Wp/shi/Amzruy n Lmɣrib

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Iwtta n tmazirt n Lmɣrib ɣ uzmz n Imwaḥḥidn ɣ gr 1147 d 1269.

Zɣ Tarkyulujit ar ibayyan mas Lmɣrib ityuzdaɣ zɣ zikk, uggar n 400,000 n usggas. Ityuzdaɣ zɣ azrmzruy s imaziɣn, Lmɣrib d wakal nns zrin gisn tugt n tiɣurma, zund Iculin, Imustirn, Iɛatirin,Ibrumurizin,Ikaṛdyalin, Ijaṛsin, d Iqaḅṣin. Amzruy nna ittyaran n Lmɣṛib ibda zɣ uzmz n ukccum n Ifiniqn s tafriqt n ugafa, ger tasut tis VI d tasut tiss VIII qbel talalit n Lmasiḥ.

Tagldit n Muṛiṭanya tga tagldit nna akk izwarn ɣ Lmɣṛib, ɣ usggas n 44 qbel talalit n Lmasiḥ kcmen-ttid Iṛumyen d Lwandal d Lḅiẓantiyyin, ddu lḥukm n Imurin nɣ Lmur imaziɣn. Ɣ tusut tamzwarut n lhijra n umazan n ṛbbi taẓallit n Ṛebbi fllas, kcmnd s Lmɣṛib imuslmen awind ditsn Lislam ddu lḥukm n umawiyyin. Kcmn Imaziɣen s Lislam ddu ufus nsen. Ɣ usggas n 720 n tlalit, ddu ufus n Maysara Amḍɣri, skern Imaziɣn tagrawla f imuslmen, mac imaziɣen ɣaman ɣ Lislam.

Lluṛa n tagrawla n imaziɣn, Lmɣṛib iffuɣ zɣ lḥukm n umawiyyin hkamn ixf nssen. Ɣ Lislam zrint kigan n tiglday ɣ Lmɣṛib, zund :

  • Buṛɣwaṭa
  • Ait nkkuṛ
  • Ait mdrar
  • L-adarissa
  • Lmuṛabitin
  • Lmuwaḥḥidin
  • Lmariniyyin
  • Lwaṭṭaṣiyyin
  • Ssaɛdiyyin
  • L-ɛalawiyyin

Ɣ usggas n 1912 n lmilad Lmɣṛib ikcm ddaw lḥimaya n fṛanṣa, lluṛa n tassast n ugadir d tassast tamɣṛabit tamzwarut. Ɣ usggas n 1956 Lmɣṛib yumẓ listiqlql-nes.

Azrmzruy

Adɣar lli ɣ illa Lmɣrib ɣilad ikka-tt-inn ittuyzdaɣ zɣ uzmz aẓrwan aqbur, ɣ kran wakud illan gr 190.000 d 90.000 q.ɛ (qbl ad ilul ɛisa). Tlla yat tiɣri tamaynut tzḍar ad tml mas t-inn ikka Lmɣrib ittuyzdaɣ qbl akk tarix ad bɛd ma d ufan kran ixsan n ufgan azayku ma mu ttinin Homosapiens tama n uftas n yill aṭlasi ɣ udrar n Iɣud lliɣ asn skrn taḥalil ufan mas lɛmr nnsn ar itturri s 315.000 q.ɛ, ɣayad ad yujjan ixsan ad ad gin tilli akk iqburn ɣ umaḍal akk[1].

Ɣ uzmz anaẓran (n uẓru) amaynu, uckand iṣyaḍn d imksawn, staqrn ɣ ṣavana n idɣarn nna. Tadlsa nnsn tsfalkay aylliɣ ibda waman ar t ittiliḥ bɛd 500 q.ɛ s ssbab n isnfal n unzwi. Idɣarn lli illan ɣ taman yill n Lmɣrib ɣ umzwaru n uzmz anaẓran amaynu tkka-tt-inn tmunn ddu yat tdlsa n lfxxar d tadlsa n idɣarn n yill agrakal. Tɣuriwin n tarkyulujit mlan masd ttadjin n tfunasin d tkrrazt s sin-itsn kkan-tt-inn ɣ uzmz ann. Ɣ uzmz n iɣir, tadlsa tajirsit tlkm ɣ-akud-ann s ugafa n Lmɣrib.

