A language is a system of symbols, generally known as lexemes, and the rules by which they are manipulated. The word language is also used to refer to the whole phenomenon of language, i.e., the common properties of languages. Though language is commonly used for communication, it is not synonymous with it. The scientific study of language, its historical development, characteristics, and use in society is known as Linguistics.
Human language is a natural phenomenon, and language learning is instinctive in childhood. In their natural form, human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for the symbols in order to communicate with others through the senses. Though there are thousands of human languages, they all share a number of properties from which there are no known deviations.
Humans have also invented (or arguably in some cases discovered) many other languages, including constructed human languages such as Esperanto or Klingon, programming languages such as Python or Ruby, and various mathematical formalisms. These languages are not restricted to the properties shared by natural human languages.
is a speech disorder
in which the normal flow of speech
is frequently disrupted by repetitions (sounds, syllables, words, or phrases), pauses, and prolongations that differ both in frequency and severity from those of normally fluent individuals. The term stuttering is most commonly associated with the involuntary repetition, but it also encompasses the abnormal hesitation or pausing before speech, referred to by stutterers as blocks
, and the prolongation of certain sounds, usually vowels
. Much of what constitutes “stuttering” cannot be observed by the listener; this includes such things as sound and word fears, situational fears, anxiety, tension, shame, and a feeling of "loss of control" during speech. The emotional state of the individual who stutters in response to the stuttering often constitutes the most difficult aspect of the disorder.
- Xuást: Dá panna ŧí sáŕí xísun rang aná gańđ átá panna ģák káŧum án affas. Dá ģuŧŧ panna ģák biná xuáira. Arkas e ará sarhál ná bábat cáindárí are, amo sarhál ná xísuná gańđ e xalling án pad niviştánk ná biná kanning kek.
- Nemgađalo: Dá nivştánk átá biná massune, vale deskáne nemgađalo o. Arkas dáfteŧí vaddík cáindárí avár kanning kek. Pen...
Duniá ná bolík
Baloc ná bolík: Balocí, Bráhuí, Siráikí, Khetrání, Lásí
Drávaŕí bolík: Támil, Maláyálam, Telugú, Kánađ, pen...
Amsáya bolík: Sindí, Paşto, Panjápí, Urdú
Eşíá ná bolík: Arabí, Bangálí, Cíní, Jápání, Abrání (Hebrew), Indí (Hindi), Koríáí, Mangolíáí, Fársí, Sanskrit, Tibbatí, Táí, Turkí, Vetnámí pen...
Yúrap ná bolík: Básk, Cek, Angrezí (English), Fránsí, Jarman, Itálví, Nárvejí, Purtugálí, Romání, Rúsí, Slovek, Ispení, pen...
Joŕ karoká bolík: Esperanto, Ido, Volapük, pen...
Bolí ná vaŕ ák
Joŕ karoká (Constructed) bolí, Kríol (Creole), Gum maroká (Extinct) bolí, Laeja (Dialect), Miyánustumání (International) bolí, Rájí (National) bolí, Pidgin, Nişán (Sign) bolí
Báşágal ák: Arabí báşágal, Saerillik (Cyrillic) báşágal, Abrání (Hebrew) báşágal, Látíní (Latin) báşágal, pen...
Elo likvaŕ ák: Abjad, Abugida, Braille, Hieroglyphics, Logogram, Syllabary, SignWriting pen..
Pen ubbo: Bolí, Bolí ná táríx, Bolízánt, Bolízántkár, Báşágal ná táríx, script