Wp/rif/ⴰⵃⵎⴷ ⵄⴰⵚⵉⴷ

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ⴰⵃⵎⴷ ⵄⴰⵚⵉⴷ

ⴰⵃⵎⴷ ⵄⴰⵚⵉⴷ ⵏⵜⵜⴰ ⴷ-ⴰⵎⴰⵔⴰ ،ⴰⵎⴷⵢⴰⵣ، ⴰⵎⵔⵣⵣⵓ ،ⴰⵎⵖⵏⴰⵙ ⴷ ⴰⵣⵔⴼⴰⵏ ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ، ⵉⵍⵓⵍ ⴷⵉ ⵜⵖⵔⵎⵜ (ⵜⴰⵎⴷⵉⵏⵜ) ⵜⴰⵔⵓⴷⴰⵏⵜ ⴷⵉ ⵜⵎⵓⵔⵜ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ ⴷⵉ 14 ⵢⵓⵍⵢⵓⵣ 1961.ⵉⵟⴼ ⵍⵉⵙⴰⵏⵙ ⵏ ⵜⴼⵍⵙⴰⴼⵓⵜ ⵣⵉ ⵜⵙⴷⴰⵡⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵙⴽⵍⴰ ⴷ ⵜⴰⵙⵏⴰⵡⵜ ⵜⴰⵏⴼⴳⴰⵏⵜ (ⵍⵄⵓⵍⵓⵎ ⴰⵍⵉⵏⵙⴰⵏⵉⵢⴰ) ⴷⵉ ⵔⴱⴰⵟ ⴰⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ 1984، ⴷⵉ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ 1988 ⵜⵢⵓⴼⴽⴰ ⴰⵙ ⵛⴰⵀⴰⴷⴰ ⴰⵙⴰⵙⵙⵓⴼⵖ (ⵜⴰⵅⴰⵔⵔⵓⵊ) ⵙⴳ ⵜⵙⴷⴰⵡⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵙⵏⵉⵡⵉⵏ (ⵄⵓⵍⵓⵎ) ⵏ ⵓⵙⴳⵎⵉ. ⵉⵙⵡⵡⵓⵔⵉ ⴰⵙⴰⵍⵎⴰⴷ ⴳ ⵓⵙⵙⵍⵎⴷ ⴰⵙⵉⵏⴰⵏ (ⴰⵜⴰⵏⴰⵡⵉ).ⴷⴰ ⵉⵙⵡⵡⵓⵔⵉ ⵖⵉⵍⴰ ⴰⵎⵔⵣⵓ ⴷⵉ ⵡⵙⵉⵏⴰⴳ ⴰⴳⵍⴷⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵙⵙⵏⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ. ⵉⵙⵙⵏⵜⵉ ⴰⴼⵙⵙⵔ ⴰⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ 1979 ⵉⴳⴳⴰ (ⵉⵙⴽⵔ) ⵜⴰⵎⴷⵢⴰⵣⵜ ⵏⵏⵙ "البدء ،ⴰⵙⴽⴽⵙ ⴷⴰ ⵉⵜⵍⵓⵍ" ⴳ ⵓⵖⵎⵉⵙ ⵍⵎⵓⵃⴰⵔⵉⵔ. ⴷⴰ ⵉⴼⵙⵙⵔ ⵉⴷⵍⵉⵙⵏ ⴰⵃⵎⴰⴷ ⵄⴰⵚⵉⴷ ⴳⵔ ⵜⵉⵔⵔⴰ ⵓⵙⴼⵔⵓ (ⵙ ⵜⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ ⴷ ⵜⴰⵄⵔⴰⴱⵜ ⴷ ⵓⵔⵣⵣⵓ) ⴷⵉ ⵜⵓⵙⵙⵏⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ ⴷⵉ ⵜⵉⵎⵙⵔⴰⵢⵉⵏ ⵏ ⵙⴽⴽⴻⵏ ⴰⵙⴳⴷⴰⵏ (ⴰⴷⵉⵏⵉ) ⴷ ⵜⵎⴰⴳⵉⵜ ⵄⴰⵚⵉⴷ ⵍⵉⵅⵜⵉⵍⴰⴼ ⵏ ⵜⴷⵉⵎⵓⵇⵔⵟⵉⵜ. ⵉⴳⴰ ⴰⴳⵎⴰⵎ ⴷⵉ ⴰⵙⵇⵇⵉⵎ ⵜⵏⵎⵀⴰⵍⵜ ⵏ ⴰⵙⵉⵏⴰⴳ ⴰⴳⵍⴷⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵙⵙⵏⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ ⴷⵉ ⵢⵓⵏⵢⵓ 2002. ⵓⵍⴰ ⵉⵣⵡⴰⵔ ⴰⵙ ⵉⵙ ⵉⵜⵔⵉⵢⵙ ⵜⴰⵎⵙⵎⵓⵏⵜ ⵜⴰⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱⵉⵜ ⵉⵙⵍⵎⴰⴷⵏ ⵏ ⵜⴼⵍⵙⴰⴼⵜ ⵎⴰ ⵉⵎⵍⴰ ⴷⵉ ⵓⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙ 1996 ⴷ 1998 ⴰⴳⵎⴰⵎ ⴰⵎⵔⴽⴰⵣⵉ ⴳ ⵓⵎⴰⵔⵉⵙ (ⵍⵎⴽⵜⴰⴱ) ⵏ ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵙⵜ ⵏ ⵉⵎⴰⵔⴰⵜⵏ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ. ⵉⴳⴰ ⴰⵡⴷ ⴰⴳⵎⴰⵎ ⴰⵎⵙⴷⵓⵙ ⵏ ⵜⴰⴷⴷⴰⵔⵜ ⵓⵙⴼⵔⵓ ⴳ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ ⵍⵎⵓⵏⵜⴰⴷⴰ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵏⴰⵎⵓⵔⵜ ⴷ ⵜⵓⴳⵜ ⵏ ⵉⵎⵓⵙⵙⵓⵜⵏ ⵏ ⵓⴳⵔⴰⵡ (ⵍⵎⵓⵊⵜⴰⵎⴰⵖ) ⴰⵎⴰⴷⴰⵏⵉ ⴷⵉ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ. ⵉⵙⵙⴷⵓⵙ ⴷⵉ ⵉⵙⴳⴳⵯⴰⵙⵏ ⵉⴳⴳⵯⵔⴰⵏ " ⴰⵙⴰⵏⴰⵢ (ⵍⵎⴰⵔⵚⴰⴷ) ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ ⵏ ⵉⵣⵔⴼⴰⵏ ⴷ ⵜⵉⵍⴻⵍⵍⵉ " ⵍⵍⵉ ⵉⵀⵜⵎⵎⴰⵏ ⵙ ⵍⵡⴰⴹⵃⵉⵢⴰ ⵏ ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ ⴷⵉ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ ⴷⵉ ⵎⴰⵕⵕⴰ ⵉⵙⵡⵉⵔⵏ.