Azmz azayku

Dyana, yat takuct tarumiyt tlla ɣ tiɣrmt n Walili.

Tuckit n ifiniqin s iftasn imurwakucin yiwi s tsutin n unbaḍ n imẓẓin ɣ yiẓẓlmḍ n Lmɣrib. Isbbabn ifiniqin iflayn tamnaḍt nɣd tasga n tagut ɣ yill umlil agrakal dat n tasut tiss tamt dat n tlalit n Ɛisa d dffir nns s imikk ṣkan tisgiyin n tisnt ɣ yiftasn d isaffn n Lmɣrib. D gr timntawin mqqurnin izwarn n ifiniqin tlla ɣ Cala, Liksus, d Mugadur.

Tucka-d tɣrma taqṛṭajit dat n tasut tiss smmust dat n tlalit n Ɛisa d tsmuzza n tkiriḍt nns ɣ iẓẓlmḍ n tafṛiqt. Qṛṭaj trna tazdiwin n tsbbabt nns d tqqbilin timaziɣin, d ar asn takka aqqaṛiḍ ku asggʷas afadd ad tḥḍu amyawas nnsn ɣ tsarwa n tngiwin  timzwura.

Zzɣ tasut tiss kṛaḍt dat n tlalit n Ɛisa, tkkatt inn Muṛitanya tga tagldit taqqbilit tamaziɣt ɣ ugʷmmaḍ agrakal n Lmɣrib, agllid i kullu iqqbuṛn ittussann mas inbḍ tagldit ad igat Baga, lli ynbḍn ɣ tasut tiss kṛaḍt dat n tlalit n Ɛisa d dffir nns yucka d Bukus amzwaru i ynbḍn gr 100 d 80 dat n tlalit, igldan imaziɣn ur ar yadlli bahra kkṛḍn iftasn, taɣawsa lli yssrxan akccum n iṛumin, ɣ-akud-ann aɣulnt kra n tsgiwin ɣ Muṛiṭanya tga tamsddurruyt taṛumit ɣ 33 dat n tlalit, d taɣul dffir nns kullut ɣ usggʷas n 40 dffir n tlalit lliɣ inɣa umnukad Kaligula agllid Amuri Baṭelimus.

Rsma yann nit n takuct Dyana ɣ Walili.

Unuɣ n takuct Diyana ɣ Walili, Ṛuma tkkṛḍ ikaliwn n Muritanya, i yadlli ur bahra ittuswttan, s imsasatn d tmyaqqanin d tqqbilin tiẓuṛanin d ɣ udɣar ad ig azzaɣ asrdasan, d tsiriw tissas nns ɣar f tsgiwin iɣ a yadlli tlummaẓ gis, d iɣ ur a bahra tsɣawsa kigan n isrdasn afadd attn t tḥḍu .

Tamnaḍt ad taɣul tga agzzum ɣ tamnukda n Ṛuma d yaɣul wassaɣ nns igat Muṛitanya Taṭnjit d tga tɣrmt n Ṭanjis nɣ Ṭanja amnru nns. ɣ tizi lliɣ inbḍ amnkad aṛumani Agsṭus, inbbaḍn n Muritanya taṭnjit lli yadlli inbḍn tasgiwin n yiffus n Vulubilis nɣ Walili. Kra n inmzrayn ar ttinin mas tlm tamnukda taṛumanit ar Anfa (Ɣila tga Tigmmi tumlilt s yism).  

