Wp/mnc/altai geren gisun

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altai geren gisun (inggiri gisun: Altaic languages; turki gisun: Altay dilleri; hoise gisun: ئالتاي تىللىرى سىستېمىسى; monggo gisun: Алтай хэлний язгуур; solho gisun: 알타이 제어; žiben gisun: アルタイ諸語) serengge, gisun be duibulere tacin de adalingga be jorime tucibuhe oroba-yasiya jubki de bisire geren gisun inu. altai geren gisun manju-tunggūs, turki, monggo sere ilan gisun -i mukūn be baktarangge, žiben, solho juwe gisun -i mukūn be sasa bodoci, uheri sunja gisun -i mukūn be baktarambi.[1]


altai geren gisun harangga geren gisun -i mukūn
turki
monggo
manju-tunggūs
solho
žiben
(kuye fiyaka)

gisun -i tacin -i leolen de ese gisun -i mukūn -i harangga geren gisun adalingge mafari gisun ci jifi, altai gisun -i fisen obumbi seme gūningga tucibure jakade, 1960-ci erin forgon isitala eiten niyalma ere leolen be akdaha.[2]tuttu bime, ne (21-ci jalan -i erguwen) gisun -i tacin de, ere leolen arsari alime gaibuhakū. [3] [4] [5] [6]

ini gebu dulimbai yasiya de bisire altai dabagan (monggo gisun:Алтайн нуруу; altai gisun:Алтай туулар; hasak gisun:Алтай таулары) ci jihengge.

acame šanggara gisun jai adalingge temgetu[edit | edit source]

altai geren gisun -i harangga be biretei alime gaiburengge ereci fusihūn ilan gisun -i mukūn bi. meimeni gisun -i mukūn -i dolo hartungga holbobun emgeri getukeleme tucibuhecibe, ere ilan gisun -i mukūn -i hartungga holbobun kemuni toktobure unde.

esede udu oyonggo adalingge temgetu bi.

ere duin temgetu be tuwaci, ne žiben gisun jai ne solho gisun damu gulhun mudan be acabume hūwaliyamburakū. tuttu bicibe, dulimbai julgei solho gisun de gulhun mudan be getukeleme acabume hūwaliyambuha, jai ememu tacire niyalma žiben gisun de gulhun mudan be acabume hūwaliyambuha songko (julgei cohotoi kana be baitalara kooli) be sabumbi seme bodombi. [7]

"altai gisun -i fisen"[edit | edit source]

altai geren gisun be adalingga mafari gisun ci jihe "altai gisun -i fisen" seme tuwara leolen julge ci selgiyehe, tuttu bicibe gulhun mudan be acabume hūwaliyambumre manju-tunggūs, monggo, turki sere ilan gisun -i mukūn de, ton be jorime baitalara fulehe hergen gemu encu sere jakade, gisun be duibulefi "altai gisun -i fisen" be dahūme ilibufi, inde bisirengge be getukeleme tuciburengge absi mangga.


ton manju gisun manju-tunggūs gisun -i mukūn monggo gisun -i mukūn turki gisun -i mukūn
1 ᡝᠮᡠ (emu) *ume-/*emu- *nigen/*niken *bīr
2 ᠵᡠᠸᡝ (juwe) *ǯube- *koyar *ẹk(k)i
3 ᡳᠯᠠᠨ (ilan) *ilan *gurban *üč
4 ᡩᡠᡳᠨ (duin) *dörben *nigen *dȫrt/*tört
5 ᠰᡠᠨᠵᠠ (sunja) *tuńga *tabun
6 ᠨᡳᡢᡤᡠᠨ (ninggun) *ńuŋun **ǯirgu-ɣa-[8] *altï
7 ᠨᠠᡩᠠᠨ (nadan) *nadan *yẹt(t)i
8 ᠵᠠᡴᡡᠨ (jakūn) *ʒapkun *sekiz
9 ᡠᠶᡠᠨ (uyun) *xegün *tokuŕ
10 ᠵᡠᠸᠠᠨ (juwan) *ʒuban *ōn

afaha[edit | edit source]

hindu oroba turki monggo tunggus solho fuyu žiben
inggeri gisun monggo gisun jušen gisun manju gisun solon gisun siragi gisun dulimbai fe solho gisun ne solho gisun koguriyo gisun
pronun.
piyakce gisun julgei žiben gisun ne žiben gisun
ruler qaγan
kagan
kaγan(可汗) *** *** han ᡥᠠᠨ ( "king, hong taiji-sure han") *** kan

han

kɯm("Gojoseon languages")
nim-kɯm nim-kɯm
kʌi / kai(皆)
kai-sɐ(皆次)

