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Bangladesh(孟加拉)

Monkala Kapolongan no Finawlan a kitakit(孟加拉人民共和國)

Takaray a sowal(概要)

Monkala Kapolongan no Finawlan a kitakit(Romaan a sowal: Gôṇôprôjatôntrī Bangladesh; Holam a sowal:孟加拉人民共和國), o kalopangangan i,o Monkala Kitakit(Romaan a sowal: Vāṁlādēśa, Holam a sowal:孟加拉國 ).

Okaitiraan nona kitakit i,itiraay i ka’amis no Mokala a Kihaw, ikatimolay no sakawan a lotolotokan ira ko mamang malafiyaway ato Miyentin(Myan-ma), o roma a pala mada’edo’edoay ato Indo. O sera no polong no kitakit sahetoay o nacepo’an no Pulamapotola ’alo(Ji Chima) , o kato’edaw nona ’alo ira ko 2057km.

O tamdaw no Monkala mahaop ko 98% sahetoay ono Monkala a sowal ko kasasowal, o pitooran no kitakit i, o Islam a Kyokai; o polong no tamdaw ira ko 1.7 ok ko ka’aloman, o Moslin a tamdaw sakatolo ko ka’aloman i ha’emin no kitakit i hekal, mido’edo’edoay to Inni ato Pakistan.[1] 

O kasacekcek no tamdaw i hekal i, 1138 ko tamdaw to kalacecay a km(saka pito i hekal). O sakakaay a tokai o Taka, sakatosa a tata’angay a tokai o Cita Niyaro’ , ona niyaro’ i,o sakakaay a minato no Monkala.

Rikisi(歷史)

Itini i satimolan no Aciya a kitakitakit, o samalitengay a finacadan ko maro’ay itini, o sa’ayaway a tahiniay a tamdaw i,o Yaaw hananay a tamdaw, ikor nangra i,o Monko a Kasalekad ono Sicang ato Miyentin ko sowal a dinacadan, to ikor ho no nini i,o cilamlamay to ’ilang no Tolaysta a Yalian a tamdaw ko mafolaway a taini. Ona masasiromaromaay a finacadan a tamdaw malacafay a maro’ itini, cimihecaan to i,mala no aniniay a Mokala tamdaw. Itiya ho i saka 9 sici mitpatirengay to to malacecaay a Misalaloma’ay a Kitakit.

O tamdaw no Monkala i sarakarakat ho ’alomanay ko mitooray to Fociyaw(o mipaypayay) ato Indo a pitooran. Tahira to i saka 13 sici, masiwar tono nani papotalay a mafalic a mitoor to Islam a Pitooran.

Ciyakarta (Kolkata Imgs)

I 16 sici a mihecahecaan, itini i taliyok no katimolan no Aciya macomahaday to ko Monkala, ’adihayay to ko tamdaw a maro’ itini, macomahad ko punka itini. I 17 sici ma’eco no Mour Hontian a Kiktakit(Mughliyah Saltanat‎),i 1757 miheca a Polasi Lalood(Battle of Plassey), malowid no Ikiris malamikowanan to no Ikiris, to ikor to i,malaceay a pecih no Indo o mikowanan no Ikiris.

1765 miheca , i Ciyarkota ko pahiheraan a patireng to Monkala a Sakowan. Tangasa to i 1905 miheca pecihen no Ikiris ko Monkala a palatosa, to ikor to i, malaliyaw a malapolong. 1947 miheca, matatoker ko Islam a mitooray ato Mitooray to Indo a pitooran a tamdaw, palatosa(Ikiris a sowal:Partition of India) hanto no Ikiris ko Indo Niyahsakowan ato Pakistan Niyahsakowan a pasaiked a mikowan. Ona tosa a sakowan ira ko 2000km ko ko layay a kasalaed, o Sawaliay a Pakistan ato Sa’etipay a Pakistan cilacila mala’iling to caay ko mamalanga’ay.

