Wp/ami/Macedonia

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Macedonia(馬其頓)

Maciton Kapolongan Kitakit(馬其頓共和國)

Takaray Sowal(概要)

Itiraay i katimo a sakawali no Yoropa a Parkan-Pecihay- Kanatal, nano to’asan tata’ang ko kafalic, nawhani, marapotay ko 6 a kitakit no Parkan-Pecihay- Kanatal: Kirisiya(isaka’amisay a Maciton), Ka’amisay Maciton Kapolongan Kitakit,

Hata no Maciton (Flag of North Macedonia)

(Област Благоевград Sakowan), Arpaniya, Sayrwiya ato Kosofo.[1] O dadahal no pala i,67,000㎢, ira ko 376 ofad ko tamdaw.

Nani 1992 miheca mapatireng ko Maciton kitakit, sanoyaan sa o Maciton Kapolongan Kitakit( Maciton a sowal:Република Македонија,Latin a tilid:Republika Makedonija; Holam a sowal:馬其頓共和國) ko ngangan no kitakit, maparariday o「Maciton」hananay a mitahidang;nikawrira, o Maciton Kapolongan Kitakit ato Maciton Etal cowa ka lecad koninian a mitoro’an sanay ko karawraw, o Kirisiya a pikaysyaku o「Maciton」hananay i,o todongay nano rikis no Kirisiya, orasaka mifantoy(milalang) to Maciton Kapolongan Kitakit a pangangan to「Maciton」,

Kaitiran no Maciton (Europe-Republic of North Macedonia)

han a pangangan to ’Ayaway Naslafo-Maciton-Kapolongan Kitakit(Maciton a sowal:Поранешна Југословенска Република Македонија, ПЈРМ;Latin a tilid:Poranešna Jugoslovenska Republika Makedonija, PJRM ; Holam a sowal:前南斯拉夫馬其頓共和國) tahira to i 2019 miheca saka 2 foald falic han to a pangangan to「Ka’amisay Maciton」, ta lahedaw sato koya fangafang pakayni to ngangan no kitakit.

O「Maciton Etal」hananay a pala i,miso’edac to mihecaan ’ayaw no 9000 miheca iraay to ko maro’ay tamdaw itini. I’ayaway ni Yieso to saka 4 sici, o Maciton Hontian Kitakit mikowanay to to Parkan-Pecihay-Kanatal, ikor to i, saadihay sato ko kasasiromaroma a rikisi ato punka.

Fangafangan no ngangan(國名爭議)

I’ayaw ni Filip II(Philip II(Kirisiya asowal:Φίλιππος Β' ο Μακεδών; Holam a sowal:腓力二世)pasipapotal a micowat to pala, o to’asan a Maciton Hotian Kitakit itiraay i ka’etip no sasifoan a Maciton Sakowan no Kirisiya.[2]

Macedonia overview zh馬其頓地區現在分屬 :北馬其頓、 希臘及 保加利亞(而小部分屬 阿爾巴尼亞、 塞爾維亞及 科索沃)

I saka 2 sici, o kaitiraan no Maciton itiniay i aniniay a pala, nikawria, o saka’amisay no aniniay a Maciton KapolonganKitakit cowa ka ilaloma’ no「Maciton Etal」,[3] naw matini sa i, awaay ko pa’ecasan, to ikor to i sifo’ no saka 11 sici, satata’ang sato ko kafalic no kaitiraan no Maciton. Itiya i Roma Hotian Kitakit a Maciton mahaopay ko aniiay a saka’amis ato sasifo’an no Kirisiya, o saheto no Maciton Kapolongan Kitakit ato satimolan no sakawali no Arpaniya. Rahodayen ko sowal, o nipatirengan no Roma a tamdaw a milecaday ko ngangan a Maciton ikakaay ko kakadah tona Maciton Hotian Kitakit. I saikoray to no Roma a mikowan safa’elohen a mipasilsil ko kunis no kalala’edan no sakowan mala no Sikyo Etal, mahaop ko aniniay a polong no Kirisiya, ato malala’eday to Aycin-Riyar a Korito Kanatal(Kirisiya asowal:Κρήτη; Romaantilid:Kriti / Crete),satimolan no Arpaniya,pecih no Pawciyaliya ato Maciton Kapolongan Kitakit.

