido, "'Bolognan boys are beautiful, tasteful and mostly fine musicians': Cardano on male same-sex love and music", in: Kenneth Borris & George Rousseau (curr.), The sciences of homosexuality in early modern Europe, Routledge, London 2007, pp. 201–220.
  • Grafton, Anthony, Cardano's Cosmos: The Worlds and Works of a Renaissance Astrologer. Harvard University Press, 2001.
  • Morley, Henry, The life of Girolamo Cardano, of Milan, Physician 2 vols. Chapman & Hall, London 1854.
  • Ore, Øystein, Cardano, the Gambling Scholar. Princeton, 1953.
  • Rutkin, H. Darrel, "Astrological conditioning of same-sexual relations in Girolamo Cardano's theoretical treatises and celebrity genitures", in: Kenneth Borris & George Rousseau (curr.), The sciences of homosexuality in early modern Europe, Routledge, London 2007, pp. 183–200.
  • Sirasi, Nancy G., The Clock and the Mirror: Girolamo Cardano and Renaissance Medicine, Princeton University Press, 1997.