ka(加)扶余諸語
ka

kisi

nirim
kami1(かみ 上)
ki1mi1(きみ 君)
kami(かみ 上)
kimi(きみ 君)
royal family
(大加)
*** *** *** *** *** *** kəsə-kan("king")
kəsɯl-han("king")
*** kɯ,kə,kɯn("big") kochu-ka
(古鄒加)
kənkir-ji("king") kitsaki(きさき 妃) kisaki(きさき
owner(主) *** *** *** *** i ᡳ (possessive) *** *** (n)im (n)im i
(伊)
*** i(い)
usi(うし)
nushi(ぬし 主)
title of honor *** *** *** *** *** *** ~ ji / ki /di(支,智,至) *** ~ ji ~ ji / ki
(支)
~ ji / ki(支) -ti/-ki -shi(-し -氏)
excellent shooter
(善射者)
*** jəmə("noted bow")
Jobe-Mergen("hunting expert")
*** *** *** *** *** *** ~mani("expert") jumong
(朱蒙)
扶余諸語
*** yɯmi/yɯ(ゆみ 弓) yumi(ゆみ
gold *** *** *** *** sele ᠰᡝᠯᡝ ("iron")
šun ᡧᡠᠨ ("sun")
sigūn("sun") so("gold") *** sö("metal")
söh
so
(蘇)
so-miuən/so-mun
(蘇文)
so saɸi1(さび 錆) sabi(さび )
silver *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** sö("metal") tʃiεt
(折)
tʃiεu-ʃιi/so-l
(召尸)
siri("metal") ʦuʣu(すず 錫) suzu(すず
lead *** *** *** *** yaru- ᠶᠠᡵᡠᠮᠪᡳ (to lead) nalban("tin") *** ɔ r nap/납 nəi-miuət
namer[9]
(乃勿)
*** namari(なまり 鉛)[9] namari(なまり
recover territory
(復舊土)
*** *** *** *** tabu- ᡨᠠᠪᡠᠮᠪᡳ (to divide,to tear) *** *** *** taɕi ("again")
tø- ("re-")
muli(tsi)- ("repel")
mol-("expel")
ta mul
(多勿)
*** tamu(たむ 手向)
tamuk(たむく 手向く)
temuka-(てむか- 手向か-)
north(back) arka("back") hoina (dahūr gisun huain{{IPA|ə )
utara
umara
xama *** juleri ᠵᡠᠯᡝᡵᡳ ("front")
amargi ᠠᠮᠠᡵᡤᡳ ("north")
amasi ᠠᠮᠠᠰᡳ ("back")
*** *** tuih tui
("back, behind")
je
(提)
jwat
(絶)
ʣo-li
(助利)
椽那部,提那部,絶奴部,後部
*** tʃe>se(せ 背) se(せ 背)
south(front) kuzey,Ön(front) *** *** *** julergi ᠵᡠᠯᡝᡵᡤᡳ ("south") *** arihi *** kət("surface, look")
arp(front)
kuan[9]
(灌)
(灌奴部)
*** kasira(かしら 頭)[9]
kaɸo(かほ 顏)
kan-("pre-")
kashira(かしら 頭)
kao(かお 顔)
kana-(かな- 叶-)
east(left) doğu,sol(left) źeü ,
źegün
źun *** dergi ᡩᡝᡵᡤᡳ ("east") jun
jəgin("left")
*** *** wen("left")
sae("east")
źwən/sun
(順)
(順奴部)
*** a-dʒuma/a-duma(あづま 東) azuma(あずま 東)
west(right) batı ürüne ,
barun
xangid *** wargi ᠸᠠᡵᡤᡳ ("west") anŋū(right) *** *** ɯ n("right")
par{{IPA|ɯ n("right")
yən
(涓)
(涓奴部)
*** ini-si(いにし 去にし) nishi(にし 西)
stone taš ɣ u(n) (Classical)
culuu (kalka monggo gisun)
šuluu(n) (buriyat gisun)
*** *** tahan ᡨᠠᡥᠠᠨ ("steppingstones") *** *** tōlh tōl
tok(dialect)
*** turak isi(いし 石) ishi(いし 石)
rock, cliff (巌,峴,岑) *** *** pax(石・崖)
(Nivkh)
hurhe wehe ᠸᡝᡥᡝ ("stone") *** *** pahoy pawi pa-・ιəi/pua-・ιəi
pàI/pa'i[9]
(巴衣,波衣)
pua-ɣei/paxe
(波兮)
*** i{{IPA|ɸ a / i{{IPA|ɸ a{{IPA|ɸ o(いは/いはほ 岩/巖) [9]
mama("cliff")
iwa / iwao (いわ/いわお 岩/巌)
land (壌,壤) *** ńurū na ("land") na na ᠨᠠ ("land") *** nu¨~nu¨ri/nε
bəl
*** bəl

nuri("world")
no
内/奴~弩/悩
nori
奴閭
no
buri
nu/no(ぬ/の 野)
na(な 奴)
no(の 野)
nation ili ulus(<*hulu-s<* bulu-s) guru-n(< * buru-n) guru-n(< * buru-n) gurun ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ ("nation") *** *** narah nara (nua) > na [9]
no
內,那,奴,惱
*** nu/na(ぬ/な 奴)[9] ***
walled city, fort, castle qol-γan küri-yen 'fence, hedge, device',/qol-γan kur ~kur ~kuran *** kuren ᡴᡠᡵᡝᠨ ("castle, citadl")
hecen ᡥᡝᠴᡝᠨ ("city")
golo ᡤᠣᠯᠣ (province)
*** *** kolh ɯ l
gol
kol[9] / hol
(忽)
kuru / kolo
(溝婁,屈, 骨)
*** ɸ ori(こほり 郡)
ki2(き 城)[9]
kōri(こおり 郡)
-ki(-き 城)
capital's names cholpon("Venus") čolbaŋ("Venus") *** *** *** *** sərabəl
səbəl
shəbɯl seoul
saet-piəl("Venus")
cholbon(卒本)
solbon(率本)
puru-na(不耐,平壤)
soburi *** ***
middle (中) *** *** *** *** dulimbai ᡩᡠᠯᡳᠮᠪᠠᡳ ("middle") *** ka[[|有声両唇摩擦音|β]]{{IPA|ɔ n
가ㅸㄴ
kaun(-de)
-gaus/-aus("half")
ə l
加火
*** *** kapi>kaɸi(かひ)
kapa>kaɸa(かは 側)
kai(かい)
kawa(かわ 側)
so big, best *** *** maŋga ("strong") maŋga mangga ᠮᠠᠩᡤᠠ ("difficult; tough, strong; somewhat more, somewhat better") maŋa ("strong") *** *** mal-말
mat 맏("first;eldest;oldest")
māk/mo
(莫)
ma
(馬)
makhara
(莫何邏)
*** ma-(ま 眞)
kara(から "birth, parentage")
makari(まかり "genuine")
ma-(ま 真)
gara(から 柄)
makari(まかり)
tribal elder
(太大兄)
*** *** *** *** mahala ᠮᠠᡥᠠᠯᠠ ("hat, cap")
maktara- ᠮᠠᡴᡨᠠᡵᠠᠮᠪᡳ ("to prise")
*** kak-kan