Itiya sato i pikowanan no Paycantin(Sa’etipay a Roma Hotian Kitakit), ono sofiaty sakowan a etal no Maciton (Kirisiya a sowal:Μακεδονία, θέμα Μακεδονίας ; Holam a sowal:馬其頓軍區) itiraay i sakawali no Stoloma ’alo(Pawciyaliya asowal:Струма;Kirisiya asowal:Στρυμόνας; Holam a sowal:斯特魯馬河) a pecih no Seloys sofitay sakowan(Kirisiya asowal:θέμα Θρᾴκης;θέμα Θρᾳκῷον; Holam a sowal:色雷斯軍區).[4] Sakasaan, tona a mihecahecaan a niosawan tilid no Paycantin, o nitoro’an a「Maciton」 latek ono sofiaty sakowan a etal no Maciton. O ronma sa i,itiya ho i saka 9 sici ato saka10 sici, o Maciton-Etal o nikowanan no Sakacecay Nicowatay Hontian Kitaki no Pawciliya, ikor to i 1018 miheca mapapolong i sofitayan a sakowan no Paycatin Nicowatay Hontian Kitakit.[5]

Tahira sato i kaleponan no saka14 sici,nornor sa ko picowat no Otoman Hontian Kitakit to katimol no sakawali no Yoropa, mapalasawd ko ngangan no「Maciton」to pinapina a sici, awa a ma’araw i cico. Ona ngangan i,itiraay i pihapinang i palapala ta masadak.[6] Iaikor tono saka 19 sici, sahapinang sato ko aniniay a konis no kalala’edan.[7] 

Pisa’osi to tamdaw(人口統計)

Itiya ho i sasifo’an ato cilaay a sici, itiniay i Parkan-Peih Kanatal a Maciton, adihay ko masasiromaromaay a finacadan a maro’ itini, ira ko Kirisiya a tamdaw, ira ko Arpaniya atamdaw, ira ko Walaci a tamdaw, ira ko Sayrwiya a tamdaw, ira ko Pawcialiya atamdaw, Yutaya atamdaw ato Torki a tamdaw.[8] Onini ko sakasaan no Maciton o kacacofelisan no masasiromaromaay a punka, o finacadan sa i,matiya to a masasiromaroma.

1.    Kirisiya a Maciton tamdaw:pakitinien i punka ato rekad o「Maciton tamdaw kami」("Macedonians",Kirisiya atilid:Μακεδόνε,Makedónes) sanay to niyah a tiring. Mahop ko 51% ko tamdaw i kapolongan, latek irako 250 ofad, sahetoay i Maciton(Kirisiya) a maro’.

2.    Maciton Finacadan(Silir a tilid:Македонци; Latin a tilid:Makedonci ; Holam a tilid:馬其頓民族), o Maciton Slafo tamdaw hananay ho a pangangan. Pakitinien i Finacadan a Ca’enot ato Palapalaan a Ca’enot o「Maciton tamdaw kami」(Maciton a sowal:Македонци,Makedonci), o saka tosa ko ka’aloman no tamdaw,o tatapangan nangra o Slafo tamdaw,「Maciton Slafo tamdaw」ato  「Salafo Maciton tamdaw」(Kirisiya atilid:Σλαβομακεδόνες,"Slavomakedones") hananay amitahidang. Do’edo’en ko 2002 miheca a pisa’osi to tamdaw, latek ira ko 130 ofad ko ka’aloman o「Maciton tamdaw kako」sanany, o sakakaay a finacadan no Maciton Kapolongan Kitakit.

3.    O Maciton tamdaw no Pawciyaliya i,o「Maciton tamdaw kako」sanany to niyah a tiring a Pawciyaliya tamdaw(Pawciyaliya a sowal:Mакедонци,Makedontsi). Sahetoay o Pawciyaliya a Maciton tamdaw, latek ira ko 37 ofad ko tamdaw, itiraay i Polakoyiefokole Sakowan a maro’.

