Wp/mnw/ဝေါဟာရ ဗေဒသဏ္ဌာန် တၞး

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ဗွဲသၟဝ်ဝွံ မဒှ်အရာ မပံက်ပွံက် ယၟုဝေါဟာရ ပ္ဍဲအရာမစကာ ကာလ ဗၟံက်ထ္ၜး ဗီုသဏ္ဌာန် တၞးဆု တၞံဆုဂမၠိုင်ရ၊၊ တၞးဆုတအ်ဂှ် လ္ၚဵုရံင်ကြပ်တုပ်ကီုလေဝ် တၞးဆုတအ်ဂှ် မွဲတၞးကဵုမွဲတၞး ဗီုသဏ္ဌာန်ဍေဟ် ဟွံတုပ် ရေင်သကအ်ရ၊၊ တၞုင်တၞးတအ်ဂှ် လ္ၚဵုမ္ဂး ဒှ်ဗီုဓမ္မတာ၊ လ္ၚဵုဗီုဓမ္မတာဟွံသေင်၊ လ္ၚဵု ကလိတ်တုဲ လ္ၚဵု မၞုံကဵုကသော်၊ လ္ၚဵုဓရအ် လ္ၚဵု မၞုံကဵု ဇလ မြဴသာ်ဝွံ ဟွံတုပ်ရေင်သကအ်ရ၊၊ တၞဟ်နဂွံပါ် ဗီုသဏ္ဌာန်တအ်ဂွံတုဲ ကဵုလဝ်ယၟု အတိုင်ဗွဲသၟဝ်ဏအ်ရ၊

Chart illustrating leaf morphology terms

ဗီုလဒက်ပ္တန် တၞး (Leaf structure)[edit]

A ternate compound leaf with a petiole but no rachis (or rachillae)

တၞး နူတၞံဗွဲမဂၠိုင်မ္ဂး နွံကဵု ဗီုလဒက်ပ္တန် မထပေဟ် မကော်ဂး သၠ၊ ဆဂး တၞးသီုဖအိုတ်ဂှ် ထပေဟ်ဒၟံင် ဖအိုတ် ဟွံသေင်၊ လ္ၚဵုဂှ် ထဍမ်ဂၠိင်ဒၟံင် (cylindrical)လေဝ် နွံကီုရ၊၊ တၞး ဗွဲမဂၠိုင်တအ်ဂှ် မွဲတၞး မွဲဓဝ်လေဝ်နွံကီု လ္ၚဵုဂှ် ဒှ်ဒၟံင်ကမာ မဂၠိုင်ကဵုတၞး မစာတ်ဗာန်ဒၟံင်လေဝ် နွံကီုရ၊၊ တၞံပ္ကဴဂမၠိုင်မ္ဂး ညံင်ရဴမၞုံကဵုတၞး သၠမွဲတၞးဂှ် ပ္ဍဲတဝ်တၞ့းမွဲဂှ် နွံကဵုတၞးဗွဲမဂၠိုင်လေဝ် မကော်စ petiole၊ တုဲပၠန် နွံကဵု ဓရှ် (stipule) မပံင်ပကောံလဝ် နကဵုတဝ် (rachis) လေဝ် နွံကီုရ၊၊