1971 miheca milekal ko Sawaliay a Pakistan to sapisiiked, tona miheca saka 4 folad, itira i Ciyakarta patireng to pacarcaran a Kapolongan no Finawlan a Monkala Kitakit, midama ko sofitay no Indo to Monkala to sapi’etengaw to Pakistan. Toya miheca saka 11 folad saka 21 romi’ad, pacokeren no Solin a sofitan ko Indo milood to Pakistan, oninian ko sakatolo a InPa-laood. I saka 12folad, o kapolongan a kayki no Linhoko, malacecay ko piketon to sowal to pilalalang tona lalood. Nikawrira, caay ka pahanhan ko picowat no sofitay no Indo, tona miheca saka 12 folad saka 16 romi’ad comod sato ko sofitay no Indo i Tatapangan a niyaro’ i Taka, awa sato ko sasowasowalen no sofitay no Pakistan a mikosang.

1972 miheca saka 1 folad, patireng to Kapolongan no Finawlan a Monkala Kitakit,tedal han to no Pakistan congtong ci Colefikar Ali Puto(Urto a sowal:ذوالفقار علی بھٹو,Zulfikar Ali Bhutto ) koya nipalitan a kakridan no Sawalian Pakistan a Lekatep ci Siehe Mucipu Laheman(Monkala a sowal:শেখ মুজিবুর রহমান,Ikiris a sowal:Sheikh Mujibur Rahman), to ikor to i,malacongtong no Monkakala.

Sheikh Hasina - 2009

1975 miheca saka 8 folad saka 15 romi’ad, patayen no cima a tamdaw ci Siehe Mucipu Laheman, 1981 miheca saka 5 folad saka 30 romi’ad, o kakridan no Finacadan a Felaw no Monkala Kitakit ci Ciya Laheman(Monkala a sowal:জিয়াউর রহমান,Romaan a tilid:Ji-yaur Rôhman) patayen no cima a tamdaw i Cita Minato, ci Aputole Satar ko pacarcaray a malacongtong.

1982 miheca saka 3 folad saka 24 romi’ad, o Tapang no Kahinakeran Sofitay ci Haysan Muhanmoto Airsato o sofitay to ko mamikowan to kitakit sa a milekal, palasawad han to ko kalacongtong ni Aputole Sata, ono niyah sa faloco’ a tomireng mala kakeridan no cikowangay a sofitay, to ikor to i, malacongtong,nikawrira i 1990 miheca saka 12 folad saka 6 romi’ad sawad sa ci Haysan Muhanmoto Airsato to congtong, lepong sato ko Nisatekedan a Mikowan to 9 a miheca. Itiya sato i 1991 miheca a pisinkiwan, ci Kalita Ciya(Khaleda Zia) ko malaconliay, o fafahi noya mapatayay to a congtong ci Ciya Laheman.

2006 miheca saka 10 folad saka 31 romi’ad, mapatireng ko pacarcaray a mitokeleday a sifo no sofitay, o congtong ci Yacietin Aihamayto(Iazuddin Ahmed) mirokeled a malacongli nona sifo no sofitay. O miharatengan no sifo to pisinkiwan a romi’ad i, i 2007miheca saka 1 folad saka 22 romi’ad, nikawrira mangalefmangaled ko katatoker no mikeridan no ’ayaway a congli ci Acietin Aijamayto ato i’ayaway a congli ci Siehe Hasina, lekal sato ko congtong ci Yacietin Aihamayto to kakaforawan no kitakit,palasawaden ningra ko polong a demak no pakayniay i sici a tayal. Tona miheca saka 1 folad saka 12 romi’ad, mapatireng ci Fahertin Aihamay malapacarcaray a congli,[1] tosa miheca ko pacarcaran ningra, mapa’eker no ’emin no kitakit, orasaka i 2007 miheca saka 12 folad saka 29 a romi’ad misinkiw to kiin no Pikaikian no Kitakit,[2] ruhedak han ko satopa i, o Finawlan a Centang ma’ala ko 262 a kiin no polong 300 kiin, o kakeridan nona Finawlan a Centang ci Siehe Hasina i 2009 miheca saka 2 folad saka 12 romi’ad tomireng to sakakinatosa ningira a mamacongli.[3] Tona 2009 miheca saka 2 folad saka 12 romi’ad tomireng malacongtong no Monkala, o saka 19 a riyad no congtong nona kitakit. Nano yanan sato a comahad ko ’orip no tamdaw no Monkala.