TongCen-Ciyaw(Deesis mosaic Hagia Sophia)

4.    Arpaniya tamdaw ho ko sakakaay a finacadan itini. Itiraay i ka’amis, ka’etip a tekedan sakowan a maro’, pakaini i 2002 miheca a pisa’osi to tamdaw, mahaop ko 25.2% no kapolongan a tamdaw no Maciton Kapolongan Kitakit.

5.    O roma a mamangay a finacadan: Toci tamdaw, Posiniya tamdaw, Lomu tamdaw, Sayrwiya tamdaw, Walaci tamdaw, Aycipoto tamdaw ato Yutaya tamdaw(Sayfati Yutaya tamdaw ato Kirisiya Yutaya tamdaw) ira itini a maro’.

Pitooran (宗教)

O itiniay a tamdaw sahetoay o mitooray to TongCen-Ciyaw(Ikiris a sowal:Orthodox Catholic Church; Holam a sowal:東正教,正教會). Ira ho ko kasasiromaroma a kyokai, o Kirisiya Toncen-Ciyaw, Pawciliya Toncen-Ciyaw, Sayrwiya Toncen-Ciyaw ato Maciton Toncen-Ciyaw. O mamangay a Muslin caay ko sasawaden a minengneng: ira ko Arpaniya tamdaw, Pawciliya tamdaw Teloc no Maciton Posiniya tamdaw ato Torki Tamdaw.

Rikisi (歷史)

I ka ci Fokelohay-Mihecahecaan (新石器時代)[9]

i'ayaway to 80 ko ofad ko mihecaan (skull covered by stalagmite)

Itiya ho Fokelohay Mihecahecaan(Ikiris a sowal:Paleolithic age)iraay to ko tamdaw a maro’ itini sanaay ko pipawacay, miso’edac to mihecaan tahira i ’ayaw na anini to 9000 ko miheca.[10] oya Pitolalona Dihif(Kirisiya a sowal:Σπήλαιο Πετραλώνων ; Ikiris a sowal:Mount Katsika; Holam a sowal: 紅石山洞) makera ko i'ayaway to 80 ko ofad ko mihecaan a malafokelohay to a fongoh no tamdaw.

O ‘orip no tamdaw i,iraay to ko loma’ sa mahinakeray to ko kamaro’, o maomahay ko tayal, mipaloma to moki, kalitang, mipakaen to siri, kolong ato diyong, pasasa sanany to ko pi’adop.

Iraay to ko lisin itiya, o sapawacay i, Pulomahenas-Topolnika(Topolnica) a nalacolan, mihafalatay to ka’amis no Sayloy a Kirisiya pala-kalala’edan no Pawciyaliya.

To’asan Maciton(古馬其頓)

O to’as no Maciton itiyay ho i ’ayaway ni Yieso to 500 miheca tahira i 146 miheca, itini tona palapalaan makalitolo no Maciton, Ililiya ato Seloys, na ira ko Piawniya, Taerniya, Maciton ato Pilakongniya sepat a hontian kitakit.

Ililian a tamdaw (IllyrianKingorNoble)

I’ayaw no kairaan no Maciton, itini isakatimol a pala iraay ko niyaro’ no Pucili a tamdaw,[11] i sak’etip (Fafa’eday aMaciton) iraay kono Maciton tamdaw ato Iliiya tamdaw niyaro’aro’, yo malalood ko Maciton tamdaw ato Iliiya tamdaw, latek malacafayay a maro’ ko Pucili a tamdaw ato Maciton a tamdaw.[12]

I to’asan ho no Kirisiya a mihecaan, o sa’ayaway a mi’ecoan no Piawniya Hontian Kitakit(Ikiris a sowal:Paeonia; Holam a sowal:培奧尼亞王國) i, o polong no lilis no Wata ’Alo(Maciton a sowal: Вардар; Kirisiya a sowal:Αξιός; Holam a sowal:發達河) ato taliyokay a pala, mahaop ko aniniay asaka’amis no Kirisiya-Maciton, polong no Maciton Kapolongan Kitakit, ato mamang a pecih no Pawciyaliya.[13]

