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Botswana(波札那)

Pocana Kapolongan Kitakit(波札那共和國)

Takaray a sowal(概要)

Pocana Kapolongan Kitakit(Ikiris a sowal:Republic of Botswana; Pocana a sowal:Lefatshe la Botswana; Holam a sowal:波札那共和國), o Pocana hananay kalopitahidang(Botswana;波札那). Itiraay i satimolan no Afrika a ilalomaay no karopaw a kitakit.

O hata no kitakit (Flag of Botswana

O polong no Pocana Kapolongan Kitakit Sahetoay o ma’icangay a taporo ko faco no sera,isakatimol malafiyaw ato Katimolay-Afrika Kitaktit(Ikirisa a sowal:Republic of South Africa), isakawali o Namipiya a kitakit(Ikiris a sowal:Republic of Namibia), isaka’atip no sakwali malala’ed ato Sinpawi(Ikiris a sowal:Republic of Zimbabwe), isak’amis o kalala’edan ato Canpiya kitakit (Ikiris a sowal:Republic of Zambia) i Witoliya-Cascas.

Itiya i 1966 miheca a miliyas to Ikiris a misaimed ptireng to niyahpikowan a kitakit,sanoyaan sa awa ko masamaamaanay a fangafang no kitakit, ma’osaw ko Nicowatan-Sakowan a demak no kitakit to sieci, no paysoan a faco, adihay ko Taiya(Diamond) a tadamaanay a fokeloh itini, orasaka, o sanga’ayay a pili’etanan kona kitakit to Taiya; itini i Afrika o masowalay to ka nga’ay no paitekedan no kalotamdaw, no sinpon a paiteked ato niyah a paiteed to dafong.[1]

Kaitiraan(地理位置)

Itini i 22 00 S, 24 00 E, noAfilika ko Botswana. Polong no sekalay i 581,730 sq km “saka 48 ko rayray no ngangan. O

Kaitiraan (Location Botswana AU Africa)

no sera i, 566,730 sq km, no nanom a sekalay i, 15,000 sq km .Polong i 2,209,208 ko tamdaw.

siyoto(首都)O Kaporni(Gaborone;嘉柏隆里) ko Siyoto.katomirengan no kitakit a romi’ad(國家紀念日):Pihiratengan no kitakit a romi’ad i sakasiwa 30 a romi’ad.O Sawara’an no kitakit anini i ci Ian Khama(伊恩·卡馬), patirengan a romi’ad i 2008 a miheca saka 4 folad saka 1 a romi’ad.

Rikisi (歷史)

O lalengawan no to’as i,ira ko pipawacay i saka 3 sici tahira i saka 6 sici, i Pocana a palapalaan maro’ay to ko Panto a tamdaw,13~14 sici,maforaw a tayni ko Cewana a tamdaw. Itiya i 1885 mihecaan, lacemcem to sapicowataw no satimolan a fiyaw o Katimolay Afrika a Poer-Tamdaw(Ikiris a sowal:Boer), tahidang han ko Ikiris mipatireng to「Picuwana Nipa’adingan Kitakit」

Poer-Tamdaw(Boerfamily1886)

(Bechuanaland Protectorate;BP. Holam a sowal:貝專納保護國) ,mala o cecay a pecih no Kapolongan Hontian Kitakit no Ikiris.

I 1966 miheca saka 9 folad saka 30 romi’ad malaheci ko piliyas to Ikiris a Misiiked-Pikowan,oya katelang a ngangan「Picuwana Nipa’adingan Kitakit」falicen to Pocana Kapolongan Kitakit(波札那共和國), midemak to Finawlan-Sici, misafaloco’ay to sakarihaday no polong a tamdaw.