ဗီုရုပ် (Image) ဝေါဟာရ (Term) လေတ္တေန် (Latin) ဗမံက်ထ္ၜး (Description)
Leaf morphology Bifoliolate.png ဒွိပဏ္ဏ (bifoliolate) မၞုံကဵု သၠတၞး ၜါ (Having two leaflets)
ကဝါန် (geminate)
ကမာ (jugate)
Leaf morphology Bigeminate.png ဒွိကဝါန် (bigeminate) မၞုံကဵု သၠတၞးၜါ၊ ဇၟာပ်သၠတၞး နွံကဵု ကဝါန် (Having two leaflets, each leaflet being bifoliolate)
Leaf morphology bipinnate.png ဒွိဇၟန်ကဝါန် (bipinnate) bipinnatus အလဵုဇကု သၠတၞးတအ်ဂှ် မဒက်ပ္တန်လဝ် နကဵုဇၟန်တုဲ ဇၟန်ဂှ် နွံကဵုကဝါန် (The leaflets are themselves pinnately-compound; twice pinnate)
Leaf morphology Biternate.png ဒွိတြိပဏ္ဏ (biternate) နွံကဵု ပိထာင် ဇၟာပ်ထာင် မၞုံကဵု သၠတၞးပိ (With three components, each with three leaflets)
Leaf morphology odd pinnate.png ဒိုဟ်ဇၟန်ကဝါန်(imparipinnate) မၞုံကဵု သၠတၞး အထောတ်မွဲတုဲ ဇၟန်ကဝါန် မၞုံကဵုသၠတၞးဇၞော်ဇၞော် (With an odd number of leaflets, pinnate with a terminal leaflet (the opposite of paripinnate))
မွဲဒိုဟ်-ဇၟန်ကဝါန် (odd-pinnate)
Leaf morphology even pinnate.png လ္ၚောဝ်ဇၟန်ကဝါန် (paripinnate)]] ဇၟန်ကဝါန် မၞုံကဵု လၟိဟ်သၠတၞး သီုၜါလပါ် တုပ်ပ် (Pinnate with an even number of leaflets, lacking a terminal leaflet (the opposite of imparipinnate))
လၟိဟ်တုပ်-ဇၟန်ကဝါန် (even-pinnate)
Leaf morphology Palmately compound.png ဒွန်တောဲ နဲဂတာတဲ (palmately compound) မတောဲဗစိုပ်လဝ် သၠတၞးတအ် သီုဖအိုတ် ပ္ဍဲဗဟဵုမွဲဒၞာဲ(Consisting of leaflets all radiating from one point)
ဒွန်တောဲ ဇၟန်ကဝါန်(pinnately compound) မၞုံကဵု သၠတၞးၜါကရုင် ပ္ဍဲတၞုင်တဝ်ဂှ် နွံသၠတၞးမွဲ (ရံင် ဒိုဟ်ဇၟန်ကဝါန် ကေုာံ လ္ၚောဝ်ဇၟန်ကဝါန်) (Having two rows of leaflets on opposite sides of a central axis, see imparipinnate and paripinnate)
သောင်ရောင်(simple) တၞး မွဲတၞးဓဝ် ဟွံမဲ ကဵုသၠတၞး (ဟွံမဲကဵု ဒွန်တောဲ) (Leaf blade in one continuous section, without leaflets (not compound))
Leaf morphology trifoliolate.png တြိပဏ္ဏ(ternate) (ternatus) မၞုံကဵု သၠတၞး ပိ (With three leaflets)
တြိသၠတၞး (trifoliate) (trifoliatus)
(trifoliolate) (trifoliolatus)
Leaf morphology tripinnate.png တြိဇၟန်ကဝါန် (tripinnate (tripinnatus) ဒွန်တောဲ နကဵု ဇၟန်ကဝါန် ပ္ဍဲဇၟာပ်သၠတၞးဂှ် နွံကဵုဇၟန်ကဝါန်မွဲမွဲ (Pinnately compound in which each leaflet is itself bipinnate)

ထ္ၜောမ်ကလင် တၞး ကေုာံ သၠတၞး(Leaf and leaflet shapes)[edit]

အရာတၟေင် ကေုာံ ထ္ၜောမ်ကလင် တၞးတအ်ဂှ် ဒှ်အရာ သွက်ဂွံစၟတ်သမ္တီ ဗၟံက်ထ္ၜး ပါ် ဂကူတၞံဆု နာနာတအ်ရ၊၊ ပါဲနူဂှ်တုဲ ဗီုပြင် သဏ္ဌာန်ပ္ကဴတအ်လေဝ် စကာ ပ္ဍဲအရာ မပါ်စၟတ်သမ္တီ ဂကူတၞံဆုတအ်ကီုရ၊၊

Oddly pinnate, pinnatifid leaves (Apium graveolens, celery)
Partial chlorosis revealing palmate venation in simple leaves of Hibiscus mutabilis

ဗီုရုပ်
(Image)

ဝေါဟာရ
(Term)

လေတ္တေန်
(Latin)

စၞောန် ဒၞာဲအဓိက မၞုံဒၟံင်
(Refers principally to)

ဗမံက်ထ္ၜး
(Description)