Itiya sato i kalaloodan no Posi ato Kirisiya-Niyaroan-Kitakit(’ayaw ni Yieso 499 miheca tayhira 449 miheca) malamicongaconga no Posi a tamdaw ko Maciton Hotian Kitakit, nikawrira, i Pulatiya Lalood(Battle of Plataea;普拉提亞戰役)pakalowid a misiiked ko Maciton. Itira i kalagontian ni Filip II(Philip II; Kirisiya asowal:Φίλιππος Β' ο Μακεδών; Holam a sowal:腓力二世) , saharakat sato ko kacemahad a micowat to romaroma a pala, polong han ningra ko Maciton mala no niyah a pala. Tahira to i kalahontian ni Alisanta, mapatemak ko Punka ato Harateng no Kirisaya tayra Ngataay-Sawalian( the Middle East ), naikoran ni Alisanta maliposak to ko kitakit, pakoniyah sato ko tapang no sofitay a patireng to kitakit, ora sa Maciton ma’afas ni Katasan(Kirisiya a sowal:Κάσσανδρος; Holam a sowal:卡山德). Talacowaan matiya to ko kaci’icel no Maciton Hontian Kitakit, o ’icel no sakowan to Seloys-Ililian Etal nornor sanay to a malahedaw. Itini tona mihecahecaan, mipecoh ko Kawlu-Tamdaw i Parkan-Pecih-Kanatal, malowid ni Katasan Honti ato Antiko(Antigonus II Gonatas), cowa ka samaamaan ko Maciton Kitakit.[14]

Roma a mihecahecaan (羅馬時期)

’Iayaw NI Yiesoan miheca to tosa sici(200 so’ot miheca) malowid no Roma ko pikowan no Maciton ton apala. I kalahontian ni Fili saka 5(Kirisiya a sowal:Φίλιππος Ε; 腓力五世. ’iayaw ni Yieso238miheca-179miheca)kinatosa a malalood ato Roma. I saka cecay a lalood(’iayaway 215-’iayaway 205 miheca) pakalowid ko Maciton to Roma,nikawrira, i saka tosa a lalood (’iayaway 200-’iayaway 197 miheca) malowid no Roma ko Maciton. Itira to i sakatolo a lalood(’iayaway 171-’iayaway 168 miheca) malowid ko Maciton, na onian ko saka tekop no Hotian Kitakit. Ikor tona katekop no kitakit kalasepaten a mipecih malamicongcongay no Roma, saikoray to i ’ayaway 146 miheca papolong han to no Roma malasakowan no Micowatay Hontian Kitakit.[15] Sanoyanan sato a matenak ko sowal no Latin i Parkan-Pecihay-Kanatal.

Yo matekop sato ko Roma-Cowatay-Hontian-Kitakit i 298 miheca, oya no Maciton a mikowanay mala Paycantic-Nicowaty-Hontian-Kitakit. Ci’icelay ko sofitay nona Hotian Kitakit, nikawrira, cilacila ira ko piparawraw no Salafo Finacadan, halafin tato konikafodfod itini ton apala, sa tata’ang konikafalic no punka ato tamdaw, mapapolng tono Slafo ko Maciton.

Mitiya sato mahineknek to ko ’aro no Slafo a Finacadan i salawacan no niyaro’ ato kalala’edan no kitakit, o「Sklaviniai」hananay no mikakinkiway a pangangan congra.

