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Maria Spiridonova
1884-1941
Rossiaf artowasik

Maria Aleksandrovna Spiridonova ( rossiavon Мари́я Алекса́ндровна Спиридо́нова ) tiyir rossiaf artowasik. Koe Tambov koe Rossia ba 16/10/1884 kobliyir. Ba 11/09/1941 koe Medvedevski aalxo poke Oryol gan NKVD ardial flioton zo klibuyur.

Blirizva

Afigasuteks abdi 1906

Toza

Maria Spiridonova koe Tambov koblir, i koe widava gerone Moskva arte 480 km-. Gadikye tiyir ravaldugafe gu ilkoluuca ise wetce omeltaf gadesik kobayar. Bak 1902 mulufter. Ina koe Tambov taneon vayar aze koe Moskva djuvanpir talgopik. Voxe ko Tambov kalion dimlapir lize wetce unenik kobar. Wavepon gan saneevafa gaderopafa rieta zo jekur nume va exaksara paker. Bak bareaksat ke 1905 taneatomon zo soper. Va Seltevafo Artowaso Pako yoter.

Adjubera va Lujenovski

Gavriil Lujenovski tiyir kulaf pilkotik is winkaf pirdotik flikiraf gu musuca ke Borisoglebsk utca gerone Tambov. Ostik tiyir lizukaf andik ke cosevaf grustaks ( Ebeltikafa Decema ). Neda ke Seltevafo Artowaso Pako va ini djukuradjuber. Maria Spiridonova vanyer kuranafa ta batcoba. Arti konak tcalutes vielcek katecta ba 16/01/1906 koe impadimakafa recela ke Borisoglebsk sokir. Ina va ini alubon dierkar. Lujenovski me ve xonuker voxen ba 10/02/1906 di awalker.

Maria Spiridonova gan fuzodes kazakik zo soper. Koe ardialxe zo basvager aze zo joxar. Bak vielacku gan toloy ardialik zo koerur ise zo naker. Aze bak arburera ko Tambov kan impadimak, ikron zo kugdar ise ape zo boer.

Koe nuyotafa fela ke Sankt Peterburg va levgayana askiperaja lajuranker. Lana kroara di tir.

Ba 11/03/1906 Maria Spiridonova nope pisonara va Lujenovski zo malyer nume xonukalanzar. Wori erkey va gakera gu narmafa dagira nuner.

Spiridonova do aluboya ara eaftevikya ke SAP ko Sibira kan impadimak zo stakser. Sina ( Maria Spiridonova is Maria Ckolnik is Anastasya Bitsenko is Aleksandra Izmaylovitc is Rebekka Fialka is Lidya Ezerskaya ) gu cesterkateva ) bam zo dayoltad. Viafa koyara kal xalta ke Nertcinsk poke siniafa jowa va tanoy aksat tiskir. Koe kota recela luntafi tari mu lanzanik exaksar.

Bak balemeaksat ke 1911, 28 daginikya don Spiridonova ko Akatuy dimon zo arbured lize gropeem al loeke tuolgawer. Re gonokobad.

Andik ke SAP

Pakera va artowara

Spiridonova, flikirafa gu Tawadayaf Arienteem

Moi Artowara ke Toleaksat ke 1917, jadifa emnagara va ina is arak ke gaderopaf daginik gu Akatuy divflintar.

Mali dimlapira ko Moskva az Sankt Peterburg, ina va tegira ke Seltevafo Artowaso Pako gire pakeper. Va exonera va soviet pirdot vanmia tawadayikeem dere weber.

Moi Artowara ke Saneaksat, Spiridonova va taltefa grelta ke pako kazokever, aneyason va grufa is purafa dokobara va Bolcevik gadesikeem, is tazukatason va tanarafe bowere. Wetce kaatoesik ke intafo pako, va blodaf play ta tawadayafa arienta kereler ise tir tan riaf zobesik va Lenin ta kevnalera va figaf kredeem ke Brest-Litovsk bioga do Germana. Inafa tirka tir lekapafa koe pako. Bak taneaksat ke 1918 tir retik ta gadesikeba ke Tadlesa Koka voxe me di zo libur. Ison mila koka gan bolcevik roti waroldon zo solelar.

