Wp/shi/Andriyya dil Virrusyu

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Andriyya dil Virroccio neɣ s tutlayt Tatalyanit : Andrea del Verrocchio (attayen n. 1435 – 1488) ikka-t-nn iga yan "sculptor" aṭalyani, adhaybi d umekla. Tekka-tt-nn dar-s yat tsawert ilan azal ɣ ammas n Flurinsa, kkan-t-nn gan kigan d imeklawen n tleslalit; inelmaden d yimeswurrin-nnes. Zun d Botticini, Ghirlandaio d Perugino, macc anlmad nns akkʷ ittyawssanen Leonardo da Vinci ad t-igan.

Madonna d Urba, attayen n. 1470, tasawert n Verrocchio. New York, Asalay Aɣerman n Tẓuri.

Tudert-nnes

Ilul Verrocchio ɣ Flurinsa attayen n 1435. Baba-s Michele di Francesco Cioni, iswurri s izwar zund yan umsenflul n uyajuṛ d uqermid, d "tax collector" ḍart-as. Iswurri dar tewja n id b yibankiwen Ayt Medici, fad immutti ilemma s Vinisya.

Lliɣ-d ilul Verrocchio, gan-as s yisem Andrea di Francesco di Cioni. Ittunfal yism-nnes s Andrea del Verrocchio lliɣ ibda ar ittelmad dar yan uhekkac (adhaybi) igan s yism Verrocchio (irwas is d nettan nit aygan Francesco di Luca Verrocchio, yan unesbaɣur bahra imursen ɣ wussan nnes). D zund umeḥḍar-nnes, ilmed dar-s Verrocchio manka s tettyawskarent tizuzaf d yirukuten n wureɣ zun d iṭebsilen, iɣerrafen d "containers" n tisent. Ilmd manka s issufuɣ zeɣ wureɣ; itsent tewriqin sdidnint mi tinin "afriw n wureɣ" d usemres nnsent ɣ zzwaq n yisutay n tewlafin, isefrisen d "illuminated manuscripts". Ilmed ula manka s isnulfu isefrisen n ubrunẓ. D umeggaru a s bahra ittyawssan.

Ɣakud-ann, immaggar Verrocchio d Donatello (ar ttinin kra n mdden mas t-nn-ikka ɣ tidet ar t-isselmad, mac kra n wanẓa f temsalt-a ur illi, iḥaseb John Pope-Hennessy ula netta teẓri-a mas d ur aɣ tettemcacka d tɣarast n twuriwin-nnes n zikk). Iga-d Donatello yan zeɣ "sculpteurs" akkʷ ttyawssanin, isnulfa-d uggar n yisefrisen f uyenna isker Verrocchio. Snulfan-d sin-a s sin-itsen yan usefris n David s yixf n Goliath, sekren daɣ s sin-itsen yan usefris "equestrian" imqqurn f wuddur n yan userdas ittyawssanen. Ɣ kigan n tikkal a'ɣ ar ssemzazalen inmezruyen n tẓuri ger sin id David, d ger sin yisefrisen "equestrian".

Verrocchio, ur jjin iwwel, mac ikka-t-nn ar ittazzal meqqar; f ayt tewja-nnes yaḍnin. Idrus mad ittyawssanen f tudert-nnes, abla mas ilmed dar Fra Filippo Lippi akkʷ ayenn iqqnen s teklut, d mas ar tetturruyent tiwuriwin-nnes tireslanin s yiseggʷasen-nnes simraw imeggura, d mla d is ur d takessa n Lorenzo de Medici d iwwi-s Piero, ur inni ad izzigiz mani. Ikka-t-nn yamu ula netta ɣ "Guild" n St Luke (Luke Agʷrram), kkan-d tsawert-nnes kigan ɣ yinaẓuren keswatnin. Tiwuriwin n kra ɣ yinelmaden-ad-nnes zund Domenico Ghirlandaio, Francesco Botticelli d Pietro Perugino, iceqqa ad ten-tssengarad d twuriwin n Verrocchio s yixf-nnes.

Ɣ tgiriwin n tudert-nnes, ifel Verrocchio i Lorenzo di Credi tasawert-nnes n Flurinsa, irẓem-d netta ṭayya ɣ Vinisya, mani ɣ ikka ar iswurri f usefris n Bartolomeo Colleoni. Immut ɣ Vinisya aseggʷas n 1488. Ar ittyawḥasab Andrea mas iga yan zeɣ yimezwura usridnin n umessenti (entrepreneur) awṭalyan, Paul M. Verrochi.

Tifelwin

Addum n Umasiḥ, 1474-1475, Verrocchio d Leonardo da Vinci.
Amasiḥ d Thomas. Agʷrram, Orsanmichelle, Flurinsa.

Ar ittuyanna mas ibda Verrocchio taklut ɣ temrawant n 1460, akud lliɣ t-nn-ikka isul ar iswuri ɣ Prato d umekla Fra Filippo Lippi. Yat tfelwit ittyawssanen ilan signature n Verrocchio ka-ayllan, ad t-igan d yat "altarpiece" (tafelwit ittilin ɣ yisɣersen) n Madonna d Ubijju d Igʷrramen ɣ Tkatidralit n Pistoia, ittyawklan ɣ tgira n temrawant n 1470. Llant sul uggar n tfelwin-yaḍnin d-kkanin ustudyu n Verrocchio, d irwas is gi-sen ikʷla Verrocchio yan umur klun inelmaden-nnes imuren-yaḍnin.

