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Iban
Iban girls.jpg
Sumandak Iban manandasuk do rasuk poinggonop montok koonduan Iban di ontok karamaian Gawai id watas Dibak, Botung, Sarawak
Ginumu sinakagon 600,000 (Sarawak no tomod)
Watas di poingugumu sinakagon Sarawak, Burunai & Kalimantan Kabaatan
Woyoboros Iban
Kotumbayaan Koristian
Tinimungan Kompinayan Otinik Kantu, Mualang, Sambaruang, Bugau & Sabaru'

Iban nopo nga rapang do tulun Dayak id Bornio. Id Malaysia, kogumuan do Iban poingiyon id Sarawak, haro tokuri id Sabah om haro nogi id Samananjung Malaysia. Nointutunan yolo ontok po di monomBoritis sobaagi do Dayak Laut. Iban nokotonuh do moningkarad om popoingayo pogigiyonon. Di pogulu nopo, tulun Iban nopo nga agaras om poinsogulu id Bornio. Moboros yolo do woyoboros Iban.

Tadau baino, nakatalib nodi moningkarad om mogiahau, naalanan do koposion poinwagu it roitan do ponompogunan om tiknoloji montok Iban. Sinakagon Iban pointimung id Sarawak, Burunai, om nogi id Kalimantan Kabaatan watas do Indonisia. Poingiyon yolo id walai tanaru roitan do rumah panjai[1]. Kogumuan do walai tanaru doun Iban nogonop do kosukupan poinwagu miagal do tongolotirik om waig paip om nogi kaganapan susuai miagal do talun-alun notiir, pioputan tolipaun om intonit. Sinukadan Iban nopo nga orubaan id kakadaian di nokoingkakat om kogumuan diolo muli do ontok suti. Sundung do baino tongotulun Iban nokoingkokot no, maso poh diolo do momiara om moningolig do tungkus om koubasanan diolo.

Susuyan Iban[edit]

Tinimpuunon do pongoroitan Iban nopo nga osundu, sundung poh do ogumu tomod tiori. Ontok di monomBoritis, noroitan Iban sobaagi do Dayak Laut. Haro otumbayaan do Iban nopo nga pongoroitan kodori-ori doun Iban montok tulun toi kusai. Pangalahawan poinwagu do Iban montok tulun toi kusai nopo nga mensia, noolos mantad boros Malayu it miagal komoyon (manusia) doid Gamut Sangkirit.

Iban nopo nga tulun mamasok id Bornio. Miagal do Dayak suai, yolo nopo diti nga mororobuat, magagasu om moninimung. Awu ogumu nointutunan kokomoi Iban pogulu dilo tulun Kabaatan do ruminikot id Asia. Ingaa nokosurat dilo mangangansau kokomoi do Iban.

Nokotonuh ot Iban sobaagi do moningkarad. Moningkarad id tinimungan do Iban, nokotimpuun ontok do nakadala no mogigiyon id Bornio. Ontok dilo, pogulu do nokorikot tamdun doun Kabaatan, magahau yolo do tiyonon doun mamasok suai it kopongowit do kapamataian. Pogisangadan iso no ralan do mumang pasi.

Maso dilo, karalano do misangod nopo nga tiso-iso koubasanan do tongoDayak do gumampot koinggisaman om komogoton. Pogisangadan do Dayak adalaan torongit om araat, gisom do kopomupus otinik. Ogumu sinakagon suai, miagal do Soru om Biliun, rinumolot toi nopimpataian do tulun Iban. Kawo Bukitan, it mogigiyon mantad id Saribas, kikotumbayaan do nokorolot toi nouyung do Iban kuminaa hilo id pisuk miagal do Bintulu. Tulun Ukit poh kawagu nga oruhai no do nopupusan numaan pimpataiai do tulun Iban.

Tinumimpuun Iban do nokopuli id Sarawak ontok ponounan 1500 miagal do okito tokou do baino. Soira nokointutun pinagahawan doun Boritis om minagai do kobuturan disan baang, minangasau toi minonolod mogigiyon mamasok, korikatai nodi do musim misangod. Momuruan mamasok nansasagan do momuhu sukai doun sultan Brunei. Ontok dilo, kuasa doun Malayu, om momuruan Iban notimpuunan do noroitan Datu (Datuk), Nakhoda om Orang Kaya.

Piro-piro toun notoliban, Iban nokosolowot do Bajau om Illanun, nokorikot mantad Pilipin mongoguno do parahu. Yolo nopo diti nga mongin-nginsada it momuhu koinsanai suang-suang id Bornio. Nga, tulun Iban ingaa ot podosi, om sinumangod yolo di tangaBajau om Ilanun. Iso susuyan nokotonuh doun Iban nointutunan do Lobur Monuo mantad Intanak, id somok do Botung do baino, sinumangod om minangala di tongoBajau om Ilanun. Haro kotumbayaan do tulun Iban mininsingilo kapandaian mantad Bajau om it Illanun, minomit diolo do mongugad mogigion id ponongtisan, miagal do Malanauom Salako. Kointalang ahal diti maya pomogunaan kapal doun Iban it roitan do bandung. Iti nogi kaanto iso sabab do noroitan di Jamis Borok, it nokorikot id Sarawak ontok toun 1838, mingolohou do Iban sobaagi do Dayak Laut. Solinaid do hatus toun, Iban nolohou di tulun Kabaatan sobaagi do Dayak Laut.

Kotumbayaan, Koubasanan om Karamaian[edit]

An Iban woman prepares cotton for spinning

The Ibans were traditionally animist, although the majority are now Christian, some of them Muslim and many continue to observe both Christian and traditional ceremonies, particularly during marriages or festivals.

