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Argentina(阿根廷)[edit]

Flag of Argentina.svg
Fayfay no Argentina
Argentina orthogonal

O tada ngangan i, o Arkuncina Kapalongan, o i hekaray a ma’alaay a ngangan i, o Arkuncin. Ira ko 23 ko kasasiromaroma pikowan ato Poinoayris Niyapikowan a kapolongan a kitakit. Itiniay i satimolan no Satimolay Amirika ko kaitiraan, maaro’ay ko ’emin no sacidem no cikiw, i saka’amisan i, o Poliwoya ato Palakoy, i kawanan no saka’amis o Poraciro, i sakawali i, o Urakoy ato Satimolan-Taysiyo, i saka’etip i, o Cili kofiyaw, misi’ayaway to Toriki a kihaw. O kakahad no pala i, 2,780,400 kiro, sakafalo no polong no kitakit i sekar, sakatosa i Latin-Amirika. O sa’alomanay ko tamdaw to pasowalay to Sipanya a sowal. O romi’ami’ad i, ma’eminay ko kasasiromaroma a romi’ad itini. O teroc no cikiw, Fokolan-Kanatanatal (o Mawynasu hananay no Arkuncin a pangangan), katimolay a Ciociya ato Sanwici a kanatanatal, “o no niyam konini a pala” sanay.

Pakapunkaen i, tada talolongay ko piniri no Akuncin to Yoropa, nawhani, o misatokayay a lekakawa nangra matiya o no Yoropa ko pinangan.[1] Pakisyakay a ’orip, o kyoiku ato bunka, o patiyamay ato likec no kitakit tadatakalaway ko kafangcal. Nani tato’asan, o itelongay ko kacicedi no Akuncin, i polong a kitakit,[2] o tadatata’angay a kitakit, i satimolan Amirika.[3] O patirengay to Lenhoko, o kapolongan a kinko no kalokitakit, o kapolongan a pacakayay to maamaan i satimolan, malakapotay a kitakit no stimolan Amirika, o cecay no Karupi Kitakit ato masakapotay no Ipiriya a Saopo. Nano liteng o satata’angay a maomahay ko ’orip nona kitakit, o safa’elohay a malatata’ang a kitakit.[4] O kapot no 20 a satata’angay a kitakit a Saopo, i satimolan Amirika i, o sakatolo ko katata’ang no kicay. Nikawria, pakitinien i ’icel to picakay to maamaan i, i safa to mamang to saktakalaway a kitakit, mikapot to Cili ato Urakuy i Sakaceay Saopo no satimolan Amirika, matiya o satimolan no Yoropa ko katakalaw no ’orip. Nikawrira, ano ca acaay ka lecad ko nipili’etan caay ka matiya o no satimolan kitakit ko kasatiwtiw.

Ona palapalan itini i, mahera ko no tadamatelangay a naikoran no to’as a tamdaw toya o fokeloh ho ko sapidemak to maaman, o mihecan nonini i, i ayaw no 260 ’ofad anoca 250 ’ofad ko katelang no miheca.[5] Toyanan sato satapang a micowatan ko Sipanya i 1522–miheca. Nani 1810 tahira 1925–miheca, malalood to Sipanya to sapi’alaaw to Niyah Pikowan, toyaan sato i 1816–miheca o kapolongan no Lapolata a ngangan ko sapalosyang to «Niyah Pikowan a sowal», aro’ han to no Akuncin a tamdaw koya mi’ecoan no Sipanya a sera, nikawrira, i ikor to a lalood to Porutokaro ato Sipanya masawad ko Ulakuy, Poliwya ato Peru. Nanoyanan sato, malalid ho ko lafawfaw no kitakit. I 1861–miheca malowid no Poinoayres ko Kapolongan Sifo, tidapi sato koya fafaloay a sakowan a malacecay sato to Arkuncin-Kapolongan-Kitakit.[6] O tamdaw no itiniay i, onao mafolaway nani Yoropa, kalakayakay han to no ikor a tamdaw masacofacofay. Tadakali’eki ko katenak no maamaan sa I 20seki tiring sato I sakapito a cihafayay a polong kitaki. Nikawrira, nani 1930miheca mafeleh no sofitay ko sifo awa sato ko kahaneknek no sici, matongal ho to kaawa no maamaan sano yanan sato a tatiih ko ’orip.[7]

Likisi[edit]