kan-ki/kanji

~ji("title of honor")
*** hara("grand")
~ji("title of honor")
har-abə-ji("grand father")
~achi("legation staff's title")
makha-ha-raji
(莫何何羅支/太大兄)
~ji/ki("title of honor")
兄 laji / haraji("patriarch")
*** ma-(ま-)
kakar-(かか- "devolve on, to depend")
-dati(-だち "patriarch")
ukara(うから "tribe")
-ti(-ち "title of honor")
muraji(むらじ 連)
ma-(ま-)
kakar-(かか-)
-tachi/-dachi(-たち/-だち -達)
-kara(-から)
leader ,chief baš(head) *** *** *** *** *** Marip-gan("king")
Mae-kɯm("king")
maruha
mari("head")
məri("head") makri-key/makli-ji/mori-ji
(莫離支)
*** makari(まかり "true,genuine") makari(まかり)
summit(峰) *** *** *** *** soni hon ᠰᠣᠨᡳ ᡥᠣᠨ ("singular, odd")
sukdun ᠰᡠᡴᡩᡠᠨ ("air")
*** *** sunɯrk tɕəŋ suri ("top of the head") süni
(首泥)
*** sone1(そね "continuous mountain ridge") one(おね 尾根
mountain (山) taγ("mountain") ɣ ula(n) (Classical Mongolian)
ūl (kalka monggo gisun)
ūla (buriyat gisun)
aul{{IPA|ə (dahūr gisun)
*** aliin alin ᠠᠯᡳᠨ ("mountain")
tala ᡨᠠᠯᠠ ("field")
mulu ᠮᡠᠯᡠ ("ridge of mountain")
*** ɔ r{{IPA|ɔ (山),
tara(多禮,多羅)
("land")
moyh(山) me
tang,tal("land")
tuk("hill")
orɯm (Jeju dialect)
tat / tar
(達)
ma
(馬)
*** take2(たけ 嶽)
mure(むれ "mountain")
tara(たら)
take(たけ 岳)
yama(やま 山)
high mountain *** *** *** *** dabagan ᡩᠠᠪᠠᡤᠠᠨ ("mountain peaks") *** *** *** *** ɣ apma
(盒馬)
*** jama(やま 山) take(たけ 岳)
yama(やま 山)
soil saz *** *** *** yonggan ᠶᠣᠩᡤᠠᠨ ("sand") *** *** *** ɨ rk sirk/sik[10]
(息) 
*** su(す 洲)
situ("dampness")
su(す
road yol("road") tsam *** *** jugūn ᠵᡠᡤᡡᠨ ("road") *** *** kirh kil tsir
(助乙) 
*** ti("road") chi/ji
knot, joint *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ʌ d{{IPA|ɨ i madi muči[11]/moti[12]
(蕪子)
*** pusi(ふし 節)
mutsu-(むす- 結-)
fushi/bushi(ふし/ぶし 節)
musu-(むす- 結-)
tree, wood ï("forest")/ïγac("tree") *** *** *** *** *** *** 斤:nal(訓)/kɯn kɯru ("stump; unit for counting trees")
namu 나무 ("tree; wood")
ιə nul,naro?
(斤乙)
ɣei/ɣit
(盻/肹)[13]
*** ki2/ ke2/ko2(き/け/こ 木)[9]
ko2nara(こなら 小楢) 
ki(き 木)
konara(こなら 小楢
willow tree *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** yoɯɪn[9]
(要隠)
*** yana-ki2(やなき 揚柳)[9] yana-gi(やなぎ [[|ヤナギ|柳]])
bamboo *** *** *** niru("arrow") niru ᠨᡳᡵᡠ ("arrow") *** *** *** *** na[9]
(奈)
*** no2(の bamboo arrow)[9]
si-no(しの 篠)
no(の)
shino(しの
pine tree(松) *** *** *** *** bahiya ᠪᠠᡥᡳᠶᠠ ("pine cone") *** *** sol(松)/pos(樺) sol,sonamu busi[9]/pιu-sie
(夫斯)
pιu-so
(扶蘇)
bu(扶,負)
so(蘇)
matu(まつ 松)[9]
pusi(ふし 節)[9]
matsu(まつ
fushi(ふし
chestnut *** *** *** sisi("nut") sisi ᠰᡳᠰᡳ ("hazelnuts") *** *** *** *** toŋsje/tosi
(冬斯)[14]
*** toti(とち 栃) tochi(とち )
peach *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ə ŋ
(桃)
poksuŋ-a, poksa (桃) pasi
(波尸)
*** *** ***
garlic *** maŋgirsun(野蒜) *** *** maca ᠮᠠᠴᠠ ("garlic chives") *** *** manʌl
(蒜)
manɯl mier[9]/mair/marɔ
(買尸)