Tettyawkla tfelwit akkʷ gi-sent ittyawssanen Addum n Umasiḥ ger 1472 d 1475. Ibder Giorgio Vasari ɣ udlis-nnes "Tudert n Inaẓuren Ikeswaten"; mas d Leonardo da Vinci ad ikʷlan aneglus illan f uẓelmaḍ. Idum-aɣ altu Vasari mas d-isres Verrocchio citta-nnes s yat tikkelt lliɣ as-iɣḍef i tmefkit-ann n teklut iɣudan iṭṭaf umeḥḍar-nnes bu mraw d tam yiseggʷasen. S yan uzzray ineɣden, ar ittuman mas ittyawkla umata ɣ tfelwit-ann s yat "tempera" mi teqbur tɣarast, imil aneglus, kra n igezzumen ɣ tfegga n Ɛisa d tmuɣli n background, tettyawklan s tetiknikt tamaynut n teklut s uzatim. Tamentilt ittajjan inmezruyen n tẓuri ad inin d iguyya-nnsen mas gi-sent ixdem Leonardo mennaw yigezzumen ur d yan ka. Ittufka altu yan usumer-yaḍen ittinin mas d Botticelli ad as-ixedmen aneglus-nnes wis-sin.

"Sculpteurs"

Isnulfa-d Verrochio snat tɣawsiwin zeɣ uẓru, yan utabut (cercueil) d yan usarid (lavabo). Ar ittuyanna mas isrem altu yat Madonna d Ubijju s low relief (yat tɣarast n ufres, aserɣet neɣ d asrem ɣ ar ittuman design zund is ira ad d-iffuɣ zeɣ surface-nnes, s yat tfesna ixatren "high relief" neɣ d yat idrusen "low relief").

Ttyawskaren "sculptures" n Verrocchio akkʷ ttyawssannin s ubrunẓ nna igan yan wanaw n umɣuz (métal). D afad ad d-isnulfu yan usefris n ubrunẓ, ista Verrocchio ad t-ixdem s tkira (cire). Isker-as s izwar "plâtre" iggi-nnes afad ad as-ifek yan "moule" ḍart mad t-ttekkis, issreɣ-as i umɣuz-ann ɣ yan ufarnu ar kiɣ kullu ifsi yaɣul iga (liquid). Issuga umɣuz ifsin ɣ "mould" yajj-t-nn ad ikrem s ttawil-nnes. Ḍart mad ikkes "plâtre", yaff-nn usefris-nnes n ubrunẓ yujad, ur as-iɣama min "finition" d ujrak (polissage)

Tawwuri ɣ San Lorenzo

Tekka-tt-nn tga Taglizt n San Lorenzo (Lawrence Agʷrram) yat teglizt n umaynu ɣ Flurinsa. Iṣka-tt umesdag Brunelleschi s tmamekt n Tleslatit igan tamaynut ɣakud-ann. Kkan-t-nn Ayt Medici gan imasayen-nnes akkʷ dar illa waddur, stan Verrocchio zund sculptor-nnsen nna rad gi-s iswurin f kraḍ yisenfaren.

Isnulfa-d Verrocchio ɣ 1465 yan usarid i tmeṣriyt-ann n San Lorenzo (nna mi tinin ɣilad "Old Sacristy"), ɣ ttilin iheddumen d yirukuten n "Communion". Ittusrem-as i ufella n usarid-nna yan yigider, ittgensasen azamul n John Agʷrram Awenjil (St. John the Evangelist). Ittusrem-as i udis-nnes "coat of arms" n Ayt Medici. Tettufka-as ɣakud-ann i Verrocchio yat temhelt iẓlin s "désigne" n yan umḍel i Cosimo, "banker" ittyawssanen d jedd-is n Ayt Medici.

Ɣ tezwiri n temrawant n 1470, ikellef-t Lorenzo de Medici s temhelt n "désigne" n umḍel n baba-s Piero d ɛemm-is Giovanni. Ikka-t-nn umḍel-ann nna as-"designer" Verrocchio iga "unusual". Isnulfa-as-d yan "sarcophagus" (atabut n uẓru) imeqquren zeɣ yan uẓru "rouge-foncé" igan afalkay, "trimmed" s uẓru azegzaw d yifrawen "sculptured" s ubrunẓ. Ɣ udɣar n ad as-isker yan "design" n ɣmk-nna bedda ɣ ittili utabut izdi d uɣrab, isker-as nettan yan "désigne" yaḍen t-ittajjan ad nn-yili ɣ tuẓẓumt n usaka ittawin s "Sacristy". Isgadda-as Verrocchio yan uzeṭṭa n ubṛunz itettumanen zund is ittyawskar s yizakaren.

Amasiḥ d Thomas Agʷrram

Taglizt akkʷ igan "unusual" ɣ ammas n Flurinsa ɣakud-ann tga-tt taglizt n Orsanmichele. Tga yad-lli tuṣka-a tin yan ugadaz n usengar mi ittyawkla usalas s tugna tatigant n Madonna d Urba. Ittusenfel ugadaz-a s teglizt, dlen-as idisan-nnes s yiɣerban. Kkan-t-nn dar yiɣerban-nnes kra n tburjutin (niches) ganin uɣizen, mani ɣ ttafan ad sbidden isefrisen. Swurrin kigan n mdden ɣ ammas n Flurinsa ɣ tazzulin mzaraynint, amunen midden-a kullu ɣ mnnawt tmaddasin mi tinin "guilds". Ikka-t-nn ar ittiri kraygatt guild azalan ɣ tmdint ad nn dar-s yili usefris n ugʷrram-nnes apaṭrun ɣ yat zeɣ tburjutin-ann n Oransmichele. Kkan-t-nn ar ttyawskaren isefrisen-a s yifassen n yimayafen n "sculptor".

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