I 'ayaw ni Kolongpo a miheca[edit]

I tiya ho i, katelangan fokefokelohan a mihecaheca, i tatelongan fokefokelohan a mihecaheca ato i fa’elohay fokefokelohan a mihecaheca i, iraay to i Akuncin ko naripa’an no tamdaw.[8] I ’ayaw no kapicowat no Yoropa a tamdaw tayni tona sera amiripa’, tona awaay ko tolas ko kakahad a sera, adhihay to nika tenak no kasasiromaroma a bunka, sisiren i tolo ko kasaikeiked:[9]

O sa’ayaway a mi’adopay ato mipitpitay to dafong no kinairaira no palapalaan a tamdaw. Caayay ho kapakapisanga’ to koreng, onini a tamdaw i, itiraay i tadasatimolan, o Saykonamoh ato Yakun a tamdaw.

Sakatosa i, o citanengay a mi’adopay ato mipitpitay to dafong no kinairaira no palapalaan a tamdaw. Ya i telongay ko aro’ Poayci, Kolanti ato i tokotokosay a tamdaw, ira ho i satimolan, ya Towici tamdaw, o ninian a tamtamdaw i, makowan no Akuncin ato Mapoci tamdaw.[10]

Yo sakatolo i, o citanengay to a misanga’ to kolong a tamdaw, i ka’ami’amis no sawalian a maro’ay Caruwa, Minowany, ato Kwalani a tamdaw, iraay to ko fonos nangra, miilohan ko pikamaomah, samisi ho a misaceay to aro’ ko ’orip ngara.[11] Yo itiraay i, ka’ami’amis no sa’etip a maro’ay, Tiyacita a tamdaw, i mimali’acay to ko bunka nangra. I ’ayaw no 1480–miheca, makowan no Inka Hongti; o Tokotono ato Komicinko a tamdaw i, i terongay no kitakit ko aro’ nangra, ya itiraay i sa’eti’etipan no taterongan a Warpi tamdaw, o mipakaenay to siri ko ’orip nangra, macara no Inka a tamdaw ko ’orip nangra.[12]

Niyahpikowan ato lalood i Laloma'[edit]

O sakalima folad pifelih ato lalood to saka niyahpikowan, o laylay demak no Akuncin to pi’afas nani Sotok-Pikowan.[13][14][15] I tiya 1810–miheca, 5–folad 25–romi’ad, o satapangan a Kokumindaihyo (Kotadaihyo) ko mifalicay to Sisoros Sotok, ta mapatireng ko fa’elohay a Poinosayris sifo, o finawlan no Akuncin ko patirengay.[16] I tiya toya laloma’ay lalood malowid nangra koya mitokeray ci Kortowa.[17] I sawli , I fafa’eday Piru ato Palakuy a mitokeray malowid aca ko Sipanya, o ninian kasacecacecay a pala i, to ikor to i sa’ike’iked sato a malakitakit.[18]

O mifelihay a sofitay malikatosa a matatoker, ona tosa i, o cecay i, o mitekeday to sakowan a cefang, o roma i, o mipolongay to sakowan a cefang, o kalali’is nangra i, o kalotayal hananay i pitekaay no lalood to sapi’ala to niyahpikowan.[19] Tangasa to i 1813–miheca, toro’ hanto ci Kowasi・Antongni・To・Pisatas malasakakaay a mikowanay tapang.[20] 1816–miheca pikaykian no Tokoman mipasadak to «Niyahpikowan Sowal», micamol ko Lapolata a sakowan to nini.[21] To ikor to cecay a miheca, matapi’ ni Mating・Mikor・Koaymiso koya ci’icelay a midama to hongti. Ci Hosi・To・Sinmating o tapang no sofitay milakowit to Antis a lotolotokan a milood to, ta mapa’ading ningra ko niyahpikowa no Cili. Ikor to, o nikeridan ningra a sofitay matapi’ ho ningra ko i tiraay maro’ i Lima a sofitay no Sipanya, orasaka, pahapinang to niyahpikowan no Piru.[22] 1819–miheca Poinosayris sifo misanga’ to Mitekeday-Pikowan a kinpo, caka pina ko romi’ad mapalahedaw no Finawlan-Pikowan a cefang.[23]]