*** mi1ra (みら 彌良)[9] nira (にら )
grain *** *** *** mirɣei("crop") muji ᠮᡠᠵᡳ ("barley") *** *** nad ("grain") nad ("grain")
nuy("grains of unhulled rice amongst hulled rice")
narak("rice plant; unhulled rice; grain of rice")
nabar[9] /niəŋ-biuʌt
仍伐
*** nape2>naɸe2(なへ 苗)[15]
ina-ɸo(いなほ 稻穂)
mi2(み 實)
mame(まめ 豆)
nae(なえ
inaho(いなほ 稲穂
mi(み 実)
mame(まめ )
root *** *** tʃamγ(根株)
(ニブフ語)
da da ᡩᠠ ("root") *** pul?(根) pulhuy(根) ppuri tsʌm[9] (斬) *** *** ***
plow (犁) kerci-("to cut, to dig trenches") *** gerbe-("break, snap")
(Nanai)
*** halhan ᡥᠠᠯᡥᠠᠨ ("plow, hoe") gerbe-("break, snap") *** karai(木[杴]・鍬, kal-(plow)
kal(刀)
*** ka-ʃιi/kar[9]
(加尸)
*** kar-(か- 刈-)[9]
kuɸa(くは 鍬)
kar-(か- 刈-)
kuwa(くわ
ax *** *** *** *** anjikū ᠠᠨᠵᡳᡴᡡ ("hatchet") *** *** ɔ y
(烏子蓋) ("ax")
n{{IPA|ɔ lh ("blade")
nal ("blade")
nas ("sickle; scythe")
tōkki ("ax")
・ιo-sie, nərə-si
(於斯)
*** wono2(をの 斧) ono(おの
basin (盆) *** *** *** *** sara ᠰᠠᡵᠠ ("cap,lid,umbrella") *** *** sora (盆) ("basin") *** ɐ r/s{{IPA|ʌ l (西) *** sara(さら 皿) sara(さら
water (水) *** mören(江, 海)
müren (沐漣) /moron (木連) (Khitanese)
mu mu 沒 muke ᠮᡠᡴᡝ ("water") mū("water") *** ɨ l mul mi[9]
(米)
mie
(買)
moro
(模盧)
mi(彌) mi1/mi1du/mi1n-(み/みづ/み- 水)[9] mizu(みず
spring water (泉井) bul-a-q/bul-a-γ("fountain, spring") ɯ s (水"water") eri~erri("small river")
(Nivkh)
ula("river") šeri ᡧᡝᡵᡳ ("spring") *** ɯ l(乙) umɯl ("well") umul ("well") ɯ l/uir[9]
(於乙):井
iri
(伊梨):泉
*** wi (ゐ 井)
ura(うら 浦)
i(い 井)
ura(うら 浦)
dike (堤) töpü *** *** *** do- ᡩᠣᠮᠪᡳ ("to stop") *** *** *** əntək
tuk(堤)
tu[9]
(吐)
*** take2(たけ 嶽)
tutumi(つつみ 堤)[9]
tum-(つ- 積-)
take(たけ 岳)
tsutsumi(つつみ 堤)
tsum-(つ- 積-)
pond *** namug ("marsh, swamp") namu("sea, ocean; lake") *** mūsa ᠮᡡᠰᠠ ("swamp") *** *** *** ɛ nmul ("stream")
mos ("pond")
nɯp{{IPA|ʰ 늪 ("swamp")
nami[9] / naymi
(内米)
mi(r)ji
(蜜地,彌知)
nami1 (なみ 波)[9]
nada(なだ 灘)
nami(なみ
nada(なだ
branch
(派)
*** *** *** *** *** *** *** ʌ i (派) ɛ (派) kai (改) *** *** ***
river köl("lake") *** *** *** bira ᠪᡳᡵᠠ ("river") *** *** ɔ r{{IPA|ɔ m
nāyh
ɛː kur
(屈)
na
(那)
nari(那利)
久麻那利
kaɸa(かは 川) kawa(かわ
sea *** *** *** namu mederi ᠮᡝᡩᡝᡵᡳ ("ocean") *** ɔ l padah~parʌl pada(바다) patan[9]/padal/padan
(波旦)
pa-sia
(波且)
*** wata([[|海|わた]])[9] wada-tsu-mi([[|ワタツミ|わだつみ]] 綿津見/少童神/海神)
cow *** *** *** *** ᡳᡥᠠᠨ *** *** ʃyo/쇼 so ʃ ιəu/*sü
(首)[9]
*** usi(うし 牛)[9] ushi(うし 牛)
pig (猪) *doŋuz > domuz *** *** *** ulgiyan ᡠᠯᡤᡳᠶᠠᠨ ("pig")
ulha ᡠᠯᡥᠠ ("domestic animal, livestocks")
*** *** ʰ 돝 ɛː ji, toyaji(dialect), tochi(dialect) ʌ ŋ
(烏生)
tɕ o-n{{IPA|ʲ i
(猪耳)
usi (うし 牛)
wi (ゐ 亥)[9]
ushi(うし 牛)
i(い [[|イノシシ|亥]])
water deer *** *** *** *** kandahan ᡴᠠᠨᡩᠠᡥᠠᠨ ("a kind of deer") *** *** *** ɛŋ i, kor{{IPA|ɛ i (Gyeongsang dialect) kosya[9]
(古斯也)
*** ka(か 鹿) shika(しか [[|シカ|鹿]])
horse *** mori~muri mori
(Nanai)
*** morin ᠮᠣᡵᡳᠨ ("horse") *** *** mʌl/(馬) mal mielo/meru[9]
(滅)
