Wp/rif/Tcarliz Darwin

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Tcarliz Darwin

Ilul ɣ 12 brayr 1809, Tcarliz Darwin wis sin n tarwa n umsasfar Robert Darwin (1766-1848), ntta D-ayyaw n Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802), amdyaz d-aṭbib d-mssan n tmust. Tcarliz ɣar-s 8 isggʷasn aylliɣ tmmut yemas, Susannah Wedgwood (1765-1817).

Tamdurt nns[edit | edit source]

Tcarliz Darwin isnti tiɣri nns n tmsasfart ɣ tsdawt n Edinburgh imik iflt iḍfur tusna n usgd ɣ Cambridge. Mac aylli yiwin anli ns igat umzruy n tmust.

Ɣ dujanbir 1831, Charles Darwin yaẓn s 23 n usggʷas, mad yad iga amssan n tmust, iffaɣ ɣ yan ummuddu mqqurn issutl d i umaḍal ɣ yan uɣrrabu mqqurn ittussan s Beagle. Aslmad ns John Henslow (1795-1861) ad t ismun d ukppitan Robert FitzRoy (1805-1865). Charles Darwin ɣ uzmz an iɣra bahra tamust, d ur as tnjm kra n tarmi ɣ umnid ad bla st in ur yurm.

Smmus isggʷasn f uɣrrabu n Beagle, Charles Darwin izzri gisn mad iggutn ɣ wakal, iffaɣ gis s tuggt n tannayyin ɣ tjinyalujit, ismun gis anawn n imudar d ifusiln. Ismun tugt n wanawn kra igat yan d a inna t izdin d wiyyaḍ s yat tɣarast tamssant. Tg tifi ns tamaynut dar mddn n tusna.

Tifrkiwin n tudrt ns munt f yat tyafut : ammuddu ns lli ɣ d issutl i umaḍal, abddad ns ɣ tgzirin n Galápagos (zɣ 15 cutanbir ar 20 ktubr 1835) iga azmz anbdad ɣ tudrt ns. Tgzirin an n Pasifik yagan 1 000 n km d taɣarin n Marikan n iffus yufan gisnt ay lli n ur itam, kra n wanawn ikkan tasutin f tasutin. Mac aylli bahra yiwin tiṭt ns igat aylliɣ ur irwas yan wanaw gʷmas ngr tigzirt d tayyaḍ. Dar ifkriwn (ibutgratn), tadawt illa maɣ tsllḥ, illa maɣ tbzg ɣ tama n umggrḍ. Dar kra n waylaln, iggut maɣ ngaran, iɣʷnbab ns naḥyatn zɣ tigzirt ar tayyaḍ.

Aylliɣ yurri s Ingliz, amssan nɣ irɣa ixf ns. Immaɣ ad isgadda iswingimn ns. Kra iga t yat ɣ tannayyin ns ar t tglay s yat tswingt : anawn akʷ n imudar ar bdda tnifiln imik s imik, tafrka s tfrka. Ɣ umnad ns ayllid yiwin asnifl ad igat izdayn illan ɣ tmust ngr wanawn, mamnk sa izray yan nsn s wayyaḍ ig yan yaḍnin.

Awal n uflla, anawn ar bdda tnifiln, acku imrasn ɣ d nttnin ar tnifiln, tawila lli zziḍrn i izmaz imaynutn kad d itɣaman, mayan afad bdda ttgurun wanawn yaḍnin afuḍn wiyyaḍ. Mac taswingmt isugrn dar Darwin tgat mas ifls mas d anawn akʷ darsn yan usala, d kra igat yan gitsn iffaɣd ɣ wayyaḍ.

Ɣ uggar n 20 n usggʷas aɣ iṭṭfar Darwin ar ismuna igzman n tswingt ns, ur d issufɣ kra n udlis acku ifrk is rad fllas yigut waqqur, d irad igutn isyafatn hrcnin f tswingt ns.

Ɣ 1858, yan uɛrrim amssan n tmust, Alfred Wallace (1823-1913), yuzn i Darwin yan uḍris mẓẓin yaẓẓn i iswingimn ns f usnifl n wnanwn. Darwin iddhcr. Ar ismkilil iswingimn ns aylliɣ tn zrin wiyyaḍ. Iɣ ira ad ig amzwaru s man anaw an ɣ iswingimn illa fllas ad fllasn issufɣ kra n udlis ɣ mad yazn.

Ɣ 24 nwanbir 1859, The Origin of Species (Asala n wanaw) yugga d sul. Aylli d iḍi n idlisn inza ɣ wass amzwaru, mqqar ggutn willi ran at iṛẓ. Iswingimn n Darwin f usnif sbzzizn ixfawn nsn.

Taswingt mas nssar yan uẓur d izɛḍaḍ mqqurnin tluzza bahra mad iffaɣ usala n wanawn. Zɣ ass an taswingt n usnifl n wanaw n ufgan ad izziwizn anliwn. Mamnk as nga aylli nga, ass ad ?

Charles Darwin, tis snat tikkal ar itmciwwir af ad d iluḥ iswingimn ns. Ɣ tgira, The Descent of Man (Asala n ufgan) yugga d ɣ 1871. Ar n gis nttafa s yat tɣarast ifrrzn tifrkiwin mqqurnin lli ifkanin afgan n was ad lli ittissan s Homo sapiens. Ɣik lli s ittimɣur ixf d unli, ɣik lli s a ittaɣʷd iẓdiy d tawada igaddan s sin iḍarn gan dars imarnutn unṣibn.

tamtant nns[edit | edit source]

Immut Tcarliz Darwin di 19 abril 1882, afad ad ssimɣurn tiḥrci ns ittumḍal n ɣ Westminster ɣ tama n usmḍl n Newton

Irur t s tmaziɣt : AmazighLB