ⵜⵉⵥⵔⵉⴳⵉⵏ ⵏⵏⵙ[edit | edit source]

  • ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ ⴷⵉ ⵉⵍⴰⵡ ⵍⵉⵙⵍⴰⵎ ⴰⵙⵔⵜⴰⵏ. 1998
  • ⵉⵙⵇⵙⵉⵜⵏ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵙⵙⵏⴰ ⴷ ⵜⵎⴰⴳⵉⵜ ⴷⵉ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ ⴰⵜⵔⴰⵔ (2002).
  • ⵜⴰⵙⵔⵜⵉⵜ ⵜⴰⴷⴱⵉⵔ ⵓⵙⴽⴽⴻⵏ ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ ⴷⵉ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ ⴳⵔ ⵜⴰⵄⴰⵇⵓⴷ ⴰⵙⵔⵜⴰⵏ ⴷ ⵜⴰⵙⵔⵜⵉⵜ

ⴷ ⵍⵉⵙⵜⵉⵄⴰⴱ (2009).

  • ⵜⵉⴱⵔⴰⵜⵉⵏ ⵖⵔ ⵉⵏⵎⵖⵓⵔⵏ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ ⴷⵉ 2010.
  • ⵃⵎⵎⵓ ⵓⵏⴰⵎⵉⵔ (ⵜⵉⵏⴼⵓⵙⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵖⵔⴼⴰⵏⵉⵏ).
  • ⴰⵏⴰⵥⵓⵔ ⵎⵓⵃⵎⵎⴰⴷ ⴰⴷⵎⵙⵉⵔⵉ: ⵜⵉⵎⴷⵢⴰⵣⵉⵏ ⵜⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵉⵏ
  • ⴰⵏⴰⵥⵓⵔ ⵙⵄⵉⴷ ⴰⵛⵜⵓⴽ
  • ⴷⴷⵉⵡⴰⵏ " ⴰⵏⵄⵉⴱⴰⵔ"(ⴰⵃⵎⴰⴷ ⵄⴰⵚⵉⴷ ⴷ ⴱⵔⴰⵀⵉⵎ ⵍⵛⴽⵔ)