Significant festivals include the rice harvesting festival Gawai Dayak, the main festival for the Ibans.Other festivals include the bird festival Gawai Burong and the spirit festival Gawai Antu. The Gawai Dayak festival is celebrated every year on the 1st of June, at the end of the harvest season, to worship the Lord Sempulang Gana. On this day, the Ibans get together to celebrate, often visiting each other. The Iban traditional dance, the ngajat, is performed accompanied by the taboh and gendang, the Ibans' traditional music. Pua Kumbu, the Iban traditional cloth, is used to decorate houses. Tuak, which is originally made of rice, is a wine used to serve guests. Nowadays, there are various kinds of tuak, made with rice alternatives such as sugar cane, ginger and corn.

The Gawai Burong (the bird festival) is held in honour of the War God, Singalang Burong. The name Singalang Burong literally means "Singalang the Bird". This festival is initiated by a notable individual from time to time and hosted by individual longhouses. The Gawai Burong originally honoured warriors, but during more peaceful times evolved into a healing ceremony. The recitation of pantun (traditional chants by poets) is a particularly important aspect of the festival.

For the majority of Ibans who are Christians, some Chrisitian festivals such as Christmas, Good Friday, Easter, and other Christian festivals are also celebrated. Most Ibans are devout Christians and follow the Christian faith strictly.

Despite the difference in faiths, Ibans of different faiths do help each other during Gawais and Christmas. Differences in faith is never a problem in the Iban community. The Ibans believe in helping and having fun together.

A Modern Iban Longhouse in Kapit Division

Tuunion & Sayau Tinungkusan[edit]

Iban music is percussion-oriented. The Iban have a musical heritage consisting of various types of agung ensembles - percussion ensembles composed of large hanging, suspended or held, bossed/knobbed gongs which act as drones without any accompanying melodic instrument. The typical Iban agung ensemble will include a set of engkerumungs (small agungs arranged together side by side and played like a xylophone), a tawak (the so-called 'bass'), a bendai (which acts as a snare) and also a set of ketebung (a single sided drum/percussion).

The Iban as well as the Kayan also play an instrument resembling the flute called 'Sapek'. The Sapek is the official musical instrument for the Malaysian state of Sarawak. It is played similarly to the way rock guitarists play guitar solos, albeit a little slower, but not as slow as blues.[1][2] One example of Iban traditional music is the taboh.

The Ibans perform a unique dance called the ngajat. It serves many purposes depending on the occasion. During Gawais, it is used to entertain the people who in the olden days enjoy graceful ngajats as a form of entertainment. Iban men and women have different styles of ngajat. The ngajat involves a lot of precise body-turning movements. The ngajat for men is more aggressive and depicts a man going to war, or a bird flying (as a respect to the Iban god of war, Singalang Burong). The women's form of ngajat consists of soft, graceful movements with very precise body turns. Each ngajat is accompanied by the taboh or the body.


Kawo do tulun Iban[edit]

Although Ibans generally speak a dialect which is mutually intelligible, they can be divided into different branches which are named after the geographical areas where they reside.

  • Ibans who settled in areas in Serian district (places like Kampung Lebor, Kampung Tanah Mawang & others) are called Remuns. They may be the earliest Iban group to migrate to Sarawak.
  • Ibans from Undup are called Undup Ibans. Their dialect is somewhat a cross between the Ulu Ai dialect & the Balau dialect.
  • Ibans living in areas from Sarikei to Miri are called Rajang Ibans. They are the majority group of the Iban people. They can be found along the Rajang River, Sibu, Kapit, Belaga, Kanowit, Song, Sarikei, Bintangor, Bintulu and Miri. Their dialect is somewhat similar to the Ulu Ai dialect.

In West Kalimantan (Indonesia), Iban people are even more diverse. The Kantu, Air Tabun, Semberuang, Sebaru' , Bugau, Mualang & along with many other groups are classed as "Ibanic people" by anthropologists. They can be related to the Iban either by the dialect they speak or their customs, rituals & their way of life.

Riporon koubasanan[edit]

  • The episode, Into the Jungle from Anthony Bourdain: No Reservations included the appearance of Itam, a former Sarawak Ranger and one of the Iban people's last members with the Entegulun (Iban traditional tattoo design) (hand tattoos) signifying his taking of an enemy’s head.
  • The movie The Sleeping Dictionary features Selima (Jessica Alba), an Anglo-Iban girl who falls in love with John Truscott (Hugh Dancy). The movie was filmed primarily in Sarawak, Malaysia.
  • Malaysia's Ethnic Pop Queen, Noraniza Idris recorded Ngajat Tampi in 2000 and followed by Tandang Bermadah in 2002 which is based on Ibanese tribe music composition. Both songs became a fame in Malaysia and neighborhood countries.

Bibliograpi[edit]

  • Sir Steven Runciman, The White Rajahs: a history of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946 (1960).
  • James Ritchie, The Life Story of Temenggong Koh (1999)
  • Benedict Sandin, Gawai Burong: The chants and celebrations of the Iban Bird Festival (1977)
  • Greg Verso, Blackboard in Borneo, (1989)
  • Renang Anak Ansali, New Generation of Iban, (2000)

Toput poinsoliwan[edit]

  1. Template:Cite web
  2. Matusky, Patricia. "An Introduction to the Major Instruments and Forms of Traditional Malay Music." Asian Music Vol 16. No. 2. (Spring-Summer 1985), pp. 121-182.