From Wikimedia Incubator
< Wp‎ | mniWp > mni > ꯆꯤꯅꯥ
Jump to navigation Jump to search

ꯃꯃꯤꯡꯁꯤꯡ[edit | edit source]

Template:Wp/mni/Infobox Chinese/Footer
Template:Wp/mni/Infobox Chinese/Header
Simplified Chinese 中国
Traditional Chinese 中國
Hanyu Pinyin Zhōngguó
Literal meaning Middle or Central State[1]
Template:Wp/mni/Infobox Chinese/TibetanTemplate:Wp/mni/Infobox Chinese/ZhuangTemplate:Wp/mni/Infobox Chinese/MongolianTemplate:Wp/mni/Infobox Chinese/UyghurTemplate:Wp/mni/Infobox Chinese/Footer
Template:Wp/mni/Infobox Chinese/Header
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 中华人民共和国
Traditional Chinese 中華人民共和國
Hanyu Pinyin Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó

ꯆꯤꯅꯥ ꯍꯥꯏꯕꯁꯤ ꯑꯍꯥꯟꯕ ꯑꯣꯏꯅꯥ Richard Edenꯅꯥ ꯀꯨꯝꯖꯥ ꯱꯵꯵꯵ ꯗ ꯂꯣꯟ ꯱ ꯗ ꯍꯟꯗꯣꯛꯄꯗ [lower-alpha 1] of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.[lower-alpha 2][6] The demonym, that is, the name for the people, and adjectival form "Chinese" developed later on the model of Portuguese chinês and French chinois.[7][lower-alpha 3] Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn (چین), which may be traced further back to Sanskrit Cīna (चीन).[9] Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata (5th century Template:Sc) and the Laws of Manu (2nd century Template:Sc).[10] In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived ultimately from the name of the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC),[11] a proposal supported by many later scholars,[12][13][14] although there are also a number of alternative suggestions.[10][15]

The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China" (Chinese: 中华人民共和国; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó). The shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó (中国), from zhōng ("central") and guó ("state"),[lower-alpha 4] a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne.[lower-alpha 5] It was then applied to the area around Luoyi (present-day Luoyang) during the Eastern Zhou and then to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing.[17] It was often used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians".[17] The name Zhongguo is also translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.[19]

A more literary or inclusive name, alluding to the "land of Chinese civilization", is Zhōnghuá (中华).[20] It developed during the Wei and Jin dynasties as a contraction of "the central state of the Huaxia".[17] Before the PRC's establishment, the proposed name of the country was the People's Democratic Republic of China (simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国; traditional Chinese: 中華人民共和國; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Mínzhǔ Gònghéguó) during the first CPPCC held on 15 June 1949.[21][22] During the 1950s and 1960s, after the defeat of the Kuomintang in the Chinese Civil War, it was also referred to as "Communist China" or "Red China", to be differentiated from "Nationalist China" or "Free China".[23]

ꯂꯧꯔꯛꯐꯝꯁꯤꯡ[edit | edit source]

  1. Bilik, Naran (2015), "Reconstructing China beyond Homogeneity", Patriotism in East Asia, Political Theories in East Asian Context, Abingdon: Routledge, p. 105
  2. Eden, Richard (1555), Decades of the New World, p. 230.
  3. Myers, Henry Allen (1984). Western Views of China and the Far East, Volume 1. Asian Research Service, 34. 
  4. Template:Citation
  5. Template:Citation. Template:Wp/mni/Pt icon
  6. "China" in the Oxford English Dictionary (1989). ISBN 0-19-957315-8 Parameter error in {{Wp/mni/ISBN}}: Invalid ISBN..
  7. "-ese, suffix", and "Chinese, adj. and n.", in the Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  8. Eden, Richard in R. Willes (1577). The History of Trauayle in the West and East Indies, p. 260
  9. "China". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (2000). Boston and New York: Houghton-Mifflin.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Wade, Geoff. "The Polity of Yelang and the Origin of the Name 'China'". Sino-Platonic Papers, No. 188, May 2009, p. 20.
  11. Martino, Martin, Novus Atlas Sinensis, Vienna 1655, Preface, p. 2.
  12. Bodde, Derk (1978). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 1, The Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 BC – AD 220, 20. ISBN 978-0-521-24327-8. 
  13. Berthold Laufer (1912). "The Name China". T'oung Pao. 13 (1): 719–726. doi:10.1163/156853212X00377.
  14. Pelliot, Paul (1912). "L'origine du nom de "Chine"". T'oung Pao, Second Series. 13 (5): 727–742. JSTOR 4526318.
  15. Yule, Henry (1866). Cathay and the Way Thither, 3–7. ISBN 978-8120619661. 
  16. Baxter-Sagart.
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 Wilkinson, Endymion (2000), Chinese History: A Manual, Harvard-Yenching Institute Monograph No. 52, Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, p. 132, ISBN 978-0-674-00249-4
  18. 《尚書》, 梓材. Template:Wp/mni/Zh icon
  19. Tang, Xiaoyang (2010). in Guo, Sujian: Greater China in an Era of Globalization. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 52–53. ISBN 978-0-7391-3534-1. 
  20. Hui-Ching Chang; et al. (2014), Language, Politics, and Identity in Taiwan: Naming China, Routledge Research on Taiwan, Abingdon: Routledge, p. 220, ISBN 978-1-135-04634-7
  21. Proposed country name of the People's Republic of China (People's Daily – Chinese)
  22. Dong Biwu Report: Central People Committee of the People's Republic of China (Chinese). People.com.cn. Retrieved on 15 September 2017
  23. Garver, John W. (April 1997). The Sino-American Alliance: Nationalist China and American Cold War Strategy in Asia. M.E. Sharp. ISBN 978-0-7656-0025-7. 

Cite error: <ref> tags exist for a group named "lower-alpha", but no corresponding <references group="lower-alpha"/> tag was found