Ɣ usggʷas n 285 tffuɣ tamnukda taṛumanit ɣ Lmɣrib d uckan-d iwindaln igan tiqqbilin zzɣ tamazirt n ijiṛmanin, d ḍaṛat nnsn Iquṭin d Ibiẓanṭin.[2][3] Ɣ tizi yad kkantt inn middn ɣ idrarn ur tn isdurri awd yan, is tn yadlli nbḍn inbbaḍn d imɣarn zzɣ gisn. Ackn-d ilmma wid iskarn tiɣri i tamasiḥt s Lmɣrib ɣ tasut tiss snat, d kra n middn izdɣn ɣ iḍuṛan ad d ismgan d kra n imkrazn kcmn s usgd ad amaynu lli tn id ilkmn.

Azmz anammas

Azzaɣ amuslm n tsga n Lmɣrib amuzzur, issntin ɣ tuẓẓmt n tasut tiss sat n tlalit, d imurs g ussnti n tasut tiss tamt. Azzaɣ ad yiwi d Lislam d tutlayt tasrɣint s Lmɣrib. Dffir nns yiwrri Lmɣrib iga agzzum g uwank amawi g tfṛiqt, d isnbaḍn n ku tasgiwin ar ttustan zzɣ dar asnbaḍ imqquṛn g Lqirawan s tqbilin timaziɣin lli ikcmn lislam,macc awxxa ɣikan ɣaman f uslgn nnsn iqqbuṛn, d fkan argay I wawank amuslm amaynu. Uckan d kra n tqbilin tisrɣinin s Lmɣrib zdɣn gis d skrn tigldanin nnsn, zund Ṣalḥ Bn Mnṣuṛ lli iṣkan tagldit n Nkkur d ifsr Lislam gr imzdaɣn n tgldit nns, tugtt n tikkal dffir lliɣ ar ttilin kigan n imnɣan.

Asmḍl n Ibn Baṭṭuṭa lli d iddrn gr 1304 d 1369 ɣ tamdint n Ṭanja.

G 750 tel, tiqqbilin timaziɣin nkrn mgal n tgllit tamawit. Tagrawla tssnta g dar tiqqbilin illan g tagut n Lmɣrib d tfsr dɣya g tmnaḍt kullu. Waxxa tagrawla tdrus d s 742 tel, urta tlkm Lqiṛawan, d ur sul ẓḍaṛn dffir nns isnbaḍn imawin nɣd ignsas nnsn iεbbasin ad siwrrin anbaḍ nnsn f tagut n tfṛiqt. Lmɣrib g tizi yad iffuɣ afus n yimawin macc yiwrri ibḍa f kigan n tglda timaziɣin mẓẓinin zund: Ibuṛɣwaṭin, Sijilmassa, Nkkur, d rnu fllasn Tilmsan, d Tahrt i yllan ɣilad g Dzayr g usggʷas n 789 tel, ittugma wawank aydrisi inbḍn Lmɣrib f g ufus n Idris iwis n Ɛbdllah, i yadlli irwln zzɣ yat tmdayt g usggʷas n 786 tel, d ifta s tɣrmt n Walili d tbrrkt taqqbilt n Uṛaba tamaziɣt, dffir nns issnta inmuzun nns ar kiɣ ilkm awank n Tamsna, Fizaz, d Tlmsan. Ar kiɣ t inɣa Haṛun Ṛṛacid s ustci, ilmma yumẓ iwis Idris wiss sin anbaḍ dffir nns lliɣ dars 12 usggʷas. Afrux ad igad argaz d issmɣur anbaḍ nns ar kiɣ yumẓ Lmɣrib kullut, d iṣka tiɣrmt n Fas.