Leaf morphology acicular.png တၞိင်စာမ် (acicular) acicularis အလုံမွဲတၞး (entire leaf) သောဲ တုဲ ကေက် ညံင်ကဵုတၞုင် (Slender and pointed, needle-like.)
Leaf morphology acuminate.png တၞုင်စာမ်(acuminate) acuminatus ကၞောတ် တၞး (leaf tip) မသောဲကေက်အာ နူကဵုလဒေါဝ် (Tapering to a long point in a concave manner.)
Leaf morphology Acute.png အခုတ် (acute) ကၞောတ် (ဟွံ) တမ်တၞး (leaf tip or base) ကၞောတ် ကဵု တမ် တုပ်သၟဟ် - မၞုံကဵု ကၞောတ် မကေက် ဇမၠေအ်၊ ဒကဴ အောန်နူ 90° ဒဳဂရဳ (Pointed, having a short sharp apex angled less than 90°.)
Leaf morphology Apiculate.png အခုတ္ထမုက်(apiculate) apiculatus ကၞောတ်တၞး (leaf tip) သောဲဍောတ်စှ်ေတုဲ ပ္ဍဲကၞောတ် နွံကဵု ထမုက် မသောဲကေက် (Tapering and ending in a short, slender point.)
Leaf morphology aristate.png တၞုၚ်သောဲကေက်(aristate) aristatus ကၞောတ်တၞး(leaf tip) မကယျောဝ်သောဲစှ်ေ တၞုင်ဂၠိၚ်ကေက် (Ending in a stiff, bristle-like point.)
Leaf morphology Attenuate.png ထၞောတ်(attenuate) တမ်တၞး (leaf base) မၞုံကဵု ဗီုပြင်တၞး မဍောတ်သောဲစှ်ေ လပါ်တဝ်တုဲ ပ္ဍဲတဝ် ၜါလပါ် မၞုံကဵုတၞးညိည (Having leaf tissue taper down the petiole to a narrow base, always having some leaf material on each side of the petiole.)
Leaf morphology base auriculate.png ကတောဝ် (auriculate) တမ်တၞး (leaf base) မၞုံကဵု ကတောဝ် ၜါလပါ် ပ္ဍဲဒၞာဲမကြပ် ကုတဝ် (ဟွံ) တမ် (တန်တဴကဵု ဒၞာဲလဵု တၞးမၞုံ) (Having ear-shaped appendages reaching beyond the attachment to the petiole or to the stem (in case of a seated leaf).)
သက်သၟဟ်(asymmetrical) အလုံမွဲတၞး (entire leaf) ဗီုပြင်တၞး မွဲလပါ် ကု မွဲလပါ် ဟွံတုပ်သၟဟ် ရေင်သကအ် (With the blade shape different on each side of the midrib.)
Leaf morphology Caudate.png ဗတ (caudate ) ကၞောတ်တၞး (leaf tip) မဂၠိင်တိတ် ဒၞာဲ ပ္ဍဲကၞောတ် ညံင်ကဵု ဗတ (Tailed at the apex.)
Leaf morphology cordate.png ဟဒယ (cordate) cordatus အလုံမွဲတၞး(entire leaf) မတုပ်ဗီုပြင် ကောန်တၟအ် ဟဒယ တဝ် (ဟွံ) တမ် နွံ ဒၞာဲသလံက် (Heart-shaped, with the petiole or stem attached to the notch.)
Leaf morphology cuneate.png cuneate cuneatus leaf base Triangular, wedge-shaped, stem attaches to point.
Handdrawn Cuspidate.png cuspidate leaf tip With a sharp, elongated, rigid tip; tipped with a cusp.
Leaf morphology deltoid.png deltoid or deltate deltoideus entire leaf Shaped like Greek letter Delta, triangular, stem attaches to side.
Leaf morphology digitate.png digitate digitatus entire leaf With finger-like lobes, similar to palmate.[1]
Leaf morphology elliptic.png elliptic ellipticus entire leaf Oval, with a short or no point.
Leaf morphology ensiforme.PNG ensiform ensiformis entire leaf Shaped like a sword, long and narrow with a sharp pointed tip.
Leaf morphology apex emarginate.png emarginate leaf tip Slightly indented at the tip.
Leaf morphology falcate.png falcate falcatus entire leaf Sickle-shaped.
Leaf morphology Fenestrate.png fenestrate fenestratus surface features Large openings through the leaf, see perforate. Sometimes use to describes leaf epidermal windows.
Plant morphology solid filiform.png filiform filiformis entire leaf Thread- or filament-shaped.
Leaf morphology flabelate.png flabellate flabellatus entire leaf Semi-circular, or fan-like.
Leaf morphology hastate.png hastate hastatus entire leaf Spear-shaped: Pointed, with barbs, shaped like a spear point, with flaring pointed lobes at the base.
Leaf morphology division laciniate.png laciniate entire leaf Very deeply lobed, the lobes being very drawn out, often making the leaf look somewhat like a branch or a pitchfork.
Leaf morphology lanceolate.png lanceolate lanceolatus entire leaf Long, wider in the middle, shaped like a lance tip.
laminar Flat (like most leaves)
Leaf morphology linear.png linear linearis entire leaf Long and very narrow like a blade of grass.
Leaf morphology lobed.png lobed lobatus entire leaf Being divided by clefts, may be pinnately lobed or palmately lobed.
Leaf morphology Lorate.png lorate loratus entire leaf Having the form of a thong or strap.
Leaf morphology Lyrate.png lyrate lyratus entire leaf Shaped like a lyre, pinnately lobed leaf with an enlarged terminal lobe and smaller lateral lobes. Template:Wp/mnw/See also
Leaf morphology Mucronate.png mucronate leaf tip Ending abruptly in a small sharp point as a continuation of the midrib.[2]
Leaf morphology multifide.svg multifid multi + findere entire leaf Cleft into many parts or lobes.
Leaf morphology obcordate.png obcordate obcordatus entire leaf Heart-shaped, stem attaches at the tapering end.