Itiya i pikowanan ni Cinstans saka 2 (Kirisiya a sowal:Ιουστινιανός Β' ο Ρινότμητος;Holam a sowal:君士坦斯二世)honti no Sa’etipay-Roma Hontian Kitakit, laplapen a miforaw ko Slafo a tamdaw tayra i Sifo’an no Mamangay Aciya(Ikiris a sowal:Anatolia; Torki a sowal:Anadolu; Kirisiya a sowal:ανατολή ;Holam a sowal:安納托利亞), maforaw a tayni ko Slafo a tamdaw pasitira sato a mingodo to sakowan ’icel no Paycantin Hongti. Ikor to no saka 7 sici, miliyaw heca ci Cinstans saka 2 Honti a mipecoh to niyaro’ no Slafo, patirengen ningra i Saysaloniki ko 「Seloy-Sakowan no Sofitay」. Itiya sato to pinokayan ningra, ma’adapaw no Slafo-Pawcial tamdaw, ’aloman ko mapatayay no sofitay, ma’afas ho ko adihayay a sapanocay, onini ko sakapisawad a malahonti.[16]

misanga'ay to Silil Tilid(Cyril-methodius-small)

Tahira to i ikor no saka 8 sici, linahan to ko sakowan no sofitay pasitimol i ngata no Aycin-Riyar, lowanen ko mamang no Seloy ato Kirisya a sakowan no sofitay a papapolong a malafa’elohay a「Maciton Sakowan no Sofitay」, miliyasay to aniniay a Maciton ko kaitiran nona Sakowan.

Sifo’an Sici (中世紀)

Itiya ho i 836 miheca anoca itira i 837 mihea, awaay to i kirok(nitilidan) no Paycantin ko Salafo a Finacadan, naw hanni masolotay to no micowatay a Sakacecay-Hontian Kitakit no Pawciyaliya. I 837 miheca, mapolong no Sakacecay-Hontian Kitakit no Pawciyaliya ko pinapina apecih no Maciton Etal, malaliyaw ko ’icel no Slafo tamdaw itini tona Hontian-Kitakit no Pawciyaliya. Itiniya i 860 miheca, ira ko nani  Saysaloniki a Paycantin-Kirisiya tamdaw: o Silil ato Mitote(Kirisiya a sowal:Κύριλλος καὶ Μεθόδιος ; Holam a sowal:西里爾與美多德) a malikakaay,o cinganganay to kainaneng a patenak to sowal no Kawas, sanga’en nangra a malikaka ko sarakatay a tilid no Slafo(sa’aya’ayaw o sapikirok to Katelangay Kyokai no Slafo), sapangangan han cangra o Niocoran no Slafo. I 885 miheca , o「sarakatay a pasowalay tono Pawciyaliya a sowal a Tata’angay Sikyo」a Fangcalay Tamdaw ci Sie-Awhelito itini i Awhelito Etal(aniniay a Maciton Kapolongan Kitakit) a maro’, sa malakahiceraan no pitooran kona pala.

I ikor no saka 10 sici, o Honti no Paycantin ci Yohani saka1(Kirisiya asowal:Ιωάννης A' Τσιμισκής; Holam a sowal:約翰一世·齊米斯基斯) itira i kalaloodan no Las-Paycantin(970-971) cowaten ningra ko Pawciyaliya, malaliyoc to ko kahiceraan no Sakacecay-Hontian Kitakit no Pawciyaliya pasitira to i Maciton Kapolongan Kitakit.

Sofitay no Ciwcika mitekop to Cinstancin(Eugène Ferdinand Victor Delacroix 012)

Nani 12 sici satapang a macowat no Sayrwiya Hontian Kitakit ko Maciton Etal, i 13 sici iikor to no sakasepat a pilood no Sofitay no Ciwcika(The Crusades;十字軍), matekop ko satata’angay o cinganganay a tokai Cinstancin (Kirisiya asowal:Κωνσταντινούπολις Κωνσταντινούπολη; Latin a sowal:Constantinopolis ; Ikiris a sowal:Constantinople;Holam a sowal:君士坦丁堡 )[1] no Kristo. Noyanan to i,cifangafang ko Paycantin-Kirisiya tamdaw, Salonika-Hontian Kitakit ato Pawciyaliya Sakatosa Micowatay-Hotinan Kitakit to hano nima ko Maciton sanay a kacacoli. Nawhani, o sakatimol no Maciton o nipa’adingan no IpiplosTekedan-Pikowan Kitakit(Kirisiya asowal:Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων; Holam a sowal:伊庇魯斯專制國); o saka’amisay pala no Maciton o Pawciyaliya ko mikowanay. Tahira to i ikor no 1261 miheca nga’ papolong han to o Paycantin a mikowan ko Maciton. 