Lliɣ iḍṛ unbaḍ Aydrisi, d zzɣ usggʷas 1060, ssntan t tidfrin timaziɣin ar ttnbaḍn Lmɣrib,  Awank amzwaru gitsn iga t uwank n Imṛabṭn zzɣ tqqbilt n ilmtunn lli iḍfuṛn i tqqbilt imqquṛn n yiẓnagn. Awank n Yimṛabṭn tmurs g ad tsmun tamazirt n Umurnwakuc. Dffir n Yimṛabṭn uckan d kigan n tglda tiyyaḍ zund Imwwuḥḥidin, Imarinin, Iwṭṭasn, d Isεdin yat tḍfuṛ tayyaḍ d kraygat yat ar tskar amnru nns g iɣrman imqqurn g Lmɣrib ɣakud ann. Tiɣrmin ad ar ttussanent ɣilad s tiɣrmun n tamnukda tamurwakucit. D ḍaṛat n tasut tiss 11 tel, buɣlan t teglda yad d urrint gan t idwasn imqquṛn g tagut n Tafṛiqt s usrag n tmnaḍin mqqurnin lli yadlli nbḍn gis d awr nttu ula Landalus. Lliɣ tḍr Landalus rurn kigan n imuslmn d udayn s Lmɣrib f yimnɣi lli ssnkrn t tgldanin timasiḥin, lli ittusann ɣilad s yimnɣan n usuwrruy.

Azmz amaynu

G umzruy amaynu ɣaman Isεdin g unbḍ ar usggʷas n 1659. dffir nns tnunnt tdfrt n Iεalawin i yadlli inbḍn tagldit n Tfilalt zzɣ 1635. tadfrt ad tules tsmun Lmɣrib g usggʷas n 1666. G usggʷas n 1684 yurrid Mulay Smaεil iwis n Ccrif s Ṭanja zzɣ Ingliz d issnta ar ismun tiɣrmin n Lmɣrib g yan wawank imunn, mqqar ugint kra n teqqbilin addiss munnt, ikkattinn Lmɣrib ad igan awank amzwaru issikzn s tsimant n Mirikan g ussnti n tgrawla tamirikanit g usggʷas n 1787. Ukan kkan tt inn tinawin timirikanin ittkkan illan n Lmɣrib ar fllasn ttakʷayn imritln imaziɣn, dffir nns iɣtes ugllid Muḥmmad wiss kṛaḍ masd ku tinawin timirikanin rad magẓnt zzɣ tukyiwin n imritln g tetgart n tiddukla ittuskrn g usggʷas n 1777. d tatgart ad tga ɣilad zzɣ titgarin tiqqbuṛin itskr Mirikan, d i sul isuln ar ɣass ad.

Zzɣ tazwiri n tasut tiss 18 ibidd Lmɣrib mnid yat tgrawla imqqurn ittuzdan d tgrawla tamgurant tussnta g Uṛupa, d yurm Lmxzn ad iskr kigan n isuɣdn afad ad imun d usrus amaynu I'll an g mnid nns, d gr isuɣdn ad:

  • Issnta Lmɣrib ar issifiḍ imuzar xf islulla d ikrḍ fllasn Lmxzn ad sskṛẓn tiḍaf afad ad ur tɣama tikki d temxxart, d tssgdl asnsr n iqqaṛiḍn n tmizar n bṛṛa.
  • Iṣka wawank yat tinml tamaynut g Sela afad ad gis ttuɣran timassanin timaynutin n uzmz ann, d ar takka taggazt i yinlmadn, d tṣṣifḍ ismmigln s bṛṛa.
  • Zzɣ ismmigln i yeṣṣifḍ uwank, kra n inlmadn skrn asmuttg dar udfrir n Urupa n tagut, d isɣa d ɣakudan Lmxzn ilafn imaynutn d iṣka yan usakʷn n walaf g tɣrmt n Fas.

Taɣrma tamuslmt g Lmɣṛib

L-umawiyyin

Ibda lḥukm n L-umawiyyin g Lmɣṛib g wammas n tusut tiss VI, itmma g tgrawla n Imaziɣen asggas n 740 n lmilad. L-umawiyyin ḥkamnd Lmɣṛib seg Taqqiṛwant g Tuns.

Buṛɣwaṭa

Tagldit tamuslmt tamzwarut g Lmɣṛib da-ybḍan f L-umawiyyin n lqqblt. Tyubna Buṛɣwaṭa ddaw ufus n Mayṣara Amḍɣṛi. Tumẓ Buṛɣwaṭa tamazirt n tamsna, ger Calla ar Asfi. Tbda Buṛɣwaṭa g usggas n 744 n lmilad, tmma g usggas n 1058 n lmilad f ufus n Lmuwaḥḥidin.

