Wp/kck/Kalanga Orthography

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KALANGA ORTHOGRAPHY - Proposed Amendments 2020 by Tshidzanani Malaba

   The Kalanga Alphabet

{a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, n’, o, p, r, s, t, u, v, w, (ɧ)x, y, z}

   Vowels 
  { a, e, i, o, u }

a pala (scrap), -tala (draw line), bhika (cook)

e pela (be finished), leba (say it), zose (all)

i pila (worship) dila (pour), mbizi (zebra)

o pola (cool down), tola (take),

u    pula (thrush), tula (put load down), nhu (person)
  
  Long vowels 
aa    etjiyaa, woyaa
ee   yewee, ee
ii  tii,
oo   yetjoo,
uu  mhuu, duu
      
  Single Consonants.
b  banga (wound), behha (wood curving), busi (smoke)
  
c  cansi (grass mat) , nzece ( ) , nca (raca) 
    
d  dula (silo), ludo (love), dama (word)
  
f     fala (absentminded), fodlo (tobacco), fa (die)
  
g    gala (sit), -go (wasp), -gudo (baboon)
  
h   hanga (guinea fowl ) hama (relative), hali (pot),  helo (there you are), {hobe/whobe (fish), huni/whuni (firewood), huku/whuku (chicken) – see notes

h (ɧ) ɧama (open your mouth), ɧema (hate), ɧomu (amarula nuts) ɧaba (red), ɧahewu (sweet beer), ɧe (chief), /see x/ This currently uses /h/ in a confusing inter changeable manner, a five year transition to x is recommended –see notes x [xa, xe, xi, xo, xu] ɧama xama (open your mouth), ɧema xema (hate), xinga (work) ɧomu xomu (amarula nuts) xuba (longing) xaba (red), maxewu (sweet beer), xe (chief), Recommended to to replace /ɧ/ in a five year transition period

j  jita (climb-down), jatja (temporal shelter), njiba (dove)
  
k  kanyi (home), nkaka (milk), kupa (teak),
l  ludo (love), - linga (look), -loba (hit), lala(sleep)
m   mma (stand), -mona (twist), muka (wakeup)
n  naka (beauty), nonoka (slow), nhuwa (smell) 

n’ n’ombe (cattle), n’anga (traditional healer), n’an’aba (a facial expression of one who is about to cry)

p  pisa(burn), pala (scratch), paladza/palaja (destroy)  

r tjirara (cone shaped havest storage), bhaphiro (wing), bhururuka (fly)

s siya (leave behind), senga(carry), sunga(tie), soba ( )

t  tola (take) tate (father), tebula (pour out), tuma(send)
  
v  vanga ( mix), vula (water), vima(hunt)
  
w   wana (find), -wayenda (he went), wila (fall in)
x   xala (choose) see h(ɧ)
y  yangu (mine), yemula (admire), yedu (ours)
z  zebe (ear), zina (name), zomola (nip forcefully)


   Consonant combinations

bgw bgwe (stone), nzimabgwe (home of stones), bgwila (licking), bgwata (hide)

bh bhabha(carry with your back), bhoma(smear), mabhubhu (immature grain

at harvest)
 

bv bvuma (agree), bvubika (immense), bva (leave), bvumbu (color grey)

ch chinsa (first harvest ceremony), tjichenene, zwichaphe(traditional attire)

dl dla(eat), dlisa (feed/overeat), pedlo(near) fodlo( tobacco)

dz  dzeta(dodge), dzangu(mine), dzu(fish eagle), dzipa(strangle)
 
dzw  dzwala(sow),
    

gw gwendo (journey), gwala(to be sick),

hh  hhala (hunger) nhuhha (youngman), hhi`ho (eye) hhoba (noise)
    
hl  hla (fear), hlisa (fearful) 

hw hwa (hear), hwi (voice) (see wh)

ɧw ɧwa/shwa (ants), maɧwa (afternoon), maɧwe good (curdled milk) ɧwita (swift) /see xw/ This currently uses /hw/ in a confusing inter changeable manner, a five year transition to xw is recommended. /hw/ may be used in the place of /wh/ and this will conform to iKalanga, Nambya. xw [xwa, xwe, xwi, xo,xu] maxwa (good afternoon), maxwe (curdled milk) xwita(swift)

kh #khama (strangle), khiba(apron), #borrowed from Ndebele/Zulu

kw -kwala(write), kweba (pull),

khw khwa( pound), bukhwilo ( peanuts meal), khwiba (steal)

mb mbiganyi(comforter), mbaba(winter), mbeba (rat), mbuyu (baobab), mbonje(scar)

mbgw mbgwa (dog), mbgwimbgwi, (gums) mbgweti (type of a tree), gambgwa (shell)

mbh mbhayilo (reward), mbhibhanyi(????)

