Wp/shi/Afrḍis akimyan

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Amgrad ad icqqa ad t tfhmt !
amgrad-ad gis kra n iwalwn nna ur iẓḍaṛ ad tn ifhm yan iɣ ur issinn ɣ umawal iẓlin n tutlayt taclḥiyt tatrart.
Mad igan afssay ? Fad ad tfhmt mad gis illan tzḍart ad tawst i yixf nnk s umawal lli illan ɣ izddar akkʷ n tasna. Iɣ t ur tufit, tzḍart ad nn taggʷt ɣ imawaln d isgzawaln.
Yat twlaft n yan rrasm ar aɣ immal manik ayga cckl n ufrḍis akimyan

Afrḍis akimyanAfrdis akruran (s tfransist: élément chimique) iga tagrumma n iblkimn (atoms) ttuẓlaynin s yan wuṭṭun imdn n ipruṭunn ɣ tuẓẓmt nnsn. Uṭṭun ad, ar tt nttara s Z, ar as nttini uṭṭun ablkiman n ufrdis akruran. Ar ttuswttant, ɣ tilawt, tɣariwin tikruranin n iblkimn s tuẓka nnsn talikṭrunant iqqnn s wuṭṭun n ipruṭunn n tuẓẓumt nnsn, aynna yakkan mas d iblkimn aksulnin ɣ wuṭṭun ablkiman ar asn ttiksilnt tɣariwin tikruranin. Ɣ unmgal, ẓḍarn iblkimn n ufrdis akruran igan yan ad ilin yan wuṭṭun imzarayn n inuṭrunn ɣ tuẓẓumt nnsn, ar asn nttini ɣ waddad ad iẓutupn.

Ahidrujin, akarbun, aẓut, uksijin, uzzal, anas, aẓrf, urɣ, atg. gan ifrdisn ikrurann. Ku yan gisn ar ittugnsas s yat tngalt takrurant: H, C, N, O, F, Cu, Ag, Au, atg. S umata, ttyufan ar ɣassa 118 n ifrdisn ikrurann, zɣ wuṭṭun ablkiman 1 ar 118. Gisn 94 n ifrdisn ttusmagin f wakal ɣ wammas agaman, ilin 80 darsn s tdrsi yan uẓutup izgan (lan akk ifrdisn ad yan wuṭṭun ablkiman imẓẓiyn f nɣ igda 82 abla ifrdisn 43 d 61).

Ɣiyn ifrdisn ikrurann ad munn ɣ tizi n imyaggatn ikrurann ssilɣn yat tartalla n wuddisn ikrurann. Aman, s umdya, gan tayafut n tamunt n wuksijin d uhidrujin, aynna aɣ yakkan afnuz bu tnfalit takrurant H2O — sin iblkimn n uhidrujin d yan n wuksijin. Iẓḍar uhidrujin d wuksijin, ɣ tfadiwin timhlanin myallanin, ad d-fkn uddisn myallanin, zund ubiruksid n uhidrujin nɣ d aman ittsuksijinin lanin tanfalit H2O2 — sin iblkimn n uhidrujin d sin n wuksijin. Ɣ unmgal, ku uddis akruran iɣy ad iry ig ifrdisn imyallan. Aman, s umdya, ẓḍarn ad ttuliktrulizan s wuksijin d uhidrujin. Da nttini i tanga tazdgant, yulɣn s iblkimn n ufrdis akruran igan yan,tafkka tafrart. Tamggarut ad ur yallfus ad try s ifrdisn myallanin. Aya as nsmziriy gr tfkka tafrart d ufrdis akruran. S umdya, uksijin iga afrdis akruran, macc urrig nna nssn akkʷ d nna mi nttini ɣ wawal n ku ass uksijin hat tafkka tafrart ayd iga, ig yism nns unɣid asinuksijin, ar t-nsnfali s O2, bac ad imyilli d wuẓun bu tnfalit O3, igan altu tafkka tafrart; uẓun d usinuksijin gan anawn isnfliḍnann n ufrdis uksijin. Addad alugnan n yan ufrdis akruran iga-t waddad n tfkka tafrart mi tga tnfalit (Enthalpi) tanawayt n ussilɣ tanlmaḍt-akkʷ ɣ tfadiwin timagnutin n uzɣal d ussikl, igdan 0 s umsasa.

Ur yallfus ad infl ufrdis akruran s yan ufrdis yaḍn s umyagga akruran, amyagga awẓman ittusmman ammskl awẓman day ad iẓḍarn ad ig isnfl ad. Asnml ad isnfalit tikklt tamzwarut umskrura afransis Lavoisir ɣ 1789,.

Taflwit tazdawant n ifrḍisn

Crystal Clear app kdict.png Imgradn lli yas iḍfarn : Taflwit tazdawant n ifrḍisn

Munn kullu ifrdisn ikrurann ɣ yat tflwit, d-ikkan imahiln n umskrura arusi Dimitri Mundalif, mi ttinin "Taflwit tazdawant n ifrḍisn":

Taflwit tazdawant n ifrḍisn
1 2   3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 1
H
    2
He
2 3
Li
4
Be
  5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3 11
Na
12
Mg
  13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4 19
K
20
Ca
  21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5 37
Rb
38
Sr
  39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6 55
Cs
56
Ba

*
71
Lu
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7 87
Fr
88
Ra

*
*
103
Lr
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
   
Ilantuniden
*
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
 
Actinides
*
*
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
 

Ismawn

Ɣ 2011, tdggi tamunt tagraɣlant n tkrura tazddagt d tmsnast (UICPA) ismawn s tnglizt d iniglan ikruranen igraɣlanen n 112 n ifrdisn imzwura (s unmala n wuṭṭun awblkim)[1]. Ɣ 31 mayu n 2012, ismma UICPA sin ifrdisn yaḍn, aflirubyum Fl d ulibirmuryum Lv (uṭṭun 114 d 116)[2]. Ɣ 31 dujanbir n 2015 issuded UICPA inniy n kkuẓ n ifrdisn yaḍn, win wuṭṭunen iwblkimn 113, 115, 117 d 118, mac ur asn ifki kra n yismawn igguran. Mac ar ttwannan s yismawn imaddasn iran ad infl ad day asn ttustayn yismawn, ad tn igan d unutryum (Uut), ununbuntyum (Uuv), ununsatyum (Uus) d ununuktyum (Uuo)[6], mac umẓn ismawn nnsn igguran ɣ 28 nuwanbir n 2016, s uzrak anihunyum (Nh), amuskubyum (Mc), atinis (Ts) d uganisun (Og)[3].

Tiɣbula

  1. IUPAC Periodic Table of the Elements - Taflwit tawalant n ifrdisn, z dar l'IUPAC (21 innayr 2011). 9 bṛayr 2016.
  2. ( en ) Element 114 is Named Flerovium and Element 116 is Named Livermorium
  3. ( en ) Elements 113, 115, 117, and 118 are now formally named nihonium (Nh), moscovium (Mc), tennessine (Ts), and oganesson (Og) 30-11-2016.