Patahtah to tadaaanay fokeloh, mangaled ko tayamonto, mahaop ko 80% no nipasadakan a paliway no polong no dafong no kitakit, onini ko sakacemahad no Pocana Kapolongan Kitakit itini i Afrika. O roma sato i,na misa’icel to pisawidang to romaroma a kitakit, sa mapatireng ko pa’adingay to ’a’adopen a Koin, o pisalaan no lafang(Ikiris a sowal:Tourism; Holam a sowal:旅遊或旅遊業) onini ko saka’aloman   no lafang a tayni palafang.

O Syoto no Pocana Kapolongan Kitakit i, o Ciapolonli(Gaborone), i 2011 mihecaan a sa’osi ira ko 231,626 tamdaw, iitiraay i sakatimol a kasalaed, itiya ho i saka 19 sici ira a makarkar ko tadafokeloh onini ko lalengatan a mala sakakaay niyaro’.  

 Sieci(政治)

Itini i Afrika-Karopaw o samatelangay a kitakit to midemakay to Finawlan-Sieci ko .

Aniniay contong Mokuyci-Masisi (E.K. Masisi, President of the Republic of Botswana)

 Pocana Kapolongan Kitakit, o Tatapangan-Rikec no Kitakit tora Kinpo hananay i,o hadado’edoen a mikowan to tayal no kitakit a rikec, ato sapipa’ading to salongoc no tamdaw no Pocana. O faco no sieci i,midemakay to Adihayay-Centang(多黨制) a kapolongan kitakit, o congtong i, o Sarawa’an no kitakit ato Kakeridan no sifo, o no Kitakit-Pikaikian ko mamikantok to tayal no sifo. Nikawrira, o sifo to, o Kitakit-Pikaikian to iraay ko ‘icel no sakowan a misanga’ to rikec.

Inacilaay a saka 11 riyad a pisinkiw i, itiraay i 2019 miheca saka 10 folad saka 23 romi’ad, nani pisiikedan oyanan to o Pocana Kapolongan-Centang( Ikiris a sowal:Botswana Democratic Party, decdec:BDP; Holam a sowal:波札那民主黨)ko mikomoday.

I’ayaway a contong ci Ien-Kama(Ian Khama;伊恩·卡馬) i 2008 miheca saka 4 folad satapang a malacontong, 2014 miheca saka 10 folad miliyaw heca a malacontong. O aniniay i ci Mokuyci-Masisi(Ikiris a sowal:Mokgweetsi Masisi; Holam a sowal:莫貴茨·馬西西), i 2015 miheca saka 7 folad maala no sinkiw malakakeridan no Pocana Kapolongan-Centang, 2017 miheca saka 7 folad miliyaw heca a pakaala to sinkiw a palalid mala kakeridan, 2018 miheca saka 4 folad maala to sinkiw malacontong, mala sakakaay kakeridan no Pocana Kapolongan-Centang.

I 2012 miheca a Finawlan ko Pi’arawan a Sa’osi(Democracy Index;民主指數), itini i 167 ko kitakit i saka 30 ko rayray. Do’edo’edoen ko pisahapinang no《Kanasal no kalokitakit Saopo》(Ikiris a sowal:Transparency International)a piciwsa to Pocana Kapolongan Kitakit o sacaayay ka ’engid ko sifo, miingiday to Potawya ato Hanko ko rayray.

Kaitiraan (地理位置)

O kakahad no pala no Pocana Kapolongan Kitakit i,ira ko 581,730㎢, saka 48 ko rayray i polong a kitakit, matiya o Matakaskar Kanatal anoca o Fransu ko kakahad no pala.

O faco no sera i,sahetoay o panahalay a dafdaf, iray ko mamang a masakefokefongay sera, o ’akawang no sera i,sahetoay itongroh no riyar 800~1100 m. I sasifo’an ato katimol no saka’etip o Kelahali Kohkoh(Ikiris a sowal:Kalahari Desert; Holam a sowal:喀拉哈里沙漠), itiraay i Masadangahay a Kelahali, o kakahad i,ira ko 900,000㎢, matahepo ko 70% a pala no Pocana Kapolongan Kitakit. Itiraay i ka’amis no saka’etip a Okawanko-Sena’sena’an(Okavango Delta; 歐卡萬哥沼澤) o sakakay a Toloay-Karimoco Kanatal i hekal, adihay ho Rengorengosan Dafdaf ato Cicinahay a Sena’sena’an, ilaloma’ o Makatikati Sena’sena’an(Makgadikgadi Pan) ko sakakahaday, matahepo ko ka’amis no Pacana Kapolongan-Kitakit. O katimol no sakawali i, o posoposongan a pala.

