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Wp/avk/Tumbuktu

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Tumbuktu ( uldinen 32 463 ir- ba 2005 ) tir san-pereafa widava ke Malia is widot ke milyoltafa Tumbuktu gola.

Tumbuktu ( sonxayavon Tumbuktu = betsava ). Widava ke Malia lente lodavapa ke Niger bost. Tigir arte 10 km lente bost koe bixefa azeka lize jontika tourka isu brezodamna isu pia tigid. Sanelia va 40 000 irubasik mon ruldar.

Izvafa abdieuropafa pakava ke Tumbuktu tir barlentkorafa is welmapafa ; rawaks valenteon is vatalteon anameon tigid ise va logijafe lekefe divatce vrulutad ; tela mazjidapa tigir poke lenteuulxo ; bak 1826 inafe anambe gan Fula saneik al zo vilar ; teni XIX-eafa decemda widaki is toloy folk gan francik valenteon zo vegeduyud. Nuda tid mantafa, mona fereon tid vegemkirafa is glupanyafa is vegeduyuna kum awaltturodayana anamkafa norka.

Savsafu Tumbuktu va tevoya revava ruldar : i va vageeon Sanegungu tela losaneliakirafa dem toloyo dolexo is Sidi-Yaxia mazjida, is va isteon Sararaika lize Yukubaina ceixik lekeon sokeyer ise lize berma ke sonxay gazikeem tigiyir, is va vatalteon Bagindi kontomon vamolavana omafa revava, is va Sankore vane lenteuulxo tela sonray revava dem tela alubtamakkirafa mazjidapa, is va vagetalteon Sangereber dem santantamakkirafa mazjida. Molt tigir koe Kabara kene lentedomega ke Niger kuksa.

Anton rade bak muvugal ugale ko Niger bost va widava rionda kagluyad, va ara lava dam tela ke ujiweem is lavakeem Tumbuktu me digir. Lekeon mal Djenné ik Macina va intaf bloteem is mal Kabara va inta Tumbuktu malsaveyer. Nelkon tiyir kazawidava tukulana kan remdolekareem wal Sudana is yona termtajoya remolakisa va Saxara vane Magriba ik Insalax ( Tuat is Jazaira ) is Xadamus ; pu Sudanik va eip ke Taudeni kawoda is yon lentaf is xorabaf warzeks is moavaroga is leltxa ; va folida ik arida ik yona brixa iku lay ke Kano ik wula ikz-. Bata kazara ixam al tuomawepeyer mali francafa kerelera. Moni 1895 va 6000 ir- deblitafa sanelia jontolawesa ba dolexoviel ware anton ruldayar ; va Sonxay saneik ( jontik moekote koe Kabara ) is kuntaxik is Ruma tolzaavik is Fula saneik isu Tuareg isu Magriba is parloesik ke kotafa Lenteafrika ruldayar. Va Bekaya staba lizukafa gaderopafa turestuca nelkon pasuyur. Tuke kruldesuca ke yona madrasa bema isu nevaxe, islamevafa araya koeon tiyir zackafa.

Moni 1077 Tumbuktu widava gan Tuareg saneik nuve zo reduyur ; olgalicura va Walata bak 1325 gan Manding saneik, ko Tumbuktu va istefo dolexo ke gola arbureyer. Ton zolonaf aveg ke islamevafa araya gan Malia Gongo-Musa gindik widava zo artazukayar. Porfeon tiyir tana idja ke Sonxay toleafo gazaxo. Ba 1591 gan magribik zo olgalicuyur, aze inaf andalusaf zeltkirik stan gan Djuder di titickaweyed ise tiyid va xanta ke Ruma tolzaavafa sanelia dana bak XVII-eafa decemda ve tuvolrupteweyer.

Kramon, bat olgalicusikeem stayan ko Sudana gan Djuder is yon taneaf radimifisik ( pacik ke Tumbuktu ) va stuvik moekote ruldayar. Inafi aroti isu volugda isu dubiereem isu warkuca isu gruspesuca isu brazareem va islamevikeem is grupelikeem isu volgrustasuca vaon nelkon di murobayad. Kev sudanaf seltay va tanoya lodawalkedaca inafa walpira lazavayar. Folison va yon grupelik ke Tumbuktu, vertuma ke pacikeem, ede loote al jijayar, va enrawara va coba volfakon vegeduyuna gan Manding gindik is konak Sonxay askiaik ke Gao co stayar.