Flag of Bangladesh.svg
Flag of Bangladesh
Bangladesh (orthographic projection)

Palapalaan (地理)

I katimol no sakawalian i,malaingiday ato Mintin(Myan-ma),isakwalian, isaka’etipan ato isaka’amisan i,madadoe’doay ato Indo, i katimol i,misa’ayaway to Monkala Kihaw. O sera no polong no kitakit mahaop ko 80% sahetoay o nacepo’an no Pulamapotola ’alo(Ji Chima) ato Henhe ’alo(Ganga river), mahakelong no nanom no ‘alo ko sota ta mala cepo’an a pala, cihenekay masadafdafay a pala. O rakat no nanom i,kodefetay a talacowacowa, orasaka, tadacemahad ko karomakatan i ’alo. O ’alo ato fanaw i,mahaop ko 10% no plong a dadahal no kitakit, matatodongay sakiliomah ato pifotingan, nikawrira , i kafodo’an i, kahenayay a mafodo’.

I riyariyaran i,adihay ko kanatal ato masacepo’ay a pala, orasaka, o polong nona kitakit a takaraw no sera i, nani tongroh no riyar 12 laya’ ko akawang,ano manawnaw to 1 laya’ i, mahaop to no nanom ko 10% a pala.

Yo ikatimolay no sawalian i, o Cita Minato a tokotokosan, o lalen no tongroh no riyar a akawang i, 300~600m, o saakawangay a poco’ i, o Awkola Kawaliay Poco, 1229m ko ka akawang.

Itini i 24 00 N, 90 00 E, noAsiya ko [[|wp/ami/Bangladesh|Bangladesh]].Polong no sekalay i 148,460 sq km “saka 95 ko rayray no ngangan. ”“O sekalay no sera i, 130,170 sq km, no nanom a sekalay i, 18,290 sq km ”Polong i 156,186,882 ko tamdaw.Itini i 24 00 N, 90 00 E, no Asiya ko .Polong no sekalay i 148,460 sq km “saka 95 ko rayray no ngangan. O sekalay no sera i, 130,170 sq km, no nanom a sekalay i, 18,290 sq km ” Polong i 156,186,882 ko tamdaw.

Kakarayan (氣候)

O Monkala a kitakit sahetoay o misaliyaliyaday ko fa’edtay fali, ona misaliyaliyaday a fali i,caay ka tomenek, orasaka cilacila mafodo’ anoca makedal.

O saka 1 folad ko sakaay ko kasi’enaw, saka1 folad ~saka 4 folad o kakedalan. Saka 6 folad ~saka 10 folad i,o kafodo’an , cilacila ira ko nani riyar no Indo a tata’angay a faliyos.

Isaka’amis no Monkala i,o CinCang Dahtal nani tongroh no riyar ira ko 3000m ko ka ’akawang, isakwaliay a Yinkui Dahtal mingata’ay to 1000m ko ka ’akawang, ona tosa a dahetal sahetoay o ikakaay ko kakahad a dahetal, orasaka, i kasi’enawan no ka’amisay a pecih no cikiw i,o nani tiraay i sasifo’an no Aciya a li’etecay a fali cowa aka tahini tona kitakit, onini ko sakadiheko i kasi’enawan.

sera(土地)

Masakilac ko sera o malo kakaomahen(農業) a sera 70.10%, Malo no kilakilangan(林業) a sera 11.10%, malo no roma to a sera 18.80%.

siyoto(首都) O Dhaka (達卡) ko Siyoto.katomirengan no kitakit a romi’ad(國家紀念日) Pihiratengan no kitakit a romi’ad i sakatolo 26 a romi’ad.O Sawara’an no kitakit(國家) anini i ci Abdul Hamid|Md. Abdul Hamid(阿卜杜勒·哈米德) , patirengan a romi’ad i 2013 a miheca(年) saka 4 folad saka 24 a romi’ad.