I 1820–miheca, malalood i Sipita ko Mitekeday-Pikowan cefang ato Finawlan-Pikowan a cefang. I 1826–miheca, Poinosayris miliyaw heca a misanga’ to roma a kinpo, matoro’ ci Pinatino・liwatawi a malacongtong. Nikawrira, o miliyasay to riyar a sakowan i caay pihay, sa mapalasawad ko kalacongton mapalasawad koya misanga’an a kinpo.[24] Orasak, malaliyaw heca ko lalood nona tosa a cefang. Ya ci’icelay a cefang i, tangsol sato a misanga’ a patireng to faelohay a Akuncin kitakit, o ’icel sato ko sapi’enec toya mico’a’angay a cefang, ci Foan・Manniw・Ti・Losas ko malakakeridan. Cingra to ko misatapangay to micowatay Intian a lalood tahira i raay, misakakahad to cikatingki no sera. Nikawrira, o siiked sanay ko pili’etan a mili’aca a demak i, mapaketer ko Ikilis ato Fulanso ato miliyasay to riyar a sakowan,[25] sa itira to a tatootoor sato ko pipala’efef no Fulaso ato kalacafay no Fulanso ato Ikilis a mipala’efef to Akuncin, awaaw sato ko pakayraan no Akuncin.[26]

Tahira sato i 1852–miheca, ira ho ko roma ikakaay ko ’icel a kakeridan no sofitay ci Fosato・Hosi・Ti・Orcisa felihen ningra ko ka’ayaway a congtong ta malacongton, to ikor misanga’ to kinpo i 1853–miheca, sa laheci sato ko katomireng no naifaloco’an ato nikapolongan a lekakawa no kitakit. Naoninian ko sakalahedaw no dafong no Poinosayris sifo, sa liyas sato to nikapolongan, tahira to i 1859-miheca ko kalalood ta malowad ko Poinosayris sifo.[27]

Ngangan no kitakit[edit]

Ngangan no Kitaki

Nona ngangan tona Akuncin sanay i, nani tiniay i sowal no Rating kohecalay ’ekim (Argentum), pakafit han to pasifafahiyan a ikor Argentina hananay to a mipangangan. Sa’ayaway a matilid i tatipelok i, pasafafaw ci Martín del Barco Centenera a mitilidan ’olic Arkuncin ato ya picowat to Raporata ’Alo, sa mahapinang nani tiniay i sowal no Sipanya Río de la Plata sanay a tilid, o imi no nini i, o “’Alo no Fodawan” sanay. Ira koya misasolapay to palapalaan, ci Foan・Tiyas・Tosoris ato kapot ningra o sa’ayaway miripa’ay tona sera, i tiya a paka’araw to cikadangay to fodawan a Carowa tamdaw, i tini a pakaso’elin iraay i fafaw nona ’alo ko adihayay a fodawan sanay a kitoh no mato’asay, haen hanto ita a pangangan kona kitakit to Arkucon sato ko piketon to pipangangan. Orasaka, ko tadapangangan to no tapang no Sipanya i, o Raporata Tatapangan Sakowan, yasato patireng to kitaki i, Raporata Kapolongan Sakowan (paisowal no Sipanya i: Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata), ano sanasanay ko pangangan i, i 18–seki matenakay to Arkuncin sanay a ngangan.

Pikowanan no Sipanya[edit]

I 1502–miheca, o citanengay to no riyar ci Yamiriko・Oysopoci ato kapot ningra ko sa’ayaway a miripa’ tona sera. O tada citaminaay a tamdaw no Sipanya ci Hoan・Tiyas・Tosris aci Saypasotian・Kapoto matatoor i 1516–miheca ato 1526–miheca a tahini tona pala.[28] Tahira to i 1536–miheca, ci Pitoro・Tomontosa patireng to mamangay niyaro’ i Poinosayris, aro’ sato initi. I ikor i, mafolaw no i tiniay a yuencimin, saka sawad sato a maro’ i tona niyaro’.[29]

O mangarefay a picowat a mikowan i, nani tiniay i Palakuy, Peru ato Cili.[30] Ci Forangsisuko・Toyaciroy patireng to Sanciyako-Toroyastoro a niyaro. I ikor to, madadoedo a patireng to niyaro’. I 1558–miheca, o Lontoriso, i 1561–miheca, o Montosa, i 1562–miheca, o Sinfoan, i 1565–miheca, o Sinmikoro-Tokoman,[31] i 1573–miheca ci Foan・To・Karoy patireng to Sinfoy, toya miheca ci Horonimo・Rois・Tokoforoyra a mipatirengay to Kortowa niyaro.[32] Tahira to i 1580–miheca, miliyaw a patireng ci Karoynasya to Poinosayris. To ikor to, nga’ mapatireng sato ko Sinroys a niyaro’ i 1596–miheca.[33]