O sakakaay a ’alo o Linpopo ’Alo, o nirakatan no cipas nona ’alo i, o ikawaliay no Pocana a Notowani(Notwane),Ponwapisi(Bonwapitse),Mahalapi(Mahalapye),Locani(Lotsane),Motlawci(Motloutse) ato Syasi(Shashe). O Notowani a cipas i,mita’elif to Ciyapoli-Tada’ o hananom no i syotoay a tamdaw. O Ciyapi ’Alo itiraay i ka’amis, o kalala’edan no Pocana Kapolongan-Kitakit ato Namipiya. Ona Ciyawpi ’alo matatikeda ato Canpisi ’Alo i Kazungula.

Kakarayan(氣候)

O polong no Pocana Kapolongan-Kitakit sahetoay o Fa’etat-Makedalay a Rengorengosan a Kakarayan,isaka’etip i,o kohkoh ato malifataday a kohkoh ko kakarayan. O ’orad to cecay miheca nani ka’amis no sakawali ira ko 600mm nornor sa a malowan pasitira i katimol no saka’etip to 200 mm.

Kinairaira no pala(生態資源)

I Pocana Kapolongan-Kitakit adihay ko kahirahira no masamaamaan a ’a’adopen ato Rengorengos ato Kilakilang a ma’orip itini. Mahaop ko Toloay-Karimoco Kanatal ato Kalahali-Kohkoh ato Fa’etay-Etal a rengorengosan, itini tona rengorengosa ira ko siri ato roma a ’a’adopen.

Flamingko 'Ayam(Flamingos Laguna Colorada)

Isaka’amis no Pocana a Etal o kitiraan no palapalan a waco, oniian waco o karacemceman a amalahedaw. Itiraay i Ciyawpi Etal a Ciyawpi Kitakitan-Koen(Chobe National Park), o sa masaopoay kono Afrika-Co, o kakahad nona koen i,ira ko 11,000㎢, ma’edeng a mikiloma’ ko 350 kasasiroma a ’ayam.

O Ciyawpi Kitakitan-Koen ato itiraay i Toloay-Karimoco Kanatal a Nilalangan-Mi’adop a Etal o sakakaay kaolahan no palafangay. Ono pa’adingan etal mahaop ko itiraay i Sifo’ay Kalahali Pa’adingan to palapalan ’a’adopen no Kanci-Etal Kalahali Kohkoh; ira ho ko roma nipatirengan no kitkakit a koen, o Makgadikgadi Pans Kitakitan-Koen ato itiraay i sifo’ no Makgadikgadi Pans Kitakitan-Koen a Nxai Pan Kitakitan-Koen.

Ira ho kona kalotamdaw tekedan a Pa’adingan Etal, o itiraay i katatekoan no Sase- ’Alo ato Linpopo ’Alo ira ko Mashatu Game Reserve tekedan kaisya, o roma i,ingataay no Mokoloti Pala Pa’adingan Etal a tekedan a kaisya.

Ira ho Nisaromaan a Pipa’adingan, patinako han o Khama Rhino Nisaromaan a Pipa’adingan i,o kolong ko nipa’adingan,o Makgadikgadi Nisaromaan a Pipa’adingan i,o Flamingko(Phoenicopteridae;紅鶴) ’Ayam koni pa’adingan.

Ona tosa a Nisaromaan a Pipa’adingan i,itiraay i sasifo’an no Pocana Kapolongan-Kitakit.