Exura va Bolcevik bolk

Rekolanya wal Spiridonova is taltefa grelta ke SAP do Bolcevik roti abiceje tiskir. Mali imwugal ke 1918, taruteteson va aelakolacek koe loa widava skapon atitsuyusa, sayakafa taksa zo tazukad aze ko tawaday va zaipa poason toz kucilodad. Fikafa Bolcevik gaderopa abicdoe lustesa va zaipa is ramirukap ke olgapafa skapafa is tawavofa kaxaara pu Germana, va adre laumasa tsunera ke tawadayafa sanelia nekid. Wetce blodik ke tawadayafa arienta, Spiridonova va tuastirbara va copuca ke tawadayikeem koe patecta jiligapar. Tanara wal taltefa grelta ke SAP is bolcevik pako kadar kevlafa icde enekeugal ke Artowara numen sin toz grabapad.

Bak pereaksat ke 1917, Lenin is Bolcevik roti va adjubera va Mirbach germanaf permik orkad numen okilikeem ke taltefa grelta ke SAP don Spiridonova is 400 dastrubenik ke Sovietafa Aba koe Moskva zo koflintad. Sedme konaka klita, lo 200 bewik waroldon flioton nuve zo klibuyud.

Moi flintafa tiskira bak konak aksat, Spiridonova ba 27/11/1918 birgoton zo malyer. Gu flintafa tanda zo lanza voxen gakera direvielon zo emnagar.

Warzafa koflintara

« Ke kot kevusik va bolcevik bolk jinon kakeveyen, Maria Spiridonova tir tel loeke woeyes kir tan lopuraf is lomilbavakiraf is lobuives. Inaf gradilaf gelkeugal is vewara va rotplekura va artowas rieteem bal gindugal lidam bolcevik vertuma, tiyid ozeracka va inafa artowasa jabuduca. »

— Emma Goldman malyedas va Maria Spiridonova koe « My Disillusionment in Russia », 1923

Spiridonova bam vanpir puda ke mulafa grelta ke SAP, dimfolison va kota vandelvejara do « doevafa » vertuma, nume sanegon ranker da bowere nope intafa gaderopa isu tegireem va Artowara relmer. Soe va pastara ko eaftevafa tegira ke lan pak ke sayudasikeem kevvewar.

Bak taneaksat ke 1919 moi sanegafa dewitca kevusa va doevikafe bowere, Spiridonova gan Tceka ardial zo soper. Ba 24/02/1919 gire zo malyer, tulon koridanon gan Nikolay Buxarin. Zo buntur da co tir swavakolesik ise dratcesik va selt. Gu tanda koe oviskikafe ropexe zo lanzar.

Ba 02/04/1919, sayudasik ke SAP va ina lajudivflintad. Azon ina koe Moskva wetce tawadayikya yoltkirafa gu Onufriyeva birgoton blir. Voxen arti 19 aksat ba 26/10/1920 gire zo soper. Inafa galera ligundewer. Gu oviskikaf flint gire zo kobuder.

Ba 18/11/1921 zo tunuyar. Va kota gaderopafa tegira ten askir.

Brazara az xonukera az konolera

Nekev intafa jovlera va tegisa gaderopa, ba 16/05/1926 gire zo soper. Gu barda ke ristulafa divblira zo lanzar azen bata gakera konakviele zo dakir. Va arak ke 1920-e sanda koe Kaluga ( 1923-1925 ) az Samarkand ( 1925-1928 ) az Tackent ( 1928-1930 ) tiskir. Azon bak 1930, warzafa bardafa lanzara koe Ufa ( az toloya abdujijara ). Bak kotaf divblirugal, do savsafa xaltafa dositikya Aleksandra Izmaylovitc blir. Isti 1920-e sanda, va Ilya Andreyevitc Mayorov ronoyerumar, i va savsaf gadesik ke taltefa grelta ke SAT dere divbliyin.

