User:PastelKos/lingua

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[ English ] [ Ἑλληνικά ]

Phonology[edit | edit source]

Consonants[edit | edit source]

Labial Dental Alveolar Dorsal
Nasal m n
Stop p t k
Fricative f d (θ~ð) s
Trill r (ɾ~r)
Approximant l j

Notes:

  • The d can be pronounced either as /ð/ or /θ/ depending on the speaker.
  • The r is generic r that can be pronounced as a trill, a flap, an approximant etc.

Vowels[edit | edit source]

Front Back
Close i u
Mid e o
Open a (a~ɐ)

Notes:

  • A "long" vowel can appear as in the verb kliin = to hear (stem kli- + suffix -in)

Phonotactics[edit | edit source]

Lingua's syllable structure is (C)(C)V(C).

  • All consonants are allowed in the onset.
  • Only vowels are allowed in the nucleus.
  • All consonants are allowed in the coda except p, d, j.

Allowed Consonant Combinations[edit | edit source]

m n p t k f d s r l j
m - mn - - - - - - - - -
n - - - - - - - - - - -
p - pn - pt - - - ps pr pl -
t tm tn - - - - - - tr tl -
k - kn - kt - - - ks kr kl -
f - fn - ft - - - - fr - -
d - - - - - - - - dr dl -
s - - - st sk - - - - - -
r - - - - - - - - - - -
l - - - - - - - - - - -
j - - - - - - - - - - -

Stress[edit | edit source]

Stress is always on the penultimate. (e.g. tukidis /tu'ki.ðis/ = moon)

Verbs[edit | edit source]

Verbs in Lingua conjugate for the following things:

  • Person
  • Number
  • Tense
  • Mood
  • Voice

Conjugation[edit | edit source]

To conjugate verbs in Lingua, you remove the -in suffix and add the following suffixes:

Present Future Past
I -e -te -a
Thou -o -to -oa
He/She/It -i -ti -ia
We -one -ote -ane
You -ono -oto -ano
They -oni -oti -ani

To form the subjunctive, you just an "s" to the end.

Present Future Past
I -es -tes -as
Thou etc.

To form the passice voice, you reduplicate the first syllable in the form Ce. E.g. name → nename (I hold, I am held), klie → keklie (I hear, I am heard), seke → seseke (I eat, I am eaten). When a verb beggins with a vowel, the prefix et- is added instead. E.g. arine → etarine (I drink, I am drunk).

Examples[edit | edit source]

Example conjugation of the verb "namin" (to hold)
ACTIVE VOICE
Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Past Present Future Past
nam-e nam-te nam-a nam-es nam-tes nam-as
nam-o nam-to nam-oa nam-os nam-tos nam-oas
nam-i nam-ti nam-ia nam-is nam-tis nam-ias
nam-one nam-ote nam-ane nam-ones nam-otes nam-anes
nam-ono nam-oto nam-ano nam-onos nam-otos nam-anos
nam-oni nam-oti nam-ani nam-onis nam-otis nam-anis
Infinitive Participle
Present Past Present Past
nam-in nam-an nam-is nam-nis
PASSIVE VOICE
Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Past Present Future Past
ne-nam-e ne-nam-te ne-nam-a ne-nam-es ne-nam-tes ne-nam-as
ne-nam-o ne-nam-to ne-nam-oa ne-nam-os ne-nam-tos ne-nam-oas
ne-nam-i ne-nam-ti ne-nam-ia ne-nam-is ne-nam-tis ne-nam-ias
ne-nam-one ne-nam-ote ne-nam-ane ne-nam-ones ne-nam-otes ne-nam-anes
ne-nam-ono ne-nam-oto ne-nam-ano ne-nam-onos ne-nam-otos ne-nam-anos
ne-nam-oni ne-nam-oti ne-nam-ani ne-nam-onis ne-nam-otis ne-nam-anis
Infinitive Participle
Present Past Present Past
ne-nam-in ne-nam-an ne-nam-is ne-nam-nis
Example conjugation of the verb "arinin" (to drink)
ACTIVE VOICE
Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Past Present Future Past
arin-e arin-te arin-a arin-es arin-tes arin-as
arin-o arin-to arin-oa arin-os arin-tos arin-oas
arin-i arin-ti arin-ia arin-is arin-tis arin-ias
arin-one arin-ote arin-ane arin-ones arin-otes arin-anes
arin-ono arin-oto arin-ano arin-onos arin-otos arin-anos
arin-oni arin-oti arin-ani arin-onis arin-otis arin-anis
Infinitive Participle
Present Past Present Past
arin-in arin-an arin-is arin-nis
PASSIVE VOICE
Indicative Subjunctive
Present Future Past Present Future Past
et-arin-e et-arin-te et-arin-a et-arin-es et-arin-tes et-arin-as
et-arin-o et-arin-to et-arin-oa et-arin-os et-arin-tos et-arin-oas
et-arin-i et-arin-ti et-arin-ia et-arin-is et-arin-tis et-arin-ias
et-arin-one et-arin-ote et-arin-ane et-arin-ones et-arin-otes et-arin-anes
et-arin-ono et-arin-oto et-arin-ano et-arin-onos et-arin-otos et-arin-anos
et-arin-oni et-arin-oti et-arin-ani et-arin-onis et-arin-otis et-arin-anis
Infinitive Participle
Present Past Present Past
et-arin-in et-arin-an et-arin-is et-arin-nis