Kasasilsil a sakowan(Bangladesh divisions english)

Kasasilsil a sakowan(行政區劃)

O sakowan no Monkala i,sepatay a silsilen ko kasatongroh:tekedan a sakowan, syien, mikowanan no kofa ato niyaro’; o cisakowanay a etal i,o tekedan a sakowan, syien, mikowanan no kofa kona tolo a sifo, o niyaro’ i,o niyah pikowan,anini polong sakowan no Monkala i, faloay ko tekedan a sakowan(Division), ila’eno no nini ira ko 64 a syien,490 ko mikowanan no kofa aetal(Upazilas[5] anoca o Tana[6] hananay).

Tekedan a Sakowan[7]:

’Amis Ikiris Monkala Dadahad ㎢ Tamdaw(2011mihecaan a sa’osi) Kadefet no tamdaw/㎢ Tatapangan a Niyaro’
Palilongel Barisal Division (বরিশাল বিভাগ) 13,225.20 8,325,666 613 Palilongel Si
Cita Monato Chittagong Division চট্টগ্রাম বিভাগ 33,908.55 28,423,019 831 Cita Minato Si
Taka Dhaka Division ঢাকা বিভাগ 20,593.74 36,054,418 1,751 Taka Si
Kulna Khulna Division খুলনা বিভাগ 22,284.22 15,687,759      699 Kulna Si
Maymensin Mymensingh Division ময়মনসিংহ বিভাগ 10,584.06 11,370,000 1,074        Maymensin Si
Cielasasi Rajshahi Division রাজশাহী বিভাগ 18,153.08 18,484,858      1,007s Cielasasi
Lanpor Rangpur Division রংপুর বিভাগ      16,184.99 15,787,758 960 Lanpor Si
Silheto Sylhet Division সিলেট বিভাগ 12,635.22 9,910,219 779 Silheto
O polon 147,570.00 168,860,000 1,015

Kicai (經濟)

O cecay no kasafelaw no sasafaay ko Caay ho ka Cemahad a Kitakit(Least developed

南京西路上的綢布店

,decdec a tilid: LDC) sanay ko pitoro’ no Linhoko to Monkala,anini mangataay to a malawis ko toloay a tahapinangan to ko sapiliyasaw to Caay ho ka Cemahad a Kitakit, mikinsaan ho no Linhoko to sapipacomodaw i Mamala Cemahaday a Kitakit(developing country).[8] O Mililecay a Tayal ato Misanga’ay to Riko’ a Tayal(Garments) i,o hecek no misanga’ay to dafong no Mokala, mido’edo’edoay to Congko Taru ko kaadihay no Nipasadakan a Paliwkl to Riko’.[9] Nani 1980 a mihecahecaan tahanini,

Niyaro'ay Kinko(Grameen Bank)

ko kalalid a ci’etan mihaop ko 80% to Nipasadakan a Paliwal to Riko’, o nipasadakan a kitakita i,o Amirika ato Lekatep no Yoropa, o nipasadakan a dafong i,o lifoh ko sakakaay, do’edoedo sa i,o felac, ociya ato kolang.

O tada cinganganay a misakicayay a tamdaw ci Muhanmoto Yunus(Monkala a sowal:মুহাম্মদ ইউনুস,Ikiris a sowal:Muhammad Yunus) mipatireng to picaliwan to payso a kinko, o Niyaro’ay Kinko no Monkala, Kolaymin Kinko hananay ho a pangangan(Monkala a sowal:গ্রামীণ ব্যাংক,Ikiris a sowal:Grameen bank), pacaliwen ningra ko fafahiyan no i niyaro’ay to mamang a payso, ta malacefang a matayal,misang’ to dafong, wataay ko sapadang no nini ta mafalic a rahoday ko ’orip no i niyaro’ay a tamdaw. I 2006 miheca mapaini to Nopil Rihadayay a Sapakaolah(Nobels fredspris) .