Naboxaxe mu kosikeem ke Stalinugal renzayane bak 1990 koe Medvedevski aalxo

Bak 1937 Spiridonova ware gire zo soper, keni konakar savsaf palik ke pako don yerumanik is sardafe ikanazbeikye is megalucafe ikagadikye is Aleksandra Izmaylovitc is Irina Kaxovskaya. Inafa lospa gu voltirodafa urbera va doevikafi roti ke Backira gola zo koridar. Spiridonova va konaka udutafa koerura remi konak aksat koe Ufa is Moskva levgar. Va mecoba welidar. Va konaka twa kalaklesa va koridareem pu rictaga maner. Ta tunera va xonukagakera skeuson tulon alutar.

Ba 07/01/1938 gu koflintara vas 25 tanda gan sayakaf erkey ke Ilamaf Tregul tere zo lanzar. Kaiki aelyastera, ko flint ke Oryol zo stakser. Ba 11/09/1941, Spiridonova is Izmaylovitc is Mayorov is lo 150 ar gaderopaf flintik koe Medvedevski aalxo poke Oryol benplekuyunon gan Stalin zo klibud.

Vuestexeem

  • (en) Sally A. Boniece, The Spiridonova Case, 1906: Terror, Myth and Martyrdom, koe Anthony Anemone (ed.), Just Assassins: The Culture of Terrorism in Russia. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2010, pp. 127-151. ISBN 978-0810126923
  • (en) Sally A. Boniece, The Shesterka of 1905-06: Terrorist Heroines of Revolutionary Russia. Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, New Series, Vol. 58, 2, 2010, pp. 172-191
  • (en) Anna Geifman, Thou shalt kill: revolutionary terrorism in Russia, 1894-1917, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1993, ISBN 0-691-02549-5
  • (en) Margaret Maxwell, Narodniki women: Russian women who sacrificed themselves for the dream of freedom, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1990. ISBN 0-08-037461-1
  • (en) Alexander Rabinowitch. Maria Spiridonova's «Last Testament», Russian Review, Vol. 54, N°3, 07/1995, pp. 424–446
  • (en) Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks in power: the first year of Soviet rule in Petrograd, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-253-34943-9
  • (en) Alexander Rabinowitch, Spiridonova, koe Edward Acton, Vladimir Iu. Cherniaev, and William G. Rosenberg (ed.), Critical Companion to the Russian Revolution, 1914-1921. Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-253-33333-4
  • (en) Isaac Nachman Steinberg, Spiridonova: Revolutionary Terrorist. London: Methuen, 1935

Maria Spiridonova

Maria Spiridonova

 Koblira  16/10/1884,
 Tambov, Rossia
 Awalkera  11/09/1941,
 Medvedevski aalxo poke Oryol, Rossia
 Vedeyot  Rossia
 Tegira  Bilmas artowasik azu gaderopaf
  Bifa 
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Rossiafa artowasikya

Varvara AleksandrovaMaria AnaninaNatalya ArmfeldAlyona ArzamaskayaSofia BardinaFanya BaronEkaterina BartenevaVarvara BatyuckovaAnastasya BitsenkoSofia BogomoletsAnisya BolotinaEkaterina Brecko-BreckovskayaMaria CkolnikLidya EzerskayaRebekka FialkaLidya FignerVera FignerYevgenya FignerGesya GelfmanEmma GoldmanXristina GrinbergRaisa GrossmanSofia Ivanova-BoreycoAleksandra IvanovskayaEvdokia IvanovskayaPraskovya IvanovskayaAleksandra IzmaylovitcMaria KalyujnayaFanni KaplanNatalya KlimovaNatalya Kogan-BernsteinZinaida KonoplyannikovaMaria KovalevskayaElizaveta KovalskayaYulya KrukovskayaMaria KutitonskayaTatyana LebedevaSofia LeschernOlga LyubatovitcVera LyubatovitcFani MoreinisMaria NikiforovaSofia PerovskayaAnna Pribilyova-KorbaAnna RasputinaYevgenya RatnerNeonila SalovaNadejda SigidaNadejda SmirnitskayaMaria SpiridonovaMaria SubbotinaNadejda SubbotinaYevgenya SubbotinaOlga TaratutaLyudmila TerentyevaAnna ToporkovaMaria VetrovaLyudmila VolkensteinAleksandra XorjevskayaAnna YakimovaVera Zasulitc