Leaf morphology oblanceolate.png oblanceolate oblanceolatus entire leaf Much longer than wide and with the widest portion near the tip, reversed lanceolate.
Leaf morphology oblique.png oblique leaf base Asymmetrical leaf base, with one side lower than the other
Leaf morphology oblong.png oblong oblongus entire leaf Having an elongated form with slightly parallel sides, roughly rectangular.
Leaf morphology obovate.png obovate obovatus entire leaf Teardrop-shaped, stem attaches to the tapering end; reversed ovate.
obtrullate entire leaf Reversed trullate, the longer sides meet at the base rather than the apex.
Leaf morphology obtuse.png obtuse obtusus tip Blunt, forming an angle > 90°.
Leaf morphology orbicular.png orbicular orbicularis entire leaf Circular.
Leaf morphology ovale.png ovate ovatus entire leaf Oval, egg-shaped, with a tapering point and the widest portion near the petiole.
Leaf morphology palmate.png palmate palmatus entire leaf Palm-shaped, i.e., with lobes or leaflets stemming from the leaf base.[3]
Palmatilobé.svg palmately lobed palmatus entire leaf Lobes spread radially from a point. [4]
Palmatifide.svg palmatifid palma + findere entire leaf Palm-shaped, having lobes with incisions that extend less than half-way toward the petiole.
Palmatipartite.svg palmatipartite palma + partiri entire leaf Having lobes with incisions that extend over half-way toward the petiole.
Palmatiséquée.svg palmatisect palma + secare entire leaf Having lobes with incisions that extend almost up, but not quite to the petiole.
Leaf morphology pandurate.png pandurate entire leaf Fiddle-shaped; obovate with a constriction near the middle.
Leaf morphology pedate.png pedate pedatus entire leaf Palmate, with cleft lobes.[5]
Leaf morphology peltate.png peltate peltatus stem attachment A round leaf where the petiole attaches near the center. An example would be a lotus leaf.
Leaf morphology attachment connate-perfoliate.png perfoliate perfoliatus stem attachment With the leaf blade surrounding the stem such that the stem appears to pass through the leaf.
Leaf morphology Perforate.png perforate perforatus leaf surface features Many holes, or perforations on leaf surface. Compare with fenestrate.
Pennatilobé.svg pinnately lobed pinna + lobus entire leaf Having lobes pinnately arranged on the central axis.
Pennatifide.svg pinnatifid pinna + findere entire leaf Having lobes with incisions that extend less than half-way toward the midrib.
Pennatipartite2.svg pinnatipartite pinnatus + partiri entire leaf Having lobes with incisions that extend more than half-way toward the midrib.
Pennatiséquée.svg pinnatisect pinnatus + sectus entire leaf Having lobes with incisions that extend almost, or up to midrib.
Leaf morphology posture plicate.png plicate plicatus 3-d shape Folded into pleats, usually lengthwise, serving the function of stiffening a large leaf.
Leaf morphology reniform.png reniform reniformis entire leaf Shaped like a kidney: an oval with an inward curve on one side.
Leaf morphology apex retuse.png retuse leaf tip With a shallow notch in a round apex.
Leaf morphology rhomboid.png rhomboid or rhombic rhomboidalis entire leaf Diamond-shaped.
Leaf morphology apex rounded.png rounded rotundifolius leaf tip or base Circular, no distinct point.
semiterete 3-d shape Rounded on one side, but flat on the other.
Leaf morphology division sinuate.png sinuate 3-d shape Circularly-lobed kind of leaves
Leaf morphology spear-shaped.png sagittate sagittatus entire leaf Arrowhead-shaped with the lower lobes folded, or curled downward
Leaf morphology spatulate.png spatulate spathulatus entire leaf Spoon-shaped; having a broad flat end which tapers to the base
Leaf morphology hastate.png spear-shaped entire leaf see hastate.
Leaf morphology subobtuse.png subobtuse subobtusus leaf tip or base Somewhat blunted, neither blunt nor sharp
Leaf morphology subulate.png subulate subulatus leaf tip Awl-shaped with a tapering point
Plant morphology solid terete.png terete 3-d shape Circular in cross-section; more or less cylindrical without grooves or ridges.
Leaf morphology trullate.png trullate entire leaf Shaped like a bricklayer's trowel
Leaf morphology truncate.png truncate truncatus leaf tip or base With a squared-off end
undulate undulatus 3-d shape Wave-like
Leaf morphology unifoliate.png unifoliate unifoliatus compound leaves With a single leaflet. It is distinct from a simple leaf by the presence of two abcission layers and often by petiolules and stipels