Punka (文化)

I no to’asan ho mihecahecan o Mipaypayay a Fociyaw ato Indociyaw ko pitooran

Isalm a Muslin(Supplicating Pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram. Mecca, Saudi Arabia)

no Monkala a tamdaw, i 12 sici mi’eco a tayni ko Tocie a Tamdaw(Torkki a sowal:Türk; Holam a sowal:突厥),o Sofi Kasafelaw(Sufism) mahawikid nangra ko Islam a pitooran a tayni a patenak, tahira to i 15 sici haoto polong sanay to ko tamdaw no Monkala mala Islam Muslin, caay to ka papina ko mitooray to Sakota Ciyaw(Śāktaṃ) no Iado Pitooran maro’ i Taka Tokai. O Mipaypayay a Fociyaw i, o sakatolo a ikakaay a pitooran i Momkala kitakit, mahaop ko 0.7% no polong tamdaw no kitakit, ilaloma’ no nini i,mahaop ko 65% masaopoay a maro’ itira i tokotokosan no CitaMinato a saetal, itini i, sahetoay o Sicang-Mintien ko sowal a finacadan, o issal to mahaop ko 35% a tamdaw i,itiraay i CitaMinato a Momkala ko sowal a saetal, o kasafelaw no Fociyaw maropisakay ko kamaro’an nangra, ititni i CitaMinato ato Taka a Tokai.

O Kamaro'an no Pakoyoc a tamdaw

  Tamdaw (人口)

Pakaynien i 2011mihecaan a pisa’osi i, 1.423ok ko o polong a tamdaw,ona pisa’osi i,ono sifo a nipahadakan, ira ko tiwtiw tono Linhoko a pisa’osi,[10] o misa’osian no Linhoko nani 2007 miheca tahira i 2010 miheca latek ira ko 1,58 ok anoca 1.7 ok ko ka’aloman tamdaw, o saka 8 ko kaadihay itini i ma’emin no kitakit, itiyaho i 1951 miheca ’edeng 4,400 ofad ko tamdaw,[11] tada miditekay ko kamaro’ no tamdaw,ano halo mamamamangay a kitakit sa’osien i, o ’a’ayaway to saka 11 ko ka kadadico no kamaro’ no tamdaw,[12] hatiniay to ko kadadico no tamdaw, manikaw to katayalan, sa o 「masamo’ay a tatireng no ’emin no kitakit 」han no A mirika a mitongangan.

O sakakaay a finacadan ko Momkala a Finacadan, o mamangay a finacadan i,o maro’ay i Cita-Minato a Etal a Cakoma tamdaw(Chakma), o Sangco-Fociyaw(Theravāda) ko pitooran nangra, o sa’osi no tamdaw i,ira ko 70 ofad(mahaop ko 0.7%). I Momkala iraay ho mafolaway nani Mientin a Rosinya Tamdaw(Rohingyas)[13],[14].

Itini Momkala i,mahaop ko 49.8% ko Tadapakoyoc ko ’Orip (Poverty Line),oninian i,cecay a romi’ad latek 1,5 no Amirika a payso(latek 50 no Taywan a payso ko sa’osi), ilaloma’ nona 49.8% ira ko 33.4% ikakaay ko kalapakoyoc ko ’orip. Palalenen a mihapinang i, 4109 ko tamdaw nga’ ira ko cecay a kofoti’an ano paising, 3866 ko tamdaw nga’ ira ko cecay a ising.