Ano patapiri’en ato Porioya ato Peru, ci dafong to tada ’ekim ato kohecalay ’ekim, Akuncin i manikaway to hatiniay a tada dafong, saka caay ka i mata no Hongti no Sipanya. Onini koya caho ka patireng to hatatapangan a tokay no kitakit ko Poinosayris sanay i 1776–miheca, o pecih a sakowan no Peru koni a pala.[34]

I Poinosayris kinatosa a pakalowid to pilood no Ikiris i 1806–miheca ato 1807–miheca, na micomod ko mipalalay to faloco’ ato mili’etanay a harateng, sacifaloco’ to ko finawlan to pipacoli to Teked Sakowan sanay a sici, i tiya sato, milood ci Napolyon to Sipanya, o Akuncin ato polong mikowanan no Sipanya a niyaro’, misaharateng o nini ko matatodongay a romi’ad to sapisanga’aw to niya pikowan sanay a tata’angay demak.[35]

Sera (土地)[edit]

Masakilac ko sera, o malo kakaomahen a sera 53.90%, malo no kilakilangan a sera 10.70%, malo no roma to a sera 35.40%.

Siyoto (首都)[edit]

O Buenos Aires ko Siyoto.

Katomirengan no kitakit a romi’ad(國家紀念日)[edit]

Pihiratengan no kitakit a romi’ad i, saka 5-folad saka 25-romi’ad.

O Sawara’an no kitakit anini i, ci Mauricio Macri, patirengan a romi’ad i 2015 a miheca saka 12–folad saka 10–romi’ad.

Pi’arawan to lakaw[edit]