*** uma(うま 馬)[9] uma(うま 馬)
swan (鵠) qoγu *** *** hoiholo("streptopelia") hoiho ᡥᠣᡳᡥᠣ
gaha ᡤᠠᡥᠠ ("bird, raven")
gasha ᡤᠠᠰᡥᠠ ("big bird")
*** *** kohay
kon
koni koɣoi[9]
(古衣)
*** kuguɸi1(くぐひ [[|ハクチョウ|鵠]])[9] ***
bear *** *** *** *** *** *** *** kom kōm komok[9]
(功木)
koma kuma(くま 熊)[9] kuma(くま
owl (鵂鶹) *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ʦu[9]
(租)
*** tuku(つく 木菟)[16]
ʦu(す 巢)
tuku(つく [[|ミミズク|木菟]])[17]
su(す 巣)
rabbit tawïsγan *** *** gurmahai("rabbit") gulmahūn ᡤᡠᠯᠮᠠᡥᡡᠨ ("rabbit") *** *** thos-gi tho-ggi u-si-ɣam[9]/o-sie-həm
(烏斯含)
*** wosagi1/usagi1(をさぎ/うさぎ 兎)[9] usagi(うさぎ [18]
weasel (狌) *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ɣ -
("fox")
yəu ("fox")
yəsi(dialect)
yia-ʃιi/yar[9]
(也尸)
*** itatʃi(いたち 鼬)[19] itachi(いたち )
horn *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** tsιi-nyiak[9]
(次若)
*** tuno(つの 角)[9] tsuno(つの
wing *älig > el ("hand") *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ɛ , nalg{{IPA|ɛ əji, nərəgi
(於支)
*** atʃi(あし 脚) ashi(あし
foot (足) *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** tari γwi/kwai[20]
tor
(廻)
*** kuw-(く- 蹴-)[21]
ko-yu(こゆ 越ゆ)[22]
ker-(け- 蹴-)
koe-(こえ- 越え-)
mouth *** 훌츠qurc(Khalka)("skewer, spit" 串) *** *** angga ᠠᠩᡤᠠ ("mouth") *** *** ʌ l-(曰: "to say")
koc ("skewer, spit; promontory" 串)
kulrε (Jeju dialect)
kul (South Jeolla dialect)
kar-(曰: "to say")
huət-ts‘ii/kuci[9]
kútsi/kutui
kolci
(忽次)
ko-ts‘ii
(古次)
kuan/kuen
(串)
*** kutu~kuti < *kutui(くち 口)[9]
ko2to2(こと 言)
kuchi(くち
koto(こと 言)
hair *** *** *** *** funiyehe ᡶᡠᠨᡳᠶᡝᡥᡝ ("hair") *** *** *** təl (毛) təl(毛乙)>tiəl(鐵)
*** tar-u("trail, hang out") tare-
decay (朽) *** *** *** *** *** *** *** korh-(“decay”) korh-(“decay”)
korm-(“fester”)
kut-si/kur
骨尸
*** kut-(くち- 朽ち-)
kutsar-(くさ- 腐-)
kuti-(くち- 朽ち-)
kusar-(くさ- 腐-)
tooth *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** kʌi-ʃιi
(皆尸)
*** ki1 (き 牙)[9] kiba(きば
heart
chest
göğüs kökün *** *** huhun ᡥᡠᡥᡠᠨ ("breast, bosom") *** *** *** ʰ {{IPA|ɯ m ("chest, heart") kor[9]/kasi/kιo-sιi
(居尸)
*** ko2ko2ro2[9]/kokori [[|日本語の方言#上代東国方言|上代東国方言]] (こころ/ここり 心) kokoro(こころ
transverse (横) *** *** *** *** hetu ᡥᡝᡨᡠ ("transverve") *** *** əs/엇 ət ・ιo-sie/*es
(於斯)
*** yo2ko2(よこ 横)
yo2k-(よけ- 避け-)
yoko(よこ 横)
yoker-(よけ- 避け-)
valley *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ɛ ("valley") *** tan[9]/tuən/t‘ən
(旦,頓,呑)
*** tani(たに 谷)[9] tani(たに
side edge kera *** *** *** huwesi ᡥᡠᠸᡝᠰᡳ ("cutter, small blade") *** *** kʌs ka-(・a)
(加阿)
*** kado1(かど 角) kado(かど
cap (冠) *** *** *** *** *** *** *** kosgal
(冠 : "cap")
kat
(笠, 帽, 冠 : "hat, cap")
kokal
(弁 : "conical cap")
[[|カッ|kat]] (黑笠)
kwot-su (骨蘇) *** katsa(かさ 笠) kasa(かさ )
ball (丸) *** ə nduh{{IPA|ə (dahūr gisun) (x)elū- *** umhan ᡠᠮᡥᠠᠨ ("egg")
muheren ᠮᡠᡥᡝᡵᡝᠨ ("circle")