mbv   mbvana (middle aged woman), mbvumbi (continuous light rain) 

mf  mfi (the late), mfidzi (accomplisher)
mh   mhulu (calf), mheni (lightining), mhungubgwe (jackal),
  mhahha (luck), mhele (hyena)

mm mme (mother), mma! (expression)

mp   mpani (mopane tree), mpini (tool handle)
mpf  mpfudze (manure), mpfula (amarula tree)
mph  mpho (done free of charge)

mv   mvitjo (swing saw), mvumbinlidzo cobra snake), mvo (first milk)
mw  mwa (suck), fumwa (wealth), mweni (owner), mwina (burrow)

nd   nda (farm), ndebo (news), ndilo (plate),
   
ndh  ndhale (beer for sale) ndhazula (traditional dance), Ndhebele (surname) ndhiyi (teacher) 
ndl  ndlana (September), Ndligwa
ng   Kalanga (language), ngula (bath), ngina (come in), ngeno (here)
ngh  nghanhu (boundary), nghopi ( a bird?) nghalibhuna (chairman)
ngw  ngwena (crocodile), ngwa (war), ngwenu (now), ngwe (leopard)
nh  nhanga (play field), nhete (quiver) nhiba (garden), nhongo (male goat),  
 nhunji (waist)

nhw see nwh

n’h  n’hanje (grass), n’hingi (worker), n’holo (head), n’hiya
 
nhh  nhhambi (grapes), nhhuhha (young man), nhhi (foreigner/new come) 

 nj  njiba (dove), njele (intelligence), maxonja (mopane worm), njimbo(songs)
njh  njhela(under the barn), manjhilila(flying squirrel)
  
nk  nkabo (calabash), nkulu (elder bro/sister) nkoba (door)
nkhw  nkhwe (crack), nkhwa (slave)
nkw  nkwala (spoor), nkwele (type of a tree), nkwinya (friend)
 

nl nlisi (shepherd), nlume (man), nlapwa (patient), nlomo (mouth)

  nlenje (culture)

nn [nna] kunna, nnanha

nt    ntunhu (place), ntundo (urine), ntolo( long ago)
  
ntj  ntjili (rope), ntjenje (termite), mantja (truth)
nts  whentserele (a bird ), ntsara (drag), ntsi!( stop/ to be still)

ntsh ntshibha

ntshw  ntshwayilo (grass broom), 
 
ns  nsetje (sand), nsi (day/day of rest/ sabbath) 
          
nsw    nswanja (fruit tree), 

nwh nwhilili See notes nhw nhwilili, nhwiti - if wh is done away with

ny  nyama (meat), nyoka (snake), nyola (tatoo)
  nyunyi (birds), nyolo(wet), nyepa (lies) 
nyw  nyunywana (small bird)
nz  nzano (play), nzi (home), nzembe (dove like bird)

nzw nzwali (parent), nzwigwa (fruit tree mviyo)

ph  phoko (he goat not castrated), phapha (chopping wood)
pf   pfa (spit), pfula (kick & amarula fruit) pfumo/thumo (spear)
phw pw  phwe (sweet reed), phwaya (pounding), phwanya (crush)
rw – Babirwa, KuBurwa  (Southern tribe /cardinal point) [No other words use /rw/]

sw swimbo (knobkerrie), swina (squeeze out), swanja (fruit)

tj  tjaba(nation), tjedu (ours), tjidza (help), tjulu (anthill), lutjayo (marking or branding)

th thama (do), thikili (bundle of thatching grass), thaka (peer)

ts   tsatula (squeeze forcefully and suddenly), tsako
         

tsh tshambani (step on), tsheduka (move a bit), tshibama (to give birth)

tshw dzwatshwatshwa (beetle like insect), tshwenya (bypass), tshwa (new)

wh wha (hear), whalo (letters), whi (voice), whali (a type of a bird), whentserele (a bird), whilila (listen), /see hw/ hw hwa (hear), hwalo (letters), hwi (voice), whali (a type of a bird), whentserele (a bird), whilila (listen), If /x/ comes into effect /wh/ can be replaced by hw and h (hwa, hwe, hwi and ho hu) if wh is maintained and x is not used then hw will not be in conformity with iKalanga and Nambya.

xw – see hw-2

zw zwedu (ours), zwala (give birth), zwinhu (things)