Ait nkkuṛ

Tlla taglditat g Tamsaman g Arrif, g usggas n 744 n lmilad. Tuybna tagldit n Ait nkkuṛ f ufus n Ṣalḥ ibnu Manṣuṛ. Tyusmma tagldit n Ait nkkuṛ f wasif n Nkkuṛ da-yllan g Arrif ger idraren n Arrif.

Ait mdrar

Ayt mdrar nɣ ayt wasul gan yat tagldit ityubnan g Lmɣṛib g usggas n 757 ar 976 n lmilad. Taglditad tlla g tmazirt n Usammar, tamanaɣt nsen tgat Sijilmassa. Asmɣuṛ n Ait mdrar igat Abu lqasim smgu.

Ait umɣaṛ

Ger iseggasen n 1001 ar 1039 n lmilad ẓḍaren ait umɣaṛ ad-gan iwtta i tamurt n ait umɣaṛ g Lmɣṛib, baɛd-ma dɣlbn Bani-yfren. Tamanaɣt nsen tgat Fas. Tamurt n Ait mdrar tyubna f ufus n ẓiṛṛi ibn ɛaṭiyya.

Isemlalen

Ait ida-usmlal skrn tamurt nsen g tamnaṭṭ n Sus, g usggas n 1659 n lmilad. Tamanaɣt n Isemlalentgat iliɣ. Tamurt n Isemlalen tyubna f ufus n abu ḥassun assmlali.

L-adarissa

Tyubna tagldit n L-adarissa g usggas n 744 n lmilad, f ufus n Idris amzwaru, g tiɣṛmt n Walili. Tamanaɣt nsen tgat Fas. Idris amzwaru tbayɛt taqbilt n Awraba.

Lmuṛabitin

F ufus n Ɛabdullah ibnu yasin iband umussu n Lmuṛabitin g zzawit n sidi Waǧǧag g tmnadṭ n Tiznit. Tyubna tagldit n Lmuṛabitin g usggas n 1069 n lmilad. Tamanaɣt nsen tgat Meṛṛakec.

Lmuwaḥḥidin

F ufus n Lmahdi ibn tummrt umussu n Lmuwaḥḥidin g tinmel g Laṭlaṣ amqqṛan tmnadṭ n Meṛṛakec.

Tyubna tagldit n Lmuwaḥḥidin g usggas n 1147 n lmilad.

Tamanaɣt nsen tgat Meṛṛakec.

Tagldit n Lmuwaḥḥidin tga tagldit kullu ymqquṛn seg tglday d-yekkan Lmɣṛib.

Lmariniyyin

1269 n lmilad ad tbayn tagldit n Lmariniyyin, gan Lmariniyyin seg taqqbilt n Znata tamaziɣt.

Lwaṭṭaṣiyyin

Ger 1471 d 1554 n lmilad, Lmɣṛib ḥkamnt Lwaṭṭaṣiyyin.

Lwaṭṭaṣiyyin llan g tanbaḍt n Lmariniyyin.

Ssaɛdiyyin

Seg usggas n 1525 n lmilad tbda tagldit n Ssaɛdiyyin seg tamnaḍt n Darɛa.

L-ɛalawiyyin

bdant L-ɛalawiyyin seg Tafilalt g usggas n 1631 n lmilad f ufus n mulay ɛli crif

Asdurri/Listiɛmar n ait Europa g Lmɣṛib

Fṛanṣa

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Spanya

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L-bṛṭqqiẓ

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Azmz n Moḥmmad VI

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Ẓṛ uggar

Tiɣbula

  1. Smith TM, Tafforeau P, Reid DJ, etal, Earliest evidence of modern human life history in North African early Homo sapiens, journal of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, volume:104, issue:15, pages:6128–33, date:April 2007, pmid:17372199, pmc:1828706 |doi:10.1073/pnas.0700747104, bibcode:2007PNAS..104.6128S }}
  2. LexicOrient 2016-03-03
  3. B. Lugan, Histoire du Maroc p19