Kicai (經濟)

I 1966 miheca saka 9 folad saka 30 romi’ad malaheci ko piliyas to Ikiris a Misiiked-Pikowan,oya katelang a ngangan「Picuwana Nipa’adingan Kitakit」falicen to Pocana Kapolongan Kitakit(波札那共和國), midemak to Finawlan-Sici, misafaloco’ay to sakarihaday no polong a tamdaw.

Patahtah to tadaaanay fokeloh, mangaled ko tayamonto, mahaop ko 80% no nipasadakan a paliway no polong no dafong no kitakit, onini ko sakacemahad no Pocana Kapolongan Kitakit itini i Afrika. O roma sato i,na misa’icel to pisawidang to romaroma a kitakit, sa mapatireng ko pa’adingay to ’a’adopen a Koin, o pisalaan no lafang(Ikiris a sowal:Tourism; Holam a sowal:旅遊或旅遊業) onini ko saka’aloman no lafang a tayni palafang.

Nani Pisiikedan-Pikowan tahanini, o sakali’eki’ay ko kacakat no Lalen a ’Etan no kalotamdaw(per capita disposable income ,GNI;人均收入) , onini ko nani samanikaway a kitakit makacakat tayra i sasifo’an ko li’etan a kitakit, patinako han i, o Lalen a ’Etan no Kalotamdaw nani 1,344 no Amirika payso(1950miheca)macakat tahira i 15,015 no Amirika payso(2016miheca).

Nika adihay ko kinairaira no palapalaan, ira ho ko fangcalay a faco no kitakit, orasaka adihay ko pipateli to payso i katayalan sa mahinaker ko pilipayso.

O citodongay to Malali’aca to Dafong ato Misanga’ to Dafong ko matayalay to sakacemahad no tayal. Nengnengen ko sa’osi no piciyosiya no Hekalay a Kiking no Payso a Lekatep(International Monetary Fund,IMF;國際貨幣基金), nani 1966 miheca tahira i 1999 miheca, 9% ko lalen no kacakat no kicai. Pasatiri’ han to roma a Afrika kitakit, i kakaay ko paitekedan matayal to kicai. Ano irairaay ko maynas no yosang no kitakit i 2002 miheca ato 2003 miheca, cato ka sa’osien ko kiyam i papotal, mahaniker ko pidemak no sifo tono paysoan faco.   

Misiikeday ko Citodongay to Rikec a Faco cowa ka piforifor ko sieci, sa awa ko kalacemceman no mali’acaay tamdaw, onini ko sakacakat no Pipaading tono Tanengan Dafong a Tinki (Ikiris a sowal:intellectual property;Holam a sowal:智慧財產權), i 2014 miheca a Sa’osi no Tanengan Dafong a Tinki no kalokitakit, itini i katimol no Sahala-Kohkoh a kitakit mido’edo’edoay to Katimolay-Afrika kitakit ko kafangcal.

Kanasal no Kitakit (Transparency International Berlin)

Mihaiay to katayal no roma a kitakit a tamdaw ko Pocana, nikawrira, mipadetengan a miosaw ko halo tamdaw no Pocana a katayalan. O pipateli to payso no roma a kitakit, tada tata’ang ko pidama to pifalic tono kitakit a kaisya malatekedan kaisya. O kanasal no pipateli to payso to sakacemahad no katayalan i, mihai to pipanokay to payso i niyahan a kitakit, onini ko tongal sa ko kahemek no roma a kitakit a pateli to pasyso.

Mi’acaay ko Pocana to Masongila’ay a simal ato dinki nani Katimolay-Afrika, i Pocana iraay ko nani sikitangay a misanga’an dafong , nikawrira, cowa ka ho kowa.

