Wp/enm/Wikipaedia:Spelling and grammar

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This page will detail the grammar used on the test wiki for Middle English. While the actual grammar did vary over time, it is helpful to have a baseline for everyone to use.

Verbs[edit | edit source]

Verbs take endings depending on the person doing the action. They usually take the following endings:

  • I/ich -e
  • þou -est
  • he, schee, it -eþ
  • we, ȝe, þei/hi -eþ
  • The infinitive ends in -en
  • Subjunctive ends in -e

To be (been)[edit | edit source]

  • Inflected infinitive: to beonne
  • Present Indicative: ich am, þou art/beest, he is/beeþ, we/ȝe/þei beeþ/bee(n)/arn
  • Present Subjunctive: ich/þou/he be; we/ȝe/þei be(n)
  • Past Indicative: ich was, þou wast/were, he was, we/ȝe/þei were(n)
  • Past Subjunctive: ich/þou/he were; we/ȝe/þei were(n)
  • Imperative: be!/beþ!
  • Participles: beande or being, (i-)been

Strong verb sample (singen)[edit | edit source]

  • Inflected infinitive: to singen
  • Present Indicative: ich sing(e), þou singest, he singeþ, we/ȝe/þei singen
  • Present Subjunctive: ich/þou/he sing(e); we/ȝe/þei sing(en)
  • Past Indicative: ich sang, þou sung, he sang, we/ȝe/þei sung(en)
  • Past Subjunctive: ich/þou/he sung, we/ȝe/þei sung(en)
  • Imperative: sing!/singen!
  • Participles: singende/singing(e), (i)sung(en)

Weak verb sample (luven)[edit | edit source]

  • Inflected infinitive: to luven
  • Present Indicative: ich luve, þou luvest, he luveþ, we/ȝe/þei luveþ
  • Present Subjunctive: ich/þou/he luve, we/ȝe/þei luve/luven
  • Past Indicative: ich luved(e), þou luvedest, he luved(e), we/ȝe/þei luved/luveden
  • Past Subjunctive: ich/þou/he luved(e), we/ȝe/þei luved/luveden
  • Imperative: luve!/luveþ!
  • Participles: luvend, iluved

Adjectives[edit | edit source]

In the singular, adjectives can either have no ending or end with -e. Plural adjectives or adjectives after þe almost always have the weak ending -e.

Pronouns[edit | edit source]

Subject pronouns[edit | edit source]

Singular[edit | edit source]

Common[edit | edit source]
  • I/Y
  • Þu/Þou/Þow/Thu/Thou/Thow
  • He/Hee
  • She/Sche/Shee/Schee
  • Hit/Hyt/It/Yt
Rare[edit | edit source]
  • Ich/Ych/Ic/Yc
  • Heo
  • Sho/Scho/Ȝho/Yho

Plural[edit | edit source]

Common[edit | edit source]
  • We/Wee
  • Ȝe/Ȝee/Ye/Yee
  • Þei/Þey/Thei/They
Rare[edit | edit source]
  • none
  • none
  • Heo/He

Object pronouns[edit | edit source]

Singular[edit | edit source]

Common[edit | edit source]
  • Me/Mee
  • Þe/Þee/The/Thee
  • Him/Hym
  • Hire/Hyre/Her
  • Hit/Hyt/It/Yt
Rare[edit | edit source]
  • Mi
  • Hine/Hyne
  • Heo/He/His/Hys/Hie/Hye/Hies/Hyes
  • Him/Hym

Plural[edit | edit source]

Common[edit | edit source]
  • Us/Vs
  • Ȝou/Ȝow/You/Yow
  • Hem/Þem/Them/Þo/Tho
Rare[edit | edit source]
  • Ous/Ovs
  • Eow/Ou/Gu
  • His/Heo/Heom

Possessive Pronouns[edit | edit source]

Singular[edit | edit source]

Common[edit | edit source]
  • Mi/My/Min/Myn/Mine/Myne
Rare[edit | edit source]
  • Minen/Mynen/Mire/Myre/Minre/Mynre

Online resources[edit | edit source]