muheliyen ᠮᡠᡥᡝᠯᡳᠶᡝᠨ ("circle")

elū *** *** al ʃ i
(安市)
an{{IPA|ʒ ip
(安十)
*** *** ***
layer (重) *** *** *** *** fe ᡶᡝ ("ex-, past, former") *** *** pʌl *** biar[9]/bjet
(別)
*** pe1>ɸe1("layer")[9] ***
neighbor (隣) *** *** *** *** imiya- ᡳᠮᡳᠶᠠᠮᠪᡳ ("to gather together") *** *** ɯ t (隣) iut (隣) ιi-bιuʌt/iboc[9]
(伊伐)
*** ipa>ipe1>iɸe1(いへ 家)[23] ie(いえ
frost *** *** *** *** sohin ᠰᠣᡥᡳᠨ ("ice")
juhe ᠵᡠᡥᡝ ( "ice")
*** *** səri *** sat
(薩)
sat-ɣan/sal-han
(薩寒)
*** sim-("to frost up")
sayi/seye
zayi/zaye
("icicle, ice")
***
lush (菁) *** *** *** *** kūkə("blue-green,cyan blue") *** *** *** kəch-(蕪)
kis- ("lush, overgrown with weeds, overrun with plants")
ka-tʃιe
(加支)
*** kati(かち 褐) kachi(かち 褐)
group, tribe uruk ("clan") ulus ("people, nation, tribe, horde") *** *** urse ᡠᡵᠰᡝ ("people")
uce ᡠᠴᡝ ("entrance")
*** *** ul("relations; relatives; kinsfolk; clan")
uri ("we, us; the Korean people, Koreans")
*** ul
(于尸)
*** uti(うち)
udi (うぢ 氏)
uchi(うち)
uji(うじ
mother Ana *** *** eniyen eme ᡝᠮᡝ (mother) *** *** 어ㅿㅣ
əzi
어미əmi
아매,에마 ame,ema(north dialect)
ya chi
(也次)
ya pa
(也派)[24]
*** [[|無声両唇摩擦音|{{IPA|ɸ ]]a{{IPA|ɸ a(はは 母)
oya(おや 親)
haha(はは )
oya(おや )
baby koto("son"šong no gisun(匈奴語))
kız ("girl; daughter")
O'gul
*** *** omo jui ᠵᡠᡳ ("kid") kuŋa ("child") *** *** koma(童)
koma-(小-)
gu(仇)[9]
gιəu-sie / kus / kyus
(仇斯)
*** ko1(こ 子)[9] ko(こ 子)
writing
literature
(文)
*** *** *** herse hergen ᡥᡝᡵᡤᡝᠨ (“script”) *** *** kɯl kɯl kιən-ʃιi/kɯl
(斤尸)
*** kak-(か- 書-)
kuk-(くく- 括-)
*kuru-(くる-)
kak-(か- 書-)
kukur-(くく- 括-)
kurum-(くる-)
jade *** gas *** γun *** *** *** kusɯl ("jewel") *** kusi[9]
ko-{{IPA|ʃ ie
(古斯)
*** kusiro2("bracelet")[9] kushiro
cool wind, clear wind *** *** *** *** simeli ᠰᡳᠮᡝᠯᡳ ("cool") *** *** ʌ l("cool")
-i("-wind")
ə n{{IPA|ɯ l("cool") ʃa-nιet-ιi
(沙熱伊)
*** same-(さめ- 冷め-) same-(さめ- 冷め-)
hole (孔) *** *** *** *** dunggu ᡩᡠᠩᡤᡠ ("cave") *** *** ʌ zi ("interval, gap") ɯ m(隙孔) dzei-ts‘ii/tsei-ts‘ii/cic[9]
(斉次/濟次)
*** tʃuk-(すく 透く)
tʃuki(すき 隙)
suki (すき 透き/隙)
hole (穴) qapca("gorge, ravine"), qapi¨γ("Gate") *** *** *** yeru ᠶᡝᡵᡠ ("hole") *** *** *** kul (穴) kap
(甲)
kapi[9]
(甲比)
*** kapi1>kaɸi1(かひ 峽)[9] kubomi (くぼみ 窪み)
three bis(5) gurav *** ilan ilan ᡳᠯᠠᠨ *** mil sei/səih 셋 sʰet̚ mir/mil[9]
(密)
siet
(悉)
s^ïei
(史)
*** mi1(み "3")[9] mi(み "3")
five üç(3) tabun dügün sunja sunja ᠰᡠᠨᠵᠠ *** *** tasul (打戌) tasət
닷 tah
uc[9]/ütsi/uci/üc/uca/uchha
(于次,弓次)
*** itu(いつ "5")[9] itsu(いつ "5")
seven Yeti *** nadan nadan nadan ᠨᠠᡩᠠᠨ *** *** (n)ìlgɯp(一急) (n)ìlgúp nanön
nanin[9]
(難隠)
nanən/nanun
*** nana(なな "7")[9] nana(なな "7")
ten on
toquz(9)
arav juwa juwan juwan ᠵᡠᠸᠠᠨ ʒ uwan *** *** yəl(10)
on(100)
chɯmun(1000)
tək/tok[9]/duk
(德)
*** to2/to2wo(とを "10")[9] tō(とお "10")
hard *** *** *** manga("hard") mangga ᠮᠠᠩᡤᠠ ("hard") maŋa *** modir- mōjir- ("harsh; severe; cruel") ma
(馬)
*** ma- (まあ-)
mata-(また- 全-)
ma-(まあ-)
matta-ku(まったく 全く)
high *** *** *** *** den ᡩᡝᠨ ("high")
dekde- ᡩᡝᡴᡩᡝᠮᠪᡳ ("to rise")
*** *** *** tarak- ("high")
tarak ("loft")
dat/§ap/tar[9]
(達)
*** taka-/daka-(たか-/だか- 高)[9] taka-/daka(たか-/だか 高)
rough *** *** *** *** kata- ᡴᠠᡨᠠᠮᠪᡳ ("to dry") *** ʰɔ ¨l ʰ ɯl- (荒) *** kur'iy[9]
(骨衣)
*** kata- (かた-) kata- (かた-)
round (圓) *** *** *** *** torho- ᡨᠣᡵᡥᠣᠮᠪᡳ ("to roll,to circle") *** *** tuŋgɯl-(圓) tuŋgɯl-(圓} toŋ-pιuəi[9]
(冬非)