O sakakaay a hecek no kicai no Pocana i,o tayamonto a cara, makilatolo no polong no kitakit a mili’acaan a ’etan; do’edoe’do sa i,pisalamaan a cara. O nipasadakan a paliwal o sakakaay o tayamonto to, sota ’apol, nisanga’an nani titi no kolong, dafong no lalilecan ato sapisalof to tosiya a dofong. O nipacomodan ira ko tosiya ato dafong no kapolong pikalican, o kikai ato tinsi dafong, misang’an kakaenen ato nananomen, marad, dafong nani simal ato soka saparakat ato tamako.[2]

Mafafelih ato roma a kitakit ko Pocana, I 2012 miheca a Finawlan ko Pi’arawan a Sa’osi(Democracy Index;民主指數), itini i 167 ko kitakit i saka 30 ko rayray. Do’edo’edoen ko pisahapinang no《Kanasal no kalokitakit Saopo》(Ikiris a sowal:Transparency International; Holan a sowal:透明國際)[3]a pisolap ato piciwsa to Pocana Kapolongan Kitakit o sacaayay ka ’engid caay ka hiranaca ko sifo, miingiday to Potawya ato Hanko ko rayray, latek mata’elif ko kaikaka to Yoropa ato Aciya a kitakit.[4]

O pihinen a pasowal ko Hekalay Kicai Kasasowalan( Ikiris a sowal:World Economic Forum, decdec:WEF; Holam a sowal:世界經濟論壇), o sakakay ci’icelay to sapilifet a kitakit ko Pocana sanay, ora ko miliyaw heca ko Moti Pateliay to Payso Kaisya(Moody's Investors Service) ato Lalekoan-Poer(Ikiris a sowal:Standard & Poor's; Holan a sowal:標準普爾,簡稱標普) a mipasetek to kasasa’er to「A」a sa’er, ora to ko saawaay ko kalacemceman to pipateli to payso a mili’etan a kitakit, matatoktok ato Sifoay-Yoropa ,Kawaliay-Aciya ato Latin-Amirika a kitakit.

Tamdaw ato Pitooran(人口與宗教)

O polong a tamdaw no Pocana kitakit ira ko 203 ofad(2011 miheca a sa’osi), ilaloma’ nonini i,Panto Finacadan a Ciwana tamdaw mahaop ko 90%, o sakakaay ko ka’aloman. O polong no kitakit faloay ko ikakaay a finacadan:Enwato Finacadan, Kuna Finacadan, Enwakayce Finacadan, Tawana Finacadan, Katola Finacadan, Lolong Finacadan ato Tolokuwa Finacadan. Enwato Finacadan ko sakakaay, mahaop ko 40% ko tamdaw, Yoropa tamdaw ato Aciya tamdaw latek ira ko cecay ofad. Ono sifoan a sowal i,o Ikiris, o kalosowal to romi’ami’ad i, o Cana sowal ato Ikiris sowal.

O pitooran i,sahetoay o Fa’elohay Kristo Pitooran ato Tinsukiw mahaop ko 71.6%, itira i maomahay a niyaro’ ira ko mitooray tono To’asan Pitooran[5] mahaop ko 20.6%, o awaay ko pitooran mahaop ko 20.6%, oroma i,1.4%, o caay ka pacaof to licay i,0.4%.

Tahapinangan a Tilid (參考文獻)


[1] What it's like to live in a well governed country. BBC. 2018-01-07.

[2] 博茨瓦纳国家概况. 中華人民共和國外交部. 2017-02 [2017-05-22].

[3] https://www.transparency.org/impact.

[4] Corruption Perceptions Index 2013. 國際透明組織. [2013-12-03]. (原始內容存檔於2013-12-03).

[5] 博茨瓦纳国家概况. 中華人民共和國外交部. 2017-02 [2017-05-22].

Pikafitan i Papotal (外部連接)

  • CIA
  • 外交部
  • List of current heads of state and government
    • 官方網站
    • 《世界概況》上有關Botswana的條目
    • Botswana from UCB Libraries GovPubs
    • 開放式目錄計劃中和波札那相關的內容
    • Botswana from the BBC News
    • 維基媒體的波札那地圖集
    • OpenStreetMap上有關波札那的地理資訊
    • Key Development Forecasts for Botswana from International Futures