Edge[edit]

Leaf margins (edges) are frequently used in visual plant identification because they are usually consistent within a species or group of species, and are an easy characteristic to observe. Edge and margin are interchangeable in the sense that they both refer to the outside perimeter of a leaf.

Image Term Latin adjective Description
Leaf morphology entire.png entire Forma
integra
Even; with a smooth margin; without toothing
Leaf morphology ciliate.png ciliate ciliatus Fringed with hairs
Leaf morphology crenate.png crenate crenatus Wavy-toothed; dentate with rounded teeth
crenulate crenulate Finely crenate
crisped crispus curly
Leaf morphology dentate.png dentate dentatus Toothed. May be coarsely dentate, having large teeth, or glandular dentate, having teeth which bear glands
Leaf morphology denticulate.png denticulate denticulatus Finely toothed
Leaf morphology doubly serrate.png doubly serrate duplicato-dentatus Each tooth bearing smaller teeth
Leaf morphology serrate.png serrate serratus Saw-toothed; with asymmetrical teeth pointing forward
Leaf morphology serrulate.png serrulate serrulatus Finely serrate
Leaf morphology sinuate.png sinuate sinuosus With deep, wave-like indentations; coarsely crenate
Leaf morphology lobate.png lobate lobatus Indented, with the indentations not reaching the center
lobulate lobulatus With small lobes
Leaf morphology undulate.png undulate undulatus With a wavy edge, shallower than sinuate
Leaf morphology spiny.png spiny or pungent spiculatus With stiff, sharp points such as thistles

Leaf folding[edit]

Leaves may also be folded or rolled in various ways. The folding of leaves within a bud is vernation, ptyxis is the folding of an individual leaf in a bud.

Image Term Latin Description
carinate or keeled carinatus with a longitudinal ridge
conduplicate folded upwards, with the surfaces close to parallel
Mimetes fimbrifolius (5211424654).jpg cucullate forming a hood, margins and tip curved downward
involute rolled upwards (towards the adaxial surface)
Palm leaf washingtonia robusta.jpg plicate plicatus with parallel folds
reduplicate folded downwards, with the surfaces close to parallel
Ledum groenlandicum.jpg revolute rolled downwards (towards the abaxial surface)
supervolute opposing left and right halves of lamina folded along longitudinal axis, with one half rolled completely within the other

Latin descriptions[edit]

The Latin word for 'leaf', folium, is neuter. In descriptions of a single leaf, the neuter singular ending of the adjective is used, e.g. folium lanceolatum 'lanceolate leaf', folium lineare 'linear leaf'. In descriptions of multiple leaves, the neuter plural is used, e.g. folia linearia 'linear leaves'. Descriptions commonly refer to the plant using the ablative singular or plural, e.g. foliis ovatis 'with ovate leaves'.Template:Wp/mnw/Sfnp

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. Also used to describe compound leaves with finger-like leaflets.
  2. Mucronate, Answers.com, from Roget's Thesaurus.
  3. palmate (adj. palmately). GardenWeb Glossary of Botanical Terms.
  4. Leaf description glossary.
  5. Pedate leaf. Retrieved on February 24, 2014

Bibliography[edit]

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External links[edit]


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