Itiya sato i saka14 sici, malowid no Awtoman Micowatay-Hontian Kitakit ko adihay ko mitekopan a kitakit, ira ko Sayrwiya, Pawciyaliya ato Kirisiya, nornor sato ko sapi’ecoaw to Parkan-Pecihay-Kanatal. I 1371 miheca, pakalowid ko Awtoman i Matolica Lalood i, o saheto no Maciton malamicongacongay a kitakit, tahira to i 14 sici haemin han to polongen koya Maciton Kitakit. Nano inian to ikor to 500 ko miheca sahetoay mamamikowanan no Awtoman Micowatay-Hontian Kitakit ko mikowanay to Maciton. 

Kacemahadan (復興)

I 19 sici, o Kirisiya, Sayrwiya ato Pawciyaliya a tolo kitakit micoroh to miliyaw a palowad to kitakit sanay a demak,ira ko pipacoli to itiraay i Yoropa a pala no Awtoman Micowatay-Hontian Kitakit (nisapinangan a「Maciton」), onini ko lalengatan no malatosa ko kasarekad i ikor no 19 sici ato isatapangan no 20 sici. Itini tona tosay a kasarekad, o sakakaay o Pawciyaliya-Maciton Mipalolo Iinkai(Pawciliya a sowal:Вътрешна македонска революционна организация;Decdec:ВМРО; Maciton a sowal:Внатрешна Македонска Револуционерна Организација, Decdec:ВМРО;Holam a sowal:馬其頓內部革命組織), i 1903 miheca keriden ni Kocai-Torciefo( Pawciyaliya/Maciton :Bulgarian/Macedonian: Георги/Ѓорѓи Николов Делчев ; Holama sowal:戈采·德爾切夫) ona Rekad i,itira i Ilinteng Etal (Општина Илинден;伊林登區) o romi’ad no Pali’ayaway ci Iliya a mi’inger to sapialaaw to Niyah-Pikowan anaca o sapisiikedaw a patireng tona niyah a kitakit.

Parkan-Lalood(第一次、第二次巴爾幹戰爭)

I satapangan no 20 sici, ira ko Sakacecay a Parkan-Lalood(1912-10-8~1913-5-30), Sakatosa a Parkan-Lalood(1913-6-29~8-10), na malepon kona lalood makinatolo a mapapecih ko Maciton, o Kirisiya Hontian Kitakit, Inacilaay Sayrwiya Hontian Kitakit, ato Inacilaay Pawciyaliya Hontian Kitakit, oya kalala’edan nona toloaay a kitakit i, tado han to no Kirisiya-Maciton, Ka’amisay-Maciton ato Pawciyali-Maciton a kalala’edan.

Malaheci ko Sakatosa Lalood no tahepoan no Kakarayan tahira 1949 miheca ko Lalomaay-Lalood no Kirisiya. 1963 miheca Nanslafo Kapolongan-Kitakit mafalic kongangan to「Nanslafo-Syakaisyuki-Kapolongan-Kitakit」, oya ilalomaay a Maciton itira to i 1991 miheca a mala Misiikeday Kitakit.

Na pisiikedan ira ko 17 miheca a cifangafang to ngangan no kitakit,ano「Maciton」hannaca a pangangan caay ka tatodong, awaay ko mihaiay,mihantay ko Kirisiya. Tahira sato i 2018 miheca saka 6 folad,o「Ka’amisay Maciton」han to a milaheci mifalic,[18] malaheci to ko pisanga’ to rikec ona tosa a kitakit, i 2019 miheca saka 2 folad laheci sato ko pangangan.

To cila to a miheca saka 3 folad o「Ka’amisay Maciton」ko ngangan a mikapot to Saka’amisay- Riyaran a Kakaketonan Lekatep(North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO), mihai to ko Licikay no Yoropa(Council of Europe:歐洲理事會) a masasowal to sapikapotaw i Yoropa-Lekatep(European Union, EU;歐洲聯盟).

