Wp/avk/Levetiruca koe Rossia

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Levetiruca koe Rossia

Xanta ke levetiruca koe Rossia tid mali Rusa ke Kyiv bak XI-eafa decemda. Rokopaf valdig ke bate sare, tulon Ruskaya Pravda, va konaka eka ke jiomafa ruptesuca ke tawadayikeem walgruped. Levetiruca bak XVI-eafa decemda soe tujadiaweyer : gan mwa ke 1649 zo ziliyar aze bak 1861 zo tuneyer.

Izva[edit]

Xanta[edit]

Xanteem ke levetiruca koe Rossia tid male XI-eafa decemda, voxen banugale ant pak ke tawadayikeem gan levetiruca ton ravalduga dum zalup ok xolop zo vanolar.

Wali XIII-eafa decemda isu XV-eafa, jiomafa ruptesuca va logijafa tawadayikafa ota zo rewar, voxen levetiruca men tiyir jadifa ra. Isti XV-eafa decemda, lana tawadayikafa loma gu betara va jiomik bak saftafa rekolama voki 26-e ke san-taneaksat zo korictad, i voki viel ke Georgi tumtikye.

Tanu bu ke Sudyebnik rokak

Sudyebnik rokak ke Gijaf Ivan III, sutelayan bak 1497, va bata edja winugon gruyeyer ise den kotafa patecta tujadiayar nume va ruptesuca ke tawadayikeem tupoayar ise va inafa lanisa nuyuca sulayar. Kopoura va bulura va jiomik tove tawadayik gan kexi ke 1597 zo inkeyer, i gan kexi dere tentusi va roka ta vebidura is onkara va otces tawadayik.

Lan oluik va batyona edja onkatason va intyon otces levetirik malsaveyed, tulon kiren oluik vagee gindaxo va otces levetirik gilemudeyed. Soe ar jiomik erutuson va divatcera va onkasa edja favigeyayad. Bak 1642 rossiafe bowere va kima vas 10 tanda ta onkara va otces levetirik exoneyer.

Taneafu bu ke Ulojenye rokak

Radimi otulara ke 1626 isu 1646-1647, Ulojenye rokak ke 1649 va kimiskafa onkara va otces levetirik noveyer. Nope bata fabdura kalirutasa va nuyafa pridura ke rossiaf tawadayik, sin cugote di zo tulevetirayad. Bak 1658 otcera ke levetirik vanpiyir gakesa juklotera. Rossiaf tawayaf pilkotik va kimiskafa digira va levetirik tere seotayad. Batkane va intyon levetirik volsu taway pu ar pilkotik ronovarbureyed kire va ilkafa digira va levetirik is inafa yasa dagiyid. Soe, pilkotik va aytara va levetirik me rokayar. Balemoya alubeaca ke rossiaf tawadayikeem sedme otulara ke 1678 isu 1719 tiyid levetirikafa ; nuyaf tawadayik valente patecta isu valentrone moekote tigiyid.

Kotoron, levetiruca koe Rossia gaveon loon dam koe aryona europafa patecta voneweyer. Savsafa levetiruca wan tiyir zolonaf kizey koe Rossia kali 1679 ik 1723 vieli levetirikaf ravaldugeem zo tutanayar, don kwafa levetiruca is tawamidusa levetiruca.

Jontika tcumivera va bata levetiruca sokiyid, loote dikisa va kazakikafa kevmadara dum tela ke Ivan Bolotnikov ( 1606-1607 ) az tela ke Stenka Razin ( 16667-1671 ) az kevmadara ke Bulavin ( 1707-1709 ) az tela ke Yemelyan Pugatcev ( 1773-1775 ). Wali Tawadayikafa Exura ( 1773-1775 ) is toza ke XIX-eafa decemda, konak decemoy exus aveg koe Rossia divlizeyed, isen meugale tawadayikeem tiyir aulaf.

Isti XIX-eafa decemda, 81.6 % ke sanelia tiyid tawadayikafa isen 9.3 % tiyid dolekikafa, isen 6.1 % tiyid sayakikafa isen 1.3 tiyid oluikafa isen 0.9 % tiyid alkikafa. Bak 1857, ke loon 62.5 celemoy irubasik ke rossiafo gindaxo, 23.1 celemoy tiyid ravaldugon gu levetirik.

Ravalduga is rokafa xuta[edit]

Abdi tunera, rossiaf rokak va toloya levetirikafa loma walgrupeyer :

  • Sokaf levetirik, dem sokaf levetirik ( kalion kadayas dodelik ke sokafe iaxe ) [1] is sayakaf levetirik ;
  • Jiomaf levetirik, dem tawayaf levetirik ( digin gan tuvodan tawayaf pilkot ) is kwaf levetirik ( pilkon digin gan jiomik ).
  • Levetirik vey mekristevafe sane gu jiomaf levetirik di zo radayad.

Balemeaf dov ke Rokak ke Rossiafo GindaxoСвод ) va seltaf puleem vertayar : i va nuyik ( oluik ) is porik ( glastik ) is dolekik is nuyaf yambudik is nuyalaf boniasik [2] is levetirik.

Jadibaskon, sokaf levetirik vuroleyed pojas va ravalduga lokiewafa dam tel sayakaf is tel jiomaf. Kwaf levetirik, jontikviele loon kotrakuyun, va pofera va yona kazafa arienta ke meronoviunsus jiomik dile mbi nafeyed ; lanban tcedepeyed maneke va int di lajudimlusteyed. Loa nuyafa yasa vey levetirikafa xanta ( Tcexov, Ulyanov, ikz- ) co tid vey man tunuyanik.

Divokseks ke rossiaf rokak[edit]

Tena ke levetiruca[edit]

Bak 1861 levetirikeem kan zabdurapa zo tunuyar. Aleksandr II gindik va levetiruca tuner.

Radimi fabdura, amu ke tawadayikeem va tawayki vas 1.2 decemiray sotre ayik mbi yofteyer, isen acku va ki vas 0.85 ik 1.14 decemiray, trabe leon dam adrafa welma ta laptesira va tanoya yasa. Batdume tawadayik va jontikari tawayki di golizukedad oke va pinarsaf taway di gojovled. Batcoba va granafa lamara di nekir.

Stragela[edit]

  • (fr) Louis Ozeas Lubliner, L'Abolition du servage en Russie. Examen critique du projet de l'empereur Alexandre II, Bruxelles, 1858
  • (ru) Knyazkov, Как сложилось и как пало крепостное право в России. 1906
  • (ru) Engelman, История крепостного права в России. М., 1900
  • (en) Boris B. Gorshkov. A Life Under Russian Serfdom: Memoirs of Savva Dmitrievich Purlevskii, 1800-68. Budapest & New York, 2005
  • (en) Boris B. Gorshkov. Serfs on the Move: Peasant Seasonal Migration in Pre-Reform Russia, 1800-61. Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History
  • (en) Boris B. Gorshkov. Serfs, Emancipation of Encyclopedia of Europe, 1789-1914 John Merriman is Jay Winter, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2006

Vuestexa[edit]

  1. Inafa otapa uldinena gu 20 celemoy olkik abdi tunuyara, fuxe kotafa sanelia vas 63 rossiafa celema, jupayar da Nikolay I gindik va eldacka odiana pu Kiselev jadiwik ta inafa pofera bak 1837 reduyur.
  2. Jadion xanton gu Germana
Levetiruca koe Rossia


Rejdera va levetirik

Levetirik bulus va savsaf felisik ba viel ke Georgi tumtikye

Dolera va levetirikya

Ukrainafa levetirikya, trutca gan Taras Cevtcenko

Sayakaf levetirik vey merossiafe sane