Mali 1660 vertuma ware anton erniguyur koe Tumbuktu ware golevgayas va yona rinta bak 120 tanda. Remi rekola mali 1660 kali 1750 va 128 vanmiae bat espuwes pacikeem " Tedzkiret en-nisian " neva dribur : va vertuma mana ota uiveon adalar. Mali monion 1660, kot kalstegesikam dan en tiyid pirtaf da sanefa blikera koe mazjida yolton gu sin zo kaliyir, va rictulamuca anton videyed ede pu Ségou Bambara gazik geeon mwaskis culiekayar oke pu Ulmidan Tuareg saneikeem lenteon mwaskis is fereon kerestias va Tumbuktu va yona gamiaxa webexa dodeyed. Mali 1780, Paca vergumvelt en griawiskiyir, acum koe Tumbuktu anton tani vodasi kadi kiblani vanmiau Armik gan ont Arma sane ont Bambara sane ont Macina Fula sane kare felisuca ke ugal wan tiyir.

Geltron, muwidava bata rekola di tiyir tana ke trenafa musuca is copapuca. Bak XIX-eafa decemda, Tuareg saneikeem taneon mupeyer ; azon Tumbuktu zo keviduyur wal in is Fula saneikeem ; wali 1826 is 1846 in va widava kereleyer ; dotrakura walpiyir, pokaykasa va Fula kadi is Sonxay kadi, is jovlesi pu Bekay ceixik va dotafe bowere. Va widava El Xadj Omar ve koilkayar voxe zertuyur lyumason va Bekkaya sane. Wale Tuareg saneikeem isu Fula, koboda di trenayar. Bak 01/1894, francik stan gan Joffre va Tumbuktu kereleyed. Va abdifa zolonuca widava mea ve dimtrasiyir. Ba volruptesuca ke Malia, bak 09/1960, wetce kelu ke warzafa soka Bamako zo abdualbayar.

Bulafa gijayoltuca ke an kazaf widap ke taltefa Sudana al askiyir va mukot ke jontik taltekaf koyasik. Bak 1826 Laing koon artlapiyir voxe zo adjubeyer ; bak 04/1828 Caillié sanbalemkon ugalzeyer aze va pimtaks askiyir ; Barth nendanon gan Bekkaya sane bak 1853 koeon tandackuon bliyir ; bak 1879 Lenz koon lakiyir.

Tamavafa Gadakiewega[edit]

Tumbuktu ( francavon Tombouctou ), tir burkaf debak ke Malia.

Tumbuktu tir tano katcalapafo izvaxo ke tawava nume bak 1988 wetce arayaf debak ke tamavafa gadakiewega ke UNESCO zo bendeyer.

Bat debak re ( 2018 ) bevular iyelaf.



Ewava va debak[edit]

Vuestexa[edit]


Tumbuktu
Tombouctou.jpg
RISTULA
Patecta Malia   Flag of Mali.svg
Gola Tumbuktu Gola
SANELIOPA
Sanelia 54 453 ir- (2009)
TAWAVOPA
Maneka 16°46′ L-, 3°00′ R-
Ontine 263 m-
LAPIRA, LIZIBA
Bira, kuksa
Rid Maki-airport-15.svg
Kelot
Vawa Aiga groundtransportation.svg Maki-car-15.svg Cargo Truck.svg


  

Tumbuktu
World Heritage Logo global.svg Tamavafa gadakiewega ke UNESCO
Tumbuktu, arayaf debak
DEBALA
Tawavaf seg Afrika
Patecta Malia   Flag of Mali.svg     
Gola Tumbuktu Gola
Maneka OOjs UI icon mapPin-progressive.svg 16° 46' 23" L-, 2° 59' 56" T-
KIRA
Ord Arayaf debak
Ludeem (ii) (iv) (v)
Debakaf otuk 119
Bendesa ilana 1988 ( 12-eaf frugot )
Welma km²