*** tubura(つぶら 圓ら)[9] tsubura(つぶら 円ら)
new *** *** *** iche ice ᡳᠴᡝ (“new”) *** say say (새) ɛ ʃ ιəu/*su[9]
(首)
*** zu("new, present, developing,a gleam")
su-("fresh")
sa-("young")[9]
su-
deep *** *** *** *** *** *** *** kiph u˙n kiph-
puk ("deeply, completely, fully")
bιuk-sie
(伏斯)
puk[9]
(伏)
*** puka-si>ɸuka-si(ふかし 深し)[9] fuka-i(ふかい 深い)
flat, level,shallow[9] biri *** *** *** ba ᠪᠠ ("field, district")
pile- ᡦᡳᠯᡝᠮᠪᡳ ("to confirm, to criticize")
tehere-("to flat, to be equal")
*** *** *** pʌl biri[9]
(比里)
pii-lιεt
(比烈)
*** pi1ra->ɸi1ra-(ひら- 平ら-)
pisi(ひし 菱)[9]
hirata-(ひらた- 平た-)
hishi(ひし
wide (廣) *** osy/esy 阿斯(寬大:gererous, tolerant)
nalai
*** očo 我撮(寬) onco ᠣᠨᠴᠣ (wast) *** *** 어위 (< *어쉬) ə g{{IPA|ɯ r{{IPA|ə (寬)
{{IPA|ə dzi (仁, 寬)
nərə-si, ə-si
(於斯)
*** naras-u(ならす 均す)
os-u(おす 押す)
narasu(ならす 均す)
osu(おす 押す)
abreast, both (並) *** *** *** gəli *** *** *** ʌ rb- (並 :“abreast”) *** ʌ n (斤) *** kan-("to combine") kan-
bent (曲) *** *** *** gokoro-("to bend") *** *** *** *** ɯ l (曲) ə l,kutkwa
(屈火)
*** kugu-/kaga-(くぐ-/かが- 屈-)
kubi(くび 首)
kuguma-/kagam-(くぐま-/かが- 屈ま-/屈-)
kubi(くび
black Qara *** *** *** kara ᡴᠠᡵᠠ ("black horse"),
sahaliyan ᠰᠠᡥᠠᠯᡳᠶᠠᠨ ("black")
*** *** kəm-/검- 검 kʌm kəmur[9]/kəmhək(今勿) *** kuro1(くろ 黑)[9] kuro(くろ
white Aq *** *** canggian šara- ᡧᠠᡵᠠᠮᠪᡳ (-"to become white")
šeyen ᡧᡝᠶᡝᠨ ("white")
šanggiyan ᡧᠠᠩᡤᡳᠶᠠᠨ ("white")
*** *** ʃ je-("to become white")
hʌy-(白)
hʌy-
hin
hayan
nun (雪)
ʃιi-lap[9]
(尸臘)
nə γei
(奈兮)
*** sira(しら 白)[9]
siram- (しらむ- 白む-)
shiro(しろ
shiram (しらむ 白む)
red Qyzyl ɣ an > ulaan *** fula gian("red") šušu ᡧᡠᡧᡠ ("purple")
fulgiyan ᡶᡠᠯᡤᡳᠶᠠᠨ ("red")
*** sapi(泗沘) sitpɯk(赤) 붉은pulgɯn
시뻘건sippəlgən("deep red")
s^a-bιuk/sa(i)puk[9]
(沙伏)
s^a-pιuəi-kιən/sa(i)pikon
沙非斤
sapi
supi(赤鳥) so2po>so2ɸo(赤土 : "red soil")[9]
sabi(さび 錆)
soho
sabi(さび 錆)
yellow *** *** *** *** suwayan ᠰᡠᠸᠠᠶᠠᠨ ("yellow") *** *** *** *** kuət[9]
(骨)
kweyru
*** ki2-~ kú-(き/く 黄)[9] ki(き 黄)
blue (靑) *** *** *** *** lamun ᠯᠠᠮᡠᠨ ("blue") *** səri 昔里
(靑)
*** *** sal
sat
(薩)
*** so1ra(そら 空)
sumi1re(すみれ 菫)
sora(そら
sumire(すみれ
green (綠) *** *** *** habha("leaf") niowanggiyan ᠨᡳᠣᠸᠠᠩᡤᡳᠶᠠᠨ (green) *** *** phɯrɯn ("green, blue") phurɯn ("green, blue")
pharan ("blue")
bιuʌt-lιək
(伐力)
puruk
*** mido(みど 綠)
pa>ɸa(は 葉)
tura/tuta(つら/つた 蔦)
midori(みどり
ha(は
tsuru/tsuta(つる/つた /
to meet bak-("to see, to look; to find") *** *** baka- ("to look for, to seek, to search") baha- ᠪᠠᡥᠠᠮᠪᡳ ("to get, to obtain") baka-("to find") *** poizʌp- ("to humbly show oneself, to meet (an honored person)") po-("to see, to look")/ poyp-("to have an audience with, to meet (an honored person)") pʌk/*pak
(伯)
*** wakar-(わか- 分か-) wakar-(わか- 分か-)
to swing bula-("to stir") büle-("to shake") *** *** fori- ᡶᠣᡵᡳᠮᠪᡳ ("to strike") *** *** *** ɯ l-("tremble, shake") pu
(釜)
*** pur->ɸur-(ふ- 振-) fu-(ふ- 振-)
to enter *** ire-
(to come)
i-(入) *** ibe- ᡳᠪᡝᠮᠪᡳ ("to get forward") *** *** ip(口)/ip(門戸) ir-(to arrive; to come)
ip
・ιi/*i [9]
(伊)
*** ir-(い- 入-)[9] hair-(はい- 入-)
to get (取) tor("trap") tor("net") *** *** duri- ᡩᡠᡵᡳᠮᠪᡳ ("to get") *** *** *** ɯ l-("to take, to hold") toŋ
(冬)
*** tor-(と- 取-) to-(と- 取-)
  1. (Georg et al. 1999:73-74).[1]
  2. (Georg et al. 1999:73-74)
