Wp/nd/iLitjhimanisi

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Ubulwelwe iLitjhimanisi obutholakala ngokulunywa yingongwana
Ukuhlukaniswa kweengaba neentlabagelo zangaphandle
Ubulwelwe iLitjhimanisi obutholakala ngokulunywa yingongwana esikhumbeniesandlenisesakhamuzi esihlala e-Amerikha
Ubulwelwe iLitjhimanisi obutholakala ngokulunywa yingongwana esikhumbeniesandlenisesakhamuzi esihlala e-Amerikha
ICD/CIM-10B55 B55
ICD/CIM-9085 085
DiseasesDB3266
MedlinePlus001386

iLitjhimanisi ungayibiza uthiyilitjhimanisi, bulwelwe obubangwa silwanyana esincani esibizwa ngokuthiyi-phrotozowa ephila ngokuhlala kezinye iinlwana/abantu bona iphile itheleleka ngokulunywa mhlobo othize wengogwana.[1] Ubulwelwe lobu bungavela ngeendlela ezintathu: ukulunywa yingogwana esikhunjeni ukutheleleka esikhumbeni nomzimba woke, nofanaubulwelwe iLitjhimanisi nasele busezingeni eliphezulu khulu ngemva ngokulunywa yingongwana esikhumbeni -i-viserali .[1] Ubulwelwe iLitjhimanisi obutholakala ngokulunywa yingongwana esikhumbeni benza umuntu avele isilonda sangaphakathi esikhunjeni, bese ukutheleleka esikhumbeni nomzimba woke kubonakala lokha sele itheleleka esikhumbeni yenze isilonda emlonyeni kanye nepumulweni, bese iLitjhimanisi nasele isezingeni eliphezulu khulu ngemva ngokulunywa yingongwana esikhumbeni ibonakala ngesilonda esingendeni esiphathisa ihloko nomgomani, ibangela namasotja womzimba abe bovu, kanye nokuvuvukisa isibindi. [1][2]

Kunemihlobohlobo ema-20 yeengogwana "zeLitjhimaniya" ezibamba abantu abaphilako[1] Unobangela wobulwelwe lobu nobungozi babo bufaka hlangana ubuchaka, ukungadli ukudla okunepilo, ukususwa nokutjhiswa kwamahlathi, kanye nokuthutha kwabantu bayokuhlala emadorobhei khulu.[1] Yoke imihlobo emithathu yobulwelwe lobu bungabonwa ngesilwanyana nofana ingogwana ephila ngezinye iinlwana kwaphela ngokusetjenziswa komtjhini onerhalasi okhulisa izinto ezincani zibe zikulu.[1] Ukungezelela kilokho, ubulwelwe iLitjhimanisi nasele busezingeni eliphezulu khulu ngemva ngokulunywa yingongwana esikhumbeni -i-viserali bungabonwa kwaphela ngokuhlolwa kweengazi zaloyo othelelekileko.[2]

Ubulwelwe iLitjhimanisi bungavikelwa ngkuthi ulale ngaphakathi kwenedi yetendeethelwe ngesihlahla sokuvikela iingogwan.[1] Ezinye zeendlela zokuvikela kufaka hlangana nokufufuzela isifufuzeli sokuvikela ukulunywa ziingogwana ukwazi ukuzibulala kanye nokulatjhwa kwabantu abangenwe bulwelwe lobu kusese nesikhathi bungakasabalali umzimba woke.[1] Ukulatjhwa okutlhogekako kwenziwa nange kwaziwa bona ubulwelwe lobu buthalakele kiyiphi indawo, umhlobo "weLitjhiminiya" kanye nehlobo lengongwana engenileko.[1] Ezinye zeenhlahla ezingalapha iLitjhimanisi nasele esezingeni eliphezulu khulu ngemva ngokulunywa yingongwana esikhumbeni kufaka hlangana i-liposomal amphotericin B,[3] ihlanganiso lele-pentavalent antimonialskanye [[ne-}paromomycin]],[3] and miltefosine.[4]iLitjhimanisi obutholakala ngokulunywa yingongwana esikhumbeni, yi-paramomycin, i-fluconazole, nofanai-pentamidine nayo ingasebenza kuhle ukulapha.[5]

Abantu ababalelwa eegigidini ezili-12 baphethwe bulwelwe lobu njenganje[6] eenrheni ezingaba ma-98.[2] Kubikwa amacala ukufikelela iingidigidi ezi-2[2] bese kuthi hlangana nama-20 weekulungwana kanye nama-50 weenkuungana zokubhubha kwabantu ngomnyaka.[1][7] Ukubalelwa ematjhumini ama-200  iingidigidi zabantu abahlala e-Asia,Afrika,iSewula neNgaphakathi le-Amerikha, isewula yeYurobhu bahlala eendaweni lapha ubulwelwe lobu bujayelekele khona.[2][8] Ihlangano yeZepilo yePhasi Zombelele-WHOiphulelwe iintengo eziyibhadala ukuthenga iinhlahla zokulapha ubulwelwe lobu[2] Ubulwelwe lobu bungatheleleka nakezinye iinlwana ezimbalwa, ukufakayezinja kanye naborodo besiganga.[1]

isikhombiso esikulayela bona ilwazi elithileko ungalitholaphi[edit]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 "Leishmaniasis Fact sheet N°375". World Health Organization. January 2014. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs375/en/. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Barrett, MP; Croft, SL (2012). "Management of trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis.". British medical bulletin 104: 175–96. doi:10.1093/bmb/lds031. PMC 3530408. PMID 23137768. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3530408/. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Sundar, S; Chakravarty, J (Jan 2013). "Leishmaniasis: an update of current pharmacotherapy.". Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy 14 (1): 53–63. doi:10.1517/14656566.2013.755515. PMID 23256501. 
  4. Dorlo, TP; Balasegaram, M; Beijnen, JH; de Vries, PJ (Nov 2012). "Miltefosine: a review of its pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of leishmaniasis.". The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy 67 (11): 2576–97. doi:10.1093/jac/dks275. PMID 22833634. 
  5. Minodier, P; Parola, P (May 2007). "Cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment.". Travel medicine and infectious disease 5 (3): 150–8. doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2006.09.004. PMID 17448941. 
  6. "Leishmaniasis Magnitude of the problem". World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/leishmaniasis/burden/magnitude/burden_magnitude/en/index.html. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  7. Lozano, R (Dec 15, 2012). "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.". Lancet 380 (9859): 2095–128. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. PMID 23245604. 
  8. Ejazi, SA; Ali, N (Jan 2013). "Developments in diagnosis and treatment of visceral leishmaniasis during the last decade and future prospects.". Expert review of anti-infective therapy 11 (1): 79–98. doi:10.1586/eri.12.148. PMID 23428104.