Tahapinangan a Tilid (參考文獻)


[1]科索沃是一個在科索沃共和國與塞爾維亞共和國之間的爭議領土。科索沃已於2008年單方面宣布獨立並成立了科索沃共和國,但塞爾維亞仍堅持認為科索沃是其主權領土的一個自治區。聯合國193個成員國中有113個已承認科索沃的獨立地位。

[2] The Ancient Greeks: New Perspectives, Stephanie Lynn Budin, ABC-CLIO, 2004, ISBN 1576078140, p. 12. (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)

[3] Entangled Histories of the Balkans: Volume One, Roumen Daskalov, Tchavdar Marinov, BRILL, 2013, ISBN 900425076X, pp. 278-279.

[4] Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Macedonia, Dimitar Bechev, Scarecrow Press, 2009, ISBN 0810862956, p. Iii (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館).

[5] Contested Ethnic Identity: The Case of Macedonian Immigrants in Toronto, 1900-1996, Chris Kostov, Peter Lang, 2010, ISBN 3034301960, p. 48. (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)

[6] Oxford Handbook of the History of Nationalism, John Breuilly, Oxford University Press, 2013, ISBN 0199209197, p. 192. (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)

[7] Collective Memory, National Identity, and Ethnic Conflict: Greece, Bulgaria, and the Macedonian Question, Victor Roudometof, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, ISBN 0275976483, p. 89 (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館).

[8] "Macedonia Redux", Eugene N. Borza, The Eye Expanded: Life and the Arts in Greco-Roman Antiquity.

[9] O pisetek to mihecaan i ’ayaw no 260 ofad anoca 250 ofad ko miheca nani anini.

[10] R.J. Rodden and K.A. Wardle, Nea Nikomedia: The Excavation of an Early Neolithic Village in Northern Greece 1961–1964, Vol I, The Excavation and the Ceramic Assemblage, British School at Athens Supplementary Volume 25, 1996

[11] Thucydides. The Peloponnesian War,2.99.

[12] Borza, Eugene N. In the Shadow of Olympus: the Emergence of Macedon. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1990, ISBN 0-691-00880-9, p. 65. "There is no record of conflict between the Bryges and the local population; they are described as synoikoi ("fellow inhabitant" or neighbors) of the Macedonians."

[13] Encyclopædia Britannica online – Paeonia. [2016-04-28]. (原始內容存檔於2008-04-18)

[14] The Celts. A history. Daithi O Hogain. Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-923-0

[15] 本條目出自公有領域:Chisholm, Hugh (編). Andriscus. 大英百科全書 1 (11th ed.). 劍橋大學出版社. 1911.

[16] The Early Medieval Balkans. John Fine. Page 71:

[17] Nicolle, David. The Fourth Crusade 1202–04 – the Betrayal of Byzantium. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd. 2011: 15. ISBN 978-1-84908-319-5. O telang a ngangan no syoto no Torki Istanpaw.

[18] “マケドニア、国名変更でギリシャと合意 「北マケドニア」に”. AFPBB News. フランス通信社. (2018年6月13日) 2018年6月13日閲覧



Itini i 41 50 N, 22 00 E, noYoropi ko Macedonia. Polong no sekalay i 25,713 sq km “saka 150 ko rayray no ngangan. ” “O sekalay no sera i, 25,433 sq km, no nanom a sekalay i, 280 sq km ” Polong i 2,100,025 ko tamdaw.

sera(土地) Masakilac ko sera o malo kakaomahen(農業) a sera 44.30%, Malo no kilakilangan(林業) a sera 39.80%, malo no roma to a sera 15.90%.

siyoto(首都) O [[[Skopje]](史高比耶) ko Siyoto.

katomirengan no kitakit a romi’ad(國家紀念日) Pihiratengan no kitakit a romi’ad i sakasiwa 8 a romi’ad.

O Sawara’an no kitakit(國家) anini i ci Gjorge Ivanov(格奧爾基·伊萬諾夫), patirengan a romi’ad i 2009 a miheca(年) saka 5 folad saka 12 a romi’ad.

Pi’arawan to lakaw