  1. Wood 1988, p. 18.
  2. Wood 1988, p. 18.; Solomon 1997, p. 3.
  3. Huntington 2000, p. 6.; Nierop 2001, p61: "Secondary regional powers in Huntington's view (Huntington, 2000, p. 6) include Great Britain, Ukraine, Japan, South Korea, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Argentina." Lake 2009, p.55: "The US has created a foundation upon which the regional powers, especially Argentina and Brazil, can develop their own rules for further managing regional relations."; Papadopoulos 2010, p.283: "The driving force behind the adoption of the MERCOSUR agreement was similar to that of the establishment of the EU: the hope of limiting the possibilities of traditional military hostility between the major regional powers, Brazil and Argentina." Malamud 2011, p.9: "Though not a surprise, the position of Argentina, Brazil’s main regional partner, as the staunchest opponent of its main international ambition [to win a permanent seat on the UN Security Council] dealt a heavy blow to Brazil’s image as a regional leader." Boughton 2012, p.101: "When the U.S. Treasury organized the next round of finance meetings, it included several non-APEC members, including all the European members of the G7, the Latin American powers Argentina and Brazil, and such other emerging markets as India, Poland, and South Africa.
  4. The 2010 Legatum Prosperity Index, Legatum Institute. 2010. "The country has a foundation for future growth due to its market size, levels of foreign direct investment, and percentage of high-tech exports as share of total manufactured goods… Argentina's economy appears stable, but confidence in financial institutions remains low.".
  5. Abad de Santillán 1971, p. 17.
  6. Levene 1948, vol. IV: "After the Viceroyalty became a new period that commenced with the revolution of 1810, whose plan consisted in declaring the independence of a nation, thus turning the legal bond of vassalage into one of citizenship as a component of sovereignty and, in addition, organizing the democratic republic.".
  7. Becoming a serious country. Economist. 2004-06-03. Argentina is thus not a “developing country”. Uniquely, it achieved development and then lost it again. Traba 1985, pp. 15, 71.
  8. Abad de Santillán 1971, p. 17. Crow 1992, p. 128.
  9. Edwards 2008, p. 12.
  10. Edwards 2008, p. 12.Edwards, Todd L. Argentina: A Global Studies Handbook. ABC-CLIO. 2008. ISBN 978-1851099863.
  11. Edwards 2008, p. 12.Edwards, Todd L. Argentina: A Global Studies Handbook. ABC-CLIO. 2008. ISBN 978-1851099863.
  12. Edwards 2008, p. 12.Edwards, Todd L. Argentina: A Global Studies Handbook. ABC-CLIO. 2008. ISBN 978-1851099863.
  13. Levene 1948, p. 11, vol. IV. "Levene, Ricardo. Volume 4 (Desde la Revolución de Mayo a la Asamblea de 1813–15). Historia del Derecho Argentino 4. Buenos Aires: Editorial G. Kraf. 1948.".
  14. Sánchez Viamonte 1948, pp. 196–197. "Sánchez Viamonte, Carlos. Historia Institucional Argentina 2nd. Mexico: Fondo de Cultura Económica. 1948.".
  15. Vanossi 1964, p. 11. "Vanossi, Jorge R. Situación actual del federalismo: aspectos institucionales y económicos, en particular sobre la realidad argentina. Cuadernos de ciencia política de la Asociación Argentina de Ciencia Política 2. Buenos Aires: Ediciones Depalma. 1964.".
  16. Abad de Santillán 1971, p. 194ff. "Abad de Santillán, Diego. Historia Argentina. Buenos Aires: Tipográfica Editora Argentina. 1971.".
  17. Rock 1987, p. 81. "Rock, David. Argentina, 1516-1987: From Spanish Colonization to the Falklands War. University of California Press. 1987." ISBN 978-0520061781.
  18. Rock 1987, pp. 82–83. "Rock, David. Argentina, 1516-1987: From Spanish Colonization to the Falklands War. University of California Press. 1987." ISBN 978-0520061781.
  19. 2 Lewis 2003, pp. 39–40. "Lewis, Daniel K. The History of Argentina. Palgrave Macmillan. 2003." ISBN 978-1403962546.
  20. Lewis 2003, pp. 39–40. "Lewis, Daniel K. The History of Argentina. Palgrave Macmillan. 2003." ISBN 978-1403962546.
  21. Lewis 2003, pp. 39–40. "Lewis, Daniel K. The History of Argentina. Palgrave Macmillan. 2003." ISBN 978-1403962546.
  22. Galasso 2011, pp. 349–353, vol. I. "Galasso, Norberto. Historia de la Argentina, vol. I&II. Buenos Aires: Colihue. 2011." ISBN 978-9505634781.
  23. Lewis 2003, p. 41. Lewis, Daniel K. The History of Argentina. Palgrave Macmillan. 2003. ISBN 978-1403962546.
  24. Lewis 2003, p. 43. "Lewis, Daniel K. The History of Argentina. Palgrave Macmillan. 2003. ISBN 978-1403962546."
  25. Lewis 2003, p. 45. "Lewis, Daniel K. The History of Argentina. Palgrave Macmillan. 2003. ISBN 978-1403962546."
  26. Lewis 2003, pp. 46-47. "Lewis, Daniel K. The History of Argentina. Palgrave Macmillan. 2003. ISBN 978-1403962546."
  27. Lewis 2003, pp. 48-50. "Lewis, Daniel K. The History of Argentina. Palgrave Macmillan. 2003. ISBN 978-1403962546."
  28. Abad de Santillán 1971, p. 17. Abad de Santillán, Diego. Historia Argentina. Buenos Aires: Tipográfica Editora Argentina. 1971.
  29. Crow 1992, pp. 129–132. Abad de Santillán, Diego. Historia Argentina. Buenos Aires: Tipográfica Editora Argentina. 1971.
  30. Abad de Santillán 1971, pp. 96–140, Abad de Santillán, Diego. Historia Argentina. Buenos Aires: Tipográfica Editora Argentina. 1971.
  31. Crow 1992, p. 353. "Crow, John A. The Epic of Latin America 4th. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press. 1992." ISBN 978-0-520-07723-2.
  32. Crow 1992, p. 134. "Crow, John A. The Epic of Latin America 4th. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press. 1992." ISBN 978-0-520-07723-2.
  33. Crow 1992, p. 353, "Crow, John A. The Epic of Latin America 4th. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press. 1992." ISBN 978-0-520-07723-2.
  34. Crow 1992, p. 347. "Crow, John A. The Epic of Latin America 4th. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press. 1992." ISBN 978-0-520-07723-2.
  35. Abad de Santillán 1971, p. 194ff. "Abad de Santillán, Diego. Historia Argentina. Buenos Aires: Tipográfica Editora Argentina. 1971."