  3. "While 'Altaic' is repeated in encyclopedias and handbooks most specialists in these languages no longer believe that the three traditional supposed Altaic groups, Turkic, Mongolian and Tungusic, are related." Lyle Campbell & Mauricio J. Mixco, A Glossary of Historical Linguistics (2007, University of Utah Press), pg. 7.
  4. "When cognates proved not to be valid, Altaic was abandoned, and the received view now is that Turkic, Mongolian, and Tungusic are unrelated." Johanna Nichols, Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time (1992, Chicago), pg. 4.
  5. "Careful examination indicates that the established families, Turkic, Mongolian, and Tungusic, form a linguistic area (called Altaic)...Sufficient criteria have not been given that would justify talking of a genetic relationship here." R.M.W. Dixon, The Rise and Fall of Languages (1997, Cambridge), pg. 32.
  6. "...[T]his selection of features does not provide good evidence for common descent" and "we can observe convergence rather than divergence between Turkic and Mongolic languages--a pattern than is easily explainable by borrowing and diffusion rather than common descent", Asya Pereltsvaig, Languages of the World, An Introduction (2012, Cambridge) has a good discussion of the Altaic hypothesis (pp. 211-216).
  7. gulhun mudan be acabume hūwaliyambumbure kooli be tuwarao.
  8. https://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=config&morpho=0&basename=%5Cdata%5Calt%5Ctunget&first=1&off=&text_proto=&method_proto=substring&ic_proto=on&text_meaning=six&method_meaning=substring&ic_meaning=on&text_rusmean=&method_rusmean=substring&ic_rusmean=on&text_evk=&method_evk=substring&ic_evk=on&text_evn=&method_evn=substring&ic_evn=on&text_neg=&method_neg=substring&ic_neg=on&text_sib=&method_sib=substring&ic_sib=on&text_man=&method_man=substring&ic_man=on&text_chu=&method_chu=substring&ic_chu=on&text_ulc=&method_ulc=substring&ic_ulc=on&text_ork=&method_ork=substring&ic_ork=on&text_nan=&method_nan=substring&ic_nan=on&text_orc=&method_orc=substring&ic_orc=on&text_ude=&method_ude=substring&ic_ude=on&text_sol=&method_sol=substring&ic_sol=on&text_reference=&method_reference=substring&ic_reference=on&text_any=&method_any=substring&sort=proto&ic_any=on
  9. 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 9.15 9.16 9.17 9.18 9.19 9.20 9.21 9.22 9.23 9.24 9.25 9.26 9.27 9.28 9.29 9.30 9.31 9.32 9.33 9.34 9.35 9.36 9.37 9.38 9.39 9.40 9.41 9.42 9.43 9.44 9.45 9.46 9.47 9.48 9.49 9.50 9.51 9.52 9.53 9.54 9.55 9.56 9.57 9.58 9.59 9.60 9.61 9.62 9.63 9.64 9.65 9.66 9.67 9.68 9.69 9.70 9.71 9.72 9.73 9.74 9.75 9.76 9.77 9.78 9.79 9.80 9.81 9.82 9.83 9.84 9.85 9.86 9.87 9.88 9.89 9.90 9.91 9.92 9.93 9.94 9.95 9.96 9.97 板橋義三,[[|アレクサンダー・ヴォヴィン]],[[|長田俊樹]](2003)日本語系統論の現在
  10. Lee, Ki moon (1968, 1969)
  11. Park, Byong chae (1968)
  12. Ryu, Ryeol (1983)
  13. Murayama Shichirō 1962
  14. Shichiro Murayama 1962
  15. Shinmura Izuru Memorial Foundation(2002)Kōjien
  16. Shinmura Izuru Memorial Foundation(2002)Kōjien
  17. Shinmura Izuru Memorial Foundation(2002)Kōjien
  18. Shinmura Izuru Memorial Foundation(2002)Kōjien
  19. Shinmura Izuru Memorial Foundation(2002)Kōjien
  20. Shichiro Murayama 1962
  21. Shinmura Izuru Memorial Foundation(2002)Kōjien
  22. Shinmura Izuru Memorial Foundation(2002)Kōjien
  23. Shinmura Izuru Memorial Foundation(2002)Kōjien
  24. Murayama Shichirō (1962)