Pitooran(宗教)

Tiri’en ko rikec no Kinpo no Monkala, o caay ko milingwaay tono hekal a demak ko pitooran

SieMikuycin Kyokai mapatireng i 1677 a miheca(Holy Rosary's Church)

 ato ono Finawlan a Kitakit ko Monkala.[15] Ona 「Caay ko Milingwaay tono Hekal a Demak a Kitakit」(Secular state) sanay a sowal mapalahedaway to kinacecay nani Kinpo, to ikor i,miliyawan a patatikor. O Islam a Pitooran i,o sakakaay a pitooran i Monkala, o salikaka no Islam i,mahaop ko 90% no Monkala a tamdaw a cilafas,[16] do’edo’ sa i,o Indo a pitooran mahaop ko 8.5% ko salokaka, o Fociyaw mipaypayay i,mahaop ko 0.6% ko salikaka,Misakristoay, Siko-Pitooran, no To’asan a Kawas ato caay ka pitoor to maamaan a pitooran mahop ko 1% aca ko tamdaw.[17]

2003 mihecaan a pisa’osi i,mahapinang ko nanifaloco’ay a pihai to niyah a tireng i,o pitooran.

O mihaian no sifo no Monkala a Pitooran i,o Islam a Pitooran, o Indo a Pitooran, o Kristo a Pitooran ato Fociyaw.[18]

Tahapinangan a Tilid(參考文獻)

[1] 存档副本. [2017-09-09]. (原始內容存檔於2017-09-06).

[2] 存档副本. [2007-01-13]. (原始內容存檔於2007-12-05).

[3] 孟加拉国看守政府总理宣布今年底举行议会选举. [2013-05-14]. (原始內容存檔於2014-08-15).

[4] 中華民國外交部 - 國情簡介. [2011-06-06]. (原始內容存檔於2011-11-28).

[5] Mymensingh to become new division. [26 January 2015]. (原始內容存檔於15 February 2015)

[6] 謝福苓. 孟加拉農村體制改革——建立“烏帕齊拉體制”以集鎮帶動農村經濟發展 (1). 南亞研究. 1988.

[7] 2011 Population & Housing Census: Preliminary Results (PDF). Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. [12 January 2012]. (原始內容 (PDF)存檔於15 January 2013).

[8] 孟加拉有望在2026年正式脫離最不發達國家行列_聯合國. www.sohu.com. [2021-03-25]. (原始內容存檔於2021-06-19)(英語).

[9] A success story: The Bangladeshi garment sector has made remarkable progress in recent years. www.bgmea.com.bd. [2021-03-25]. (原始內容存檔於2021-06-16) (英語).

[10] Bangladesh's Population to Exceed 160 Mln after Final Census Report. English.cri.cn. [6 August 2011]. (原始內容存檔於2012-06-13).

[11] "Bangladesh – population (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)". Library of Congress Country Studies

[12] Population density – Persons per sq km 2010 Country Ranks. [2 October 2010]. (原始內容存檔於2010-10-24).

[13] MA Chowdhury. The advent of Islam in Arakan and the Rohingyas (PDF). Chittagong University. Arakan Historical Society. 1995-12-31 [2011-10-31]. (原始內容 (PDF)存檔於2011年12月2日).

[14] Khin Maung Saw. Khin Maung Saw on Rohingya (PDF). May 1993 [2012-06-16]. (原始內容存檔 (PDF)於2016-03-05). 

[15] The Constitution of The People's Republic Of Bangladesh Article 12: Secularism and freedom of religion. State.gov. [2017-12-31]. (原始內容存檔於2019-01-06).

[16] Official Census Results 2011 page xiii (PDF). Bangladesh Government. [2015-04-17]. (原始內容 (PDF)存檔於2016-03-09).

[17] Bangladesh Religion - Muslim Hindu Buddhist Christian. MediaBangaldesh.net. [2015-12-09]. (原始內容存檔於2017-05-30).

[18] The Constitution of The People's Republic Of Bangladesh. State.gov. [2015-07-17]. (原始內容存檔於2019-01-07